Imagini ale paginilor

Three houses burned | Boston | September 5th a serious fire last night | destroyed three buildings | in the center of the city | seventeen families | are without a home | the loss exceeds | fifty thousand dollars in rescuing a child one of the firemen | was badly | burned | about the hands and arms.

At the age of eight almost all normal children will relate correctly at least two of the component ideas. No subject can relate correctly six or more of the component ideas unless he is able to read the text within one minute.

30. Counting money: four pennies and two nickels.

(Binet and Simon use nine sous -3 simples, 3 doubles; Goddard recommends the use of 3 one-cent and 3 two-cent stamps.)

31. Naming four elementary colors.

Red, blue, green, and yellow papers, 1 x 3 inches, are used. 32. Counting back from twenty to one.

To pass this test the child must do it within twenty seconds and with not more than one error of omission or transposition. If necessary the child may be assisted by starting him with: " 20, 19, 18, what comes next?" 33. Writing from dictation: The pretty little girls.

The writing must be intelligible.

[ocr errors]

34. Comparison of two things recalled in memory: What is the difference between a butterfly and a fly? Between wood and glass? Between paper and cloth?




The question may be more plainly put as follows: "You
know what butterflies are, you have seen them, have you
And you know what flies are, do you
Yes. Is a butterfly just like a fly? No.
In what are they not alike?" At six one-third of the
children succeed in this test; at seven nearly all; at
eight all.


35. Orientation in time: What day of the week is to-day? What

[blocks in formation]

The test is passed if the day of the month is given within three days of the actual date, either way.

36. Reciting the days of the week.

Should be done within ten seconds without any omission

or transposition.

37. Making change.

Play store; let the child have 25 pennies, 5 nickels, and 2 dimes; purchase from him an article costing 9 cents and make payment with a 25-cent piece, asking him to give change. Scarcely any child passes this test at seven; one-third succeed at eight; all succeed at nine. 38. Definitions of familiar objects.

See Test 17.

39. Reading and relating.

See Test 29.

40. Arrangement of weights.

Five wooden blocks of equal size and appearance, weighing respectively 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 grams, are used. The child is first told that the blocks are not alike in weight and is then asked to arrange them in order from the lightest to the heaviest. Three trials are made for which not over three minutes is allowed; the arrangement should be without error in two out of the three trials.


41. Reciting the months of the year.

Should be done within fifteen seconds and with not more than one omission or transposition.

42. Denomination of money, bills and coins.

Place before the child the following bills and coins in the order as here given: penny, half-dollar, two dollars, dime, five dollars, quarter, one dollar, and nickel. Let the child name each piece, pointing to each one as he does so.

43. Sentence building.

The words Philadelphia, money, river are written on a blank sheet of paper and read over to the child several times; the child is then asked to make a sentence which shall contain these three words. One obtains four principal types of responses: a. Three separate sentences: Philadelphia is a city; my father has money; the river is deep." b. One sentence with two distinct ideas: “In Philadelphia there is a river and there are people who have much money." c. One sentence in which the three words are combined in

[ocr errors]

a single idea: "On the river near Philadelphia one can hire sailboats for very little money." d. Several sentences, but well coördinated: "In my childhood I lived in Philadelphia; two blocks from our street flowed the Delaware River; much money has since been spent in beautifying that part of the city." The child must write the sentence; at the expiration of a minute the sentence must be at least three-fourths completed. Responses of the first type are regarded as failures; those of the other types are given by few children of eight years, by one-third of the children at nine, and by one-half at ten; a child of eleven should give sentences of the third or fourth type.

44. Questions to test judgment: First series.

Answers to these questions may be classed as correct or incorrect in accordance with obvious common sense. Examples of correct and incorrect answers are here given in connection with each question.

What ought one to do when one has missed a train? Correct answers: Wait for the next train. Take another Incorrect answers: One should try not to


miss it. Run after it. Buy a ticket.

What ought one to do when one has been struck by a playmate

who did not do it purposely? Correct answers: Do nothing to him. Forgive him. Tell him to be careful next time. Incorrect answers: Tell the teacher. Strike him back.

What ought one to do when one has broken something belonging to another? Correct answers: Pay for it. Replace it. Confess it. - Incorrect answers: Cry. Must make

him pay. Go to the police.

To these simple questions half the children of seven and eight years, three-fourths of nine years, and all of ten years respond correctly.

Second series.

What ought one to do when one is late for school? Correct
answers: Hurry. Run. - Incorrect answers: One is
punished. One must start at an earlier hour.
an excuse from the parents.


What ought one to do before taking part in an important affair? Correct answers: Consider it carefully. Ask for advice. Incorrect answer (given by some sub


jects of Binet and Simon, quite irrelevant apparently
owing to imperfect comprehension of the question):
One must take care of the sick. Consult a physician.
One should go away.

Why does one excuse a wrong act committed in anger more
easily than a wrong act committed without anger? Cor-
rect answers: Because when one is angry one does not
know what he is doing. In anger one is not re
sponsible. Incorrect answers: When one is angry
one will not listen. One should not be angry.
What should one do when asked his opinion of some one
whom he does not know well? Correct answers: One
should say nothing. One should not speak without
knowing. One should keep silence because he might
give wrong information. Incorrect answers: One
should ask him. One should answer. One should
say: Be prudent. One should say that he does not
know his name.

[ocr errors]

Why ought one to judge a person more by his acts than by his words? Correct answers: Because words may deceive, but acts show the truth. Because one is more sure from seeing the acts than from hearing the words. Incorrect answers: One should not tell a lie. Because one does not know.

The questions in the second series are more complex and the judgment required more subtle. After each question the subject should be allowed at least twenty seconds for reflection. Three correct responses out of five are sufficient to pass the test. At seven or eight years no child passes this test; not quite half pass at ten; the test is therefore for the age of transition between ten and eleven.


45. Detecting absurdities or contradictions.

The following explanation is first made to the child: "I
am going to give you some sentences in which there is·
nonsense. You listen carefully and see if you can tell
me where the nonsense is.' Then the following sen-
tences are slowly read off to him one by one:
An unfortunate bicycle rider broke his head and died from

the fall; they took him to the hospital but they do not think
that he will recover.

I have three brothers, Paul, Ernest, and myself.

The police found yesterday the body of a young girl cut into
eighteen pieces. They believe that she killed herself.
Yesterday there was an accident on the railroad, but it was not
serious; only forty-eight persons were killed.

The engineer said that the more cars he had on his train the
faster he could go.

To pass this test at least three out of the five answers must
be correct. Hardly any child of nine passes; at ten
not quite one-fourth; at eleven one-half.

46. Sentence building.

See Test 43.

47. Giving words.

The child is asked to give as many words as he can in three
minutes. He may be assisted by being started: "beard,
table, skirt, carriage." It may encourage him to be told
that other children have given as many as two hun-
dred words. At least sixty words must be given to
pass the test.

48. Definitions of abstract terms: What is charity? Justice?

To pass this test two of the three definitions must be
acceptable. At eight or nine years very few children

give acceptable definitions; at ten about one-third
do; at eleven most children do.

49. Arranging words in a sentence: "Make a sentence out of these

Hour - for

To asked

we-good-at — park — a -started-the.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

- exercise — my — teacher-correct — my — I. A-defends-dog-good-his-courageously-master.

The printed card is placed before the child. He gives the
sentences orally. Time limit is one minute for each
sentence. At least two must be given correctly.


50. Repetition of seven figures: 2, 9, 4, 6, 3, 7, 5.

1, 6, 9, 5, 8, 4, 7.

- 9, 2, 8, 5, 1, 6, 4.

Tell the child there will be seven figures. Give three trials.

[merged small][ocr errors]
« ÎnapoiContinuă »