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hour's silence figuring the general peace under Augustus, and Roman toleration of the Church, continued till Nero's persecution.' Then, coming to the septenary of the Trumpet-Angels, he explains them of divinely-taught preachers, sounding forth the brazen trumpet, under nearly the same septenary of æras as was noted before ; the six first being the patriarchal,” the lawgiving, the prophetic,4 Christ's own æra, that of the Gnostic-confuting primitive doctors, and of the Rome-subduing martyrs.7—And after a parenthetic exposition of Apoc. x, as depicting the source of the Church's support and light, like as of Israel in Egypt, under all the trials above noted,—the Angel's descent in which is construed of Christ's incarnation, veiled in the cloud of humanity, with the iris of mercy, and light of divine glory attendant, his feet the two Testaments, the Book opened in hand that of the Scriptures, the seven thunders figures of the seven virtues, unknown in their full spirituality but through Christ, and sealed up partially from weaker Christians, unable to bear them, the charge to eat the book, and prophesy again, true both of John personally, returning from Patmos, and of all the apostles and Christian teachers,--after this Berengaud supposes a sudden transition to the times of Antichrist and the two Witnesses against him : the transition, he says, being not unnatural; as from Christ's ministry when the Jews were cast out, to that of Enoch and Elias, which latter is to restore them.

1 “ But why Christ's advent under the seventh and not the fifth Seal ?”. A question which Berengaud thus answers : Because on the seventh day was God's rest from creation; and Christ is our rest.

2 The fire of the symbol being the fire of the Holy Spirit, burning up what was evil in the heart.

3 The fiery mountain cast into the sea being explicable of Mount Sinai cast among the Jews; the faithful amongst whom, dead to the law, lived to God.

4 The prophets themselves being like burning stars to light the people; and with threats that had bitterness in them, acting so as to produce repentance.

By whose doctrine the elect Jews were struck, and Judaism eclipsed in them. 6 Doctors preaching against the first of the three woes; viz. heretics, lapsed like a falling star from heaven : during five months of which æra, a period meant to signify the present life, men that sought death by mixing in the world would be sickened at it ; and so return, and live.

; Martyrs opposed to the four angels; i. e. (these being the same as the four angels in Apoc. vii,) to persecutors out of the Roman empire; an empire signified also by Babylon's river, the Euphrates. These martyrs he supposes by their invincible resolution and gospel-preaching to have stirred up the Roman Pagans to persecute them ;-the horses' heads being the Roman emperors ; the sulphur from the horses' mouths their blasphemy; and the fire their persecuting proclamations.



And, in the account of the Witnesses, Berengaud expounds the measuring the court and its worshippers to signify Christian ministers, ministering to their edification : the reed being the gospel; the rod church discipline ; and those cast out as Pagans, the Jews : the fire from the Witnesses' mouth signifying their doctrine kindled by God's Spirit; their heaven-shutting a judgment literally to be understood, it might be, but rather spiritually: their place of death, the street of the great city Babylon, consisting of all the reprobate ; and its duration three and a half days, meant in the sense of three and a half years."

Then, their revival and resurrection described, the prophecy passes, says Berengaud, to describe the history and evils of the great Witness-slayer, Antichrist : a commencement being however made from the Devil's first injuries to Christ and His Church, at his first advent; prior and preparatory to the last injuries through Antichrist.--In Apoc. xii the travailing Woman might mean both the Virgin Mary and the Church : Christ himself being the male child born of the one, Christians of the other; the one snatched up to God at his ascension, the others at death : the opposing Dragon's, or Devil's, seven heads figuring the reprobate of the same seven ages as before specified; and his dejection effected by Michael, through Christ's ministry, casting him out of the hearts of the elect, into the reprobate. Further the Woman's 37 times in the wilderness, after the Dragon's dejection, mean first, and on the scale of literal time, the early disciples feeding on Christ's doctrine, separate from the world ;- as also the feeding of the souls of the faithful “ dapibus gloriæ cælestis patriæ," on the glories of a heavenly abode, during the whole time from Christ's passion to the world's end : while the wilderness of her refuge symbolized heaven, (such is Berengaud's singular explanation;) somewhat like the wilderness of the ninety sheep in Luke xv. 4.Then at length the Devil goes against the remnant of the Woman's seed, left at the end of the world; and attacks them through the Beast, i. e. Antichrist.

Of which Beast Berengaud explains the seven heads as the seven principal vices, affixed like the seven wicked spirits in the parable ; and the ten horns wearing diadems, as the nations subjugated by him :

· Noted by me Vol. iii. 237. ? This fact being the ground-work of the larger interpretation of the 3 years, so as with Ambrose Ansbert.

his mouth speaking great things, as of one boasting himself to be the Son of God; his blasphemies, as denying Jesus Christ's godhead, asserting the worthlessness of the Christian religion, and inability of martyrs and saints to profit men : also as arguing from the fact of men's passions being implanted by God, in proof that they might abandon themselves to licentiousness. (This is, I think, the earliest suggestion I have noticed of Antichrist being in any way an avowed infidel, and open advocate of licentiousness.)—The second Beast he interprets as the Preachers of Antichrist : its two lamb-like horns signifying his constituency of Jews and Gentile reprobates; as the Lamb's seven horns figured all the elect: and the Beast's Image, images of Antichrist, which Antichrist's priests will make men worship.—As to his name and number, says Berengaud, I know it not: for any one might at baptism have a name of that number given him. -Then passing to the vision of Apoc. xvii, the Beast-riding-Harlot is explained (besides her general signification as the world) to be specially Rome ; and her predicated burning and spoiling by the ten kings, as the destruction of ancient Rome by the Gothic barbarians : (with reference however, as Rome was professedly Christian at that time, to the reprobate in her :) also the Beast, (here the Devil,) ridden by her, as that which “ was” during his unquestioned sovereignty of the world before Christ's coming; which “is not,i. e. in the same power as before, since Christ's overthrow of Satan ; and which“ is to be" again, on Antichrist's revelation. As to the Beast's heads, they meant the same as the Dragon's in Apoc. xii. Of these the first five had passed away when John had the Apocalypse revealed to him ; the fifth being the Jews just then destroyed by the Romans: the sixth signifying the then existing Roman Pagan persecutors; and the seventh, Antichrist. The eighth, or Beast itself of Apoc. xvii 1 was, as just before observed, the Devil.

On other lesser points I have only to add, that Berengaud makes the 144,000 of Apoc. xiv to be the elect in heaven, while the 144,000 of Apoc. vii were the elect alive on earth ; explains the earth's

· He seems to make the Beast of Apoc. xiii Antichrist ; of Apoc. xvii the Devil.

? Without spot, says Berengaud, because of the pollution contracted from the world having been washed away by penitence and tears, or by works of charity, or per fiagella, by scourging, or at any rate“ post mortem igni purgatorio."-Purgatory was now estahlished.

harvest of the good, as its vintage of the bad ; in Apoc. xv reads asboy for Qovoy, like Andreas, of the dress of the seven Vial-Angels ; and explains the Angels themselves as preachers of the same seven æras as before. In Apoc. xvi he makes the Euphrates drying up to mean the drying up of persecution, that so the way may be opened to the Gentiles to believe ; explains the millennium as Augustine , and, on the Angel's showing St. John the New Jerusalem, notes very distinctly John's representative character ; " Johannes typum gerit cæterorum fidelium.”

On the whole, we see in this Commentary by Berengaud, and its seven successive æras, (however unskilfully and unsuccessfully applied to the solution of the prophecy,) an illustration of the natural tendency of expositors' minds, then already acting, towards the adoption of some chronologically consecutive scheme of Apocalyptic interpretation, in place of that so long prevalent in Christendom, which explained it as mainly significant of general and constant Christian truths or doctrines :- some one more consonant in this respect alike with common sense, and also with the precedent of Daniel's prophecies, as expounded in great part by inspiration itself."

· Before passing to the next Section, let me briefly notice a curious sentiment in a Treatise on Antichrist by Adso, a monk of the Monastery of Derve in Champagne ; dedicated to Gerberga, Queen of Louis D'Outremer, and consequently of about the date of 950 A. D. Having spoken of Babylon as Antichrist's birth-place, of his being educated by sorcerers at Bethsaida and Chorazin, then coming to Jerusalem, proclaiming himself the Son of God, by gifts miracles or terror converting kings and people to acknowledge him, and then at length persecuting the saints, and commencing the great tribulation of 3 years - Adso proceeds to state that the precise time for his manifestation would be marked by the • discessio ' of its constituent kingdoms from the Roman Empire ; (so, like some of the early fathers, he explained the aposaola of St. Paul :) which time bad not then as yet come : because, says Adso, though the Roman Empire has been in chief part destroyed, yet, so long as the Frank Kings last, to whom belongs the Empire, so long the Roman dignity will not altogether perish. And then he adds ; Some of our doctors affirm that there shall arise in the last times a king of the Franks, who shall again re-unite under his rule all the Roman Empire; and after a prosperous reign shall go to Jerusalem, and lay down his sceptre and crown at Mount Olivet :-that this will be the end of the Roman Empire, and then immediately will follow Antichrist.” (This tradition is noted in the Encyclopedie Methodique : and it may perhaps remind some of the French Chief Bonaparte's mighty empire, and Syrian expedition, in these latter days; as also of certain prophetic speculations propounded thereon, by expositors that deemed him to be Daniel's Wilful King).--Adso further observes, that the Antichrist would sit either in the Jewish temple, rebuilt by him, and there receive worship; or perhaps in the Christian Church : § 4. FROM A. D. 1000 TO THE REFORMATION.

In this fourth Period it is my purpose to sketch most prominently the partially contrasted, and partially accordant views of the Apocalyptic prophecy, propounded very influentially by Joachim Abbas and his followers, on the one hand, and the early pioneers of the Reformation on the other. A briefer notice will suffice of Anselm of Havilburg, Albertus Magnus, and Thomas Aquinas. At the commencement of this period, the tenth century having ended without the appearance of that Antichrist, whom the Latins at least had expected at that time for 37 years to oppress Christendom, in realization of the Gog and Magog predicted as to arise at the close of the Apocalyptic millennium, (a point already illustrated in my first Volume,') it could bardly be but that fact should exercise a certain influence on subsequent Apocalyptic interpretation. As the period progressed, and the twelfth century opened, the human mind in Western Europe began to make decided advances to independent thought and vigour. Hence an increased interest in some of the Apocalyptic Commentaries that now appeared : the rather, as in the progress of time, new and important facts had occurred in the history of Christendom, with which to compare the prophecy. Germs of thought now arose that were to receive afterwards a fuller development; and prophetic views destined, in the course of time, to help towards producing great and unexpected results.

Let me premise that I would fain have begun my list of the Apocalyptic expositors of this period with some notice of a Comment on the Book by the celebrated Berenger, soon after the middle of the eleventh century; for it is stated, says Bishop Hurd, that he wrote such a Commentary. But no such writing of his is, I believe, at present extant. It must suffice us, therefore, to repeat what I have remarked elsewhere in my sketch of the Middle-Age Witnesses for

also that after killing the two witnesses, Enoch and Elias, he would be slain on Mount Olivet by Michael, or Christ, with the breath of his mouth. Soon after which (not immediately) would follow the last judgment.

This Treatise is given in the 9th Volume of the late Paris Benedictine Edition of Augustine, col. 1647—1652. It is the same that has been incorrectly ascribed by some to Alcuin, by others to Rabanus Maurus.

p. 446. VOL. IV.

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