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(as the Benedictine Editor observes) are, 1. that, whereas Primasius says there were decided Donatistic statements in Tichonius' work, in this such are wanting, and anti-Donatistic inserted against re-baptizing ; 2. that certain passages cited by Bede from Tichonius are here wanting ; 3. that on a point in which Tichonius' opinion is said by Augustine to have been illustrated with a copious argument, the opinion is here indeed given, but without any such copious argument in connection. To which I may add that there occur here and there brief quotations (unless indeed Tichonius be the original)' from Augustine.On the other hand there are the arguments following in favour of the substantial identity of the extant Treatise with that of Tichonius : (arguments omitted by the Benedictine Editor :)-1st, that the expository principles in the former agree well with the expository rules recorded by Augustine as laid down by Tichonius; -2. that one of the antiDonatistic sentiments more than once occurring in these Homilies is precisely such a recognition of the Catholic Church as was objected to Tichonius, as an inconsistency, by his Bishop Parmenianus; 3—3. that a
Especially, for example, that given in my Vol. iii. Note 8 p. 234. ? They are thus enumerated by Augustine, Vol. iii. 99; and as Rules intended by Tichonius to solve the difficulties of Scripture.
1. De Domino et ejus Corpore; there being sometimes a transition in the sacred writers from Christ the head, to the Church his body.—A rule rightly applicable sometimes, says Augustine.
2. De Domini corpore bipartito ; the true members of Christ's body and the false. A view of things right, says Augustine, but wrongly exprest; because hypocrites and false professors do not really belong to Christ's body at all.
3. De Promissis et Lege ; otherwise exprest, like as by Origen, De Spiritu et Litera : in reference to cases where figures are used ; and one thing said, another meant.
4. De Specie et Genere : -where a species is spoken of, e. g. Egypt, Judæa, &c.; but the whole world meant.
5. De temporibus : -where, especially in chronological statements, a whole is said for a part, or part for a whole : as Christ's three days in the grave, when the actual time was only one full day; and Jeremiah's seventy years of Israel's captivity, though applicable to the Church's whole time of earthly pilgrimage. Tichonius applied this Rule to other numerals also ; e. g. to the Apocalyptic 144,000 ; which designated, as he says, the whole body of the saints.
7. De Diabolo et corpore ejus :-things being said of the Devil when meant of the wicked that constitute his body, and vice versâ. (Just the converse to Rule 1.)
The agreement of the extant Homilies with the above will be noted from time to time in my abstract.
3 Tichonius, says Augustine, Vol. xii. 66, “vidit ecclesiam toto orbo diffusam : and that for this (ib. 63) he was reproved by Parmenianus. So in Hom. xix. “ Civitas ista ecclesia est toto orbe diffusa ; " and elsewhere.
particular clause on the horsemen of the second Woe, quoted by Primasius from Tichonius, appears in the precise words in these Homilies."
- There remains a very important indication in the tenth Homily, respecting Arianism as dominant ; “ Videmus hæreticos in hoc sæculo potentes, qui habeant virtutem Diaboli: sicut quondam Pagani, ita nunc illa vastant ecclesiam :” and again; “Utique habeant potestatem hæretici ; sed præcipuè Arriani :”-statements possibly referable to the Arian Emperor Valens' oppression of the Trinitarians in the Eastern Empire, which occurred during the life of the real Tichonius : yet not probably so; as Valens' power extended only to the Eastern, or Greek, Empire; not to the Western Empire, in which evidentlya (and most likely in Africa) the writer of the extant Homilies resided. Hence more probably this indication points to the succeeding century ; when the Arian Vandal kings Genseric and Hunneric did really desolate the orthodox African Church.—On the whole, and adding to the other evidence in favour of his authorship the important fact of the manuscript's bearing his name, I feel strongly inclined to believe that the main substance of the extant Treatise is from Tichonius : but with certain alterations introduced, and an abbreviation into an Homiletic form, by some Presbyter of the Latin Catholic Church in the fifth century, probably an African. Under this conviction, I shall note its more prominent views and peculiarities; as of one distinctly appertaining to the æra under review.
To begin, there are in two different manuscripts two different introductions. The one (probably the original) states at once the Origenistic interpretative principle of avaywyn, as that adopted in the commentary. “ In lectione Revelationis beati Johannis Apostoli, fratres charissimi, secundùm anagogen explanare curabimus.” The other thus speaks. “Respecting the things seen by St. John in the Apocalypse, it seemed to some of the ancient fathers that either all,
1 “ Numerus inquit bis myriades myriadum sed non dixit quot myriadum.” Hom. vii. Which exact words are quoted by Primasius on the same Apocalyptic verse as those of Tichonius.
* There occurs a curious notice on Apoc. iv. 3, in the second of the extant Homilies, on the resemblance of the word iris, or its accusative irin, to the Greek word eipnun; as by a writer, and to readers, to whom alike the Greek was a foreign language. “ Cui nomini si una in fine additur littera, et irini dicatur, utique hoc ipsum interpretatio sonare videtur : nam Græco vocabulo eipnun hoc appellatur.”—Moreover it appears that these Homilies were Lectiones on the Apocalypse : which Book was, I believe, little read at the time in the Greek Churches.
or at least the greater part, presignified the coming of Antichrist, or day of judgment. But they who have more diligently handled it, judge that the things contained in it began to have fulfilment immediately after Christ's passion ; and are to go on fulfilling up to the day of judgment : so as that but a small portion may seem to remain for the times of Antichrist.”—Which two beginnings are quite consistent. For Tichonius' meaning in those words of the latter,
consummanda usque ad diem judicii,” is not that the Apocalypse was like a dramatic prefiguration of the great events of the coming future, to be fulfilled in succession and order until the consummation : but rather a representation (for the most part) of general truths, detached and unconnected, concerning the Church; all and ever in course of realization, and that will be so even to the end.
Thus, passing over his explanation of the primary symbolization of Christ, the details of which he takes very much from Victorinus, and that of the Epistle to the seven Churches, which Churches he also regards as symbolic of the Church universal,-in the Seals, the first horse and rider are expounded of Christ riding to victory on his apostles and prophets, in date from after the time of his ascension ; the three next as the Devil, riding on bloody-minded, hypocritical,' and wicked men, in antagonism to Christ : 2 the souls under the altar as the cry of the martyred and persecuted against their persecutors.—So far with reference to the times of the Christian dispensation generally. Then in the sixth Seal the earthquake is explained of the last persecution, and falling of bad men from heaven, i. e. from the Church,3 under it.
Again, (passing over the sealing and palm-bearing visions, which he explains the one of the Church's ingathering of its mystical number, the 144,000 of Israel,4 the other of Church privileges enjoyed under the present dispensation, and passing, also overthe half-hour's silence,
· Hypocritical in the third Seal, because of the rider's carrying in false pretence the balance of justice.
2 Victorinus' explanation of the three last horses as “bella, fames, et pestis," is also given as an alternative; Victorinus being however no where mentioned by name. 3 This is an explanation applied in various similar figurations afterwards.
144,000 omnis omnino ecclesia est.” A Tichoniasm. See Tichonius' Rule 5, in my Note, p, 330 snprà. — The 144,000 of Apoc. xiv are similarly explained by him; not, as by Jerome, of literal monks and virgins.
* A singular explanation ; but agreeable with that of the New Jerusalem, noted by here interpreted just as by Victorinus,) he thus expounds the Trumpets, or Church-preachments acted out :) viz. the first, of luxurious men of the earth, burnt up grass-like by the fire of concupiscence ; ? the second, of the Devil thrown as a burning mountain into the world ; the third, or star falling on the waters, of heretics and their deadly doctrines ;; the fourth, of evil ones in the Church spiritually eclipsed, through being given up to their pleasures ; 4 the fifth, of evil men and heretics, fallen from the Church, and with the heart's abyss of wickedness fully opened; men wearing mock crowns, as if church-elders, like the enthroned twenty-four, and scorpion-like, under devilish guidance, striking both good, though only to quicken their repentance, and bad, so as to infuse the poison of their doctrine :—then the sixth Trumpet, and its horse-borne myriads from the Euphrates (the Euphrates of the mystic Babylon,) of the last persecution; (that I presume, by Antichrist ;) the hour, day, month and year being meant for three and a half years, those four parts for the whole.?
In the Witness-narrative, told by the descended Covenant-Angel Christ, (whose opened book, by the way, Tichonius explains as the Bible, his lion-like cry as that of the gospel-preaching by the Church, and the seven answering thunders as the seven Trumpets, or Church-preachments, sealed to the bad, though understood by the good,) the introductory charge, “ Measure the temple,” &c, is well and rather remarkably explained of a recension and preparation of the true Church“ ad ultimum ;" all other professors of religion except the true,
me p. 337 afterwards. The remark on, “ He shall lead them to living fountains of waters,” stands thus : “Omnia hæc etiam in præsenti vita spiritualiter ecclesiæ eveniunt : cùm dimissis peccatis resurgimus ; et vitæ prioris lugubris ac veteris hominis exspoliati, in baptismo Christum induimur, et gaudiis sancti Spiritûs implemur."
Septem angelos ecclesiam dixit; septem tubas perfectam prædicationem.” 2 So Isaiah xl. 6, says Tichonius; “ All flesh is grass. “ Quos Deus justo judicio permittit incendio luxuriæ vel cupiditate exuri.”
E. g. on this verse, “ The waters were made bitter, and men died of the waters," it is said, “ Hoc in his qui re-baptizantur manifestè intelligi potest.” This is an antiDonatism that has been noted as anti-Tichonian ; but possibly it is such an anti-Donatism as Tichonius might have written. See Parmenianus’ remonstrance, p. 330 suprà.
* The eagle crying Woe, that follows, he explains of each minister when announcing the coming day of judgment.
5 “ Una stella corpus est multorum cadentium de ecclesiâ per peccata." 6“ Sed non dixit quot myriadum : "—the Tichoniasm noted above, p. 330, Note.
? So I think he means: “Hæc sunt quatuor tempora triennii et pars (qu. partis ?) temporis."— Compare the Tichonian Rule 5.
whether heretics or badly-living Catholics, being shut out :—and then the witnesses themselves, (including the oil. supplying Two Testaments, and the lightgiving Church fed by the oil,)' as having for their appointed time of prophesying the whole time from Christ's death : the phrase “ these have power,” not, shall have, marking time current, till the last persecution : and the chronological term twelve hundred and sixty days, being one explicable as the numeral, not only “ of the last persecution, and of the future peace, but also of the whole time from the Lord's passion ; either period having that number of days.”? — Thus we have here a view of the witnessing, large and connected : and, during this prolonged time of the Church's testimony, the killing their injurers with fire out of their mouths is well explained of the killing effect of the Witnesses' prayers, and the heaven's not raining, of the absence of blessing on the barren earth.— After which, and on their finishing their testimony, (a testimony carried on to the very eve of Christ's revelation,) the Beast from the abyss, or “wicked ones making up the Devil's body,” 3 especially under Antichrist,4 shall conquer them that yield, says Tichonius, and slay the stedfast, in the matera, or “midst of the Church :” till after three and a half days, meaning three and half years, their dead bodies shall rise, and ascend to meet Christ at his coming.
Next let me sketch, in illustration of this Commentary, Tichonius' exposition of the connected visions of the Dragon, Beast, and Beastriding Harlot ; given in Apoc. xii, xiii, xvii.
The travailing Woman then, he says, is the Church, ever bringing
1 “ Nam Zacharias unum candelabrum vidit; et bas duo olivas, id est Testamenta, infundere oleum candelabro, id est ecclesiæ.
Prophetabunt diebus 1260 : numerum novissimæ persecutionis dixit, et futuræ pacis, et totius temporis à Domini passione ; quoniam utrumque tempus totidem dies habet, quod suo in loco dicatur.”—How this time times and half a time might come to be viewed as a fit designative of the whole Christian æra, was first explained by Ambrose Ansbert. See p. 345 infrà. How Tichonius might have in ferred from it a nearness of the consummation to his own age will appear from a certain particular value put by him on a prophetic time, noted in the next page. How it meant the time of the future peace, I know not.
3“ Bestiam impios dicit, qui sunt corpus Diaboli.” (So Tichonius' seventh interpretative canon.) So too the Beast in Apoc. xiii is explained ; which will be like a leopard, adds Tichonius, in the time of Antichrist.
* It is plain that Tichonius refers the death of the Witnesses to this period. 6 This early testimony for the year-day principle, and the reasoning added in its support, is noted by me in my Chapter on the year-day, Vol. iii. p. 238.