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be converted, to the end that your sins may be blotted out; that' the times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and he may send Jesus Christ which before was ordained for (or preached unto) you: whom the heavens must receive until the times of the restitution of all things, of which God hath spoken by the mouth of his holy prophets since the world began.” In order to the right understanding of this passage, two things need to be premised :-Ist, that the word restoration or restitution, given in our received translation, is just the most accurate expression of the sense of the word azokataçacıs in verse 21, accordantly both with its use elsewhere and its derivation ;? not fulfilment, as
i daws ay. This is the most natural rendering of the conjunction. So Luke ii. 35, όπως αν αποκαλυφθωσιν εκ πολλων καρδιων διαλογισμοι" that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed: and Psalm li. 4, (Sept.) daws av dirawwins er loyois gov' that thou mighlest be justified in thy sayings : &c. This is almost universally allowed by expositors, -anti-premillenarians, as well as others : e. g. by Whitby, Vitringa, Doddridge, Lightfoot. The critic Rosenmuller says ; “'Ofws av, eum in finem, ut: nam particula ofws cùm conjunctivo juncta notat ut, ita ut, Matt. vi. 5, xxiii. 35, Acts xv. 17, Rom. iii. 4.” And so, as Whithy observes, Irenæus and Tertullian * expounded the phrase here of old.–Our English version renders it less literally as a particle of time : “When the times,” &c.
2 Katastasis is the actual state, condition, or constitution ; and consequently ATOKATAOTQDis most naturally a new and different constitution of things, generally by restoration to what it was originally. So the verb, Matt. xii. 13; ATOKATEJTaon υγιης ως η αλλη “His hand was restored whole as the other:” Matt. xvii. 11 ; “Elias anoKATAOTNOEL Tarta, shall restore all things :" Acts i. 6, El amokat.otavers Bagidetav T4 lopana, “Wilt thou restore the kingdom to Israel :” Jer. xvi. 15, Αποκαταστησω αυτους εις την γην αυτων &c.-The substantire itself only occurs here, in the New Testament. And the three meanings which Schleusner gives to it in his Lexicon are ;-1. “ Rei in primum locum reductio, restitutio :-2. Omnis restitutio prioris status ;—3. Reductio rerum in meliorem statum." This is the more observable, as he adds the expression of his own inclination to take the word here in Hesychius' sense of TEREWOLS; but, apparently because of the inadequacy of the authority, does not give that meaning. Kuinoel, with similar and equal inclination, is equally unable to discover a case in point : for he takes refuge in the Septuagint version of Job viii. 6, which is not to the point.
By classical authors the noun or verb are similarly used in the sense of restoration :-surgically of the setting or restoration of diseased or broken limbs ; astronomically of the sun returning into his old sign in the Zodiac; politically of hostages or exiles relurning to their country. See Schleusner and Scapula. -And so too by the Jewish writers Josephus and Philo, as Kuinoel observes on this passage; and also by the early fathers, as Ignatius, Irenæus, Origen.t
received text, followed by our English translation, is apokernpuydevuv, before preached
Tertullian thus : “Resipiscite ad abolenda delicta vestra, ut tempora vobis superveniant refrigerii,” &c. De Resur. 23.
+ It may be well to exemplify.--1. Ignatius, ad Smyrn. § 11; ATOKATEOTaon αυτοις το ιδιον σωματειον: said of the Church of Antioch being restored to the
Whitby and Faber on very slender and questionable authority propose to render it? :-2ndly, that the antecedent of the relative w in the same verse, seems determined by the sense of the sentence to be the word xporwe, times. For though, with regard to this last point, the antecedent understood might well, on mere grammatical grounds, be the martwy, all things, yet would there then be needed, to avoid absurdity, such a restriction in the sense of the cartwy, as to make the construction far
1 They ground this on Hesychius' and Phavorinus' explanation, Telewis,-on the Syriac and Arabic versions which render the clause, the one, “ Till the fulness of the time of all things,” the other, Till the times in vhich all things shall be perfected or finished,”—and on Irenæus' version as represented by the Latin dispositionis, and Tertullian's erhibitionis ;--without one really parallel passage to support them, from Scripture, the Classics, or the Fathers. On what they adduce we remark, 1. that Terlullian's version exhibitionis, whatever it mean, does not mean fulfilment :-2. that Irenæus' dispositio was probably in his own Greek diabeoews, and taken from Luke xxii. 29, “I appoint (datidena.) unto you, as my Father hath appointed (OleDeto) to me, a kingdom," quite in the premillennarian sense : also that his understanding atokaTArtaois as I do appears from his use of it in a passage where the original Greek has been preserved, Lib. i. ch. 10; Τοτε δε και την αποκαταστασιν των όλων εφη (scil. the heretic Marcus) γινεσθαι, όταν τα παντα κατελθοντα εις το εν γραμμα, μιας και την αυτην εκφωνησιν ηχηση: -3. that the Arabic version is doubtful, and the Syriac tantamount to “the dispensation of the fulness of times," spoken of in Eph. i. 10. (So Mr. Cuninghame:)–4. As to Hesychius' explanation, it means only, I conceive, that consummation which is by restoration.
? So Mr. Faber : the result of his twofold criticism, -viz, on atokataOtaris, and on martwv as the antecedent before wv,-being to make out of St. Peter's words a direct anti-premillennarian statement, to the effect that Christ cannot return from heaven till the Millennium, as well as all else, be accomplished; seeing that the Millennium is itself a thing predicted !-Did it not occur to Mr. Faber that the resurrection and hearenly and eternal blessedness of the saints, after the Millennium, are also things predicted by the prophets; and consequently what ought also to be accomplished (on his view of the apostle's saying) before Christ's return? *
3 Restricted, as meaning simply all those things prophesied of as to be restored, and of which the restoration had not then been effected..
Church Catholic, of which it was a member.-2. Irenæus, i. 14: Tov Alov ev δεκαδυο μησι τερματιζοντα την κυκλικην αυτου αποκαταστασιν.-- 3. Clemens Αlex. in his Quid Divis; Aυτoν αποκατέστησε την εκκλησια" restored the young man to the Church.-4. Origen, Contrà Cels. Lib. iv ; ÓTi 80'anokataota noortai, said of the Jews being restored to their country.
Even were martwv the antecedent, the plural form of the times would imply a certain duration in the course of which the restoration of these things would take place; and the natural sense of the whole sentence be, as if with the parti. ciple, “Whom the heavens must receive till the times of restoring all things whose restoration has been predicted;"--a statement of meaning not unlike the other : since, though the axpı by itself would be indeterminate, yet would the sense of the passage fix the epoch of the advent as not at the end, but the beginning, of the times spoken of. Else, as before said, it would make Christ's advent later than the resurrection.—Compare on the marta Matt. xvii. 11, quoted Note ? p. 211, just before; and on the grammatical question Note 3 p. 213.
less easy than with Xpow for the antecedent. Thus the intent of the apostle's statement must be this : " Whom the heaven must receive till those times of the restitution” (or, as we have seen it elsewhere called, the regeneration) “of all things; of which times the whole succession of prophets have spoken."! — With which view of the clause the context of the verse immediately preceding bears the strictest agreement. For“ the times of refreshing,” there spoken of? are evidently the same as the “ times of the restitution of all things,” in this present verse : and in regard to the former, as well as the latter, Christ's second coming (a coming attended of course with the raising of the saints) is represented as the occasion of their commencement.3—And this is further to be observed, that in the former clause the important intimation seems added that Israel's conversion would synchronize with, or rather introduce, that coming : while in the latter (as just stated) the restoration of this fallen world is noted as its almost immediate consequence.
The learned Dr. Routh, Mr. Cuninghame says, having the question referred to him, answered decidedly that the wv inust, in order to make sense, agree with Xpovwv. In case, however, of restricting the sense of the “all things above suggested, sense would on the other construction be also made : and instances of similar restriction might be found; though, I think, but rarely.
Compare too verse 24; “Yea, and all the prophets, as many as have spoken, have foretold of these days : "—the apostles, who did not know the times and seasons, fancying that the desired consummation was then very near.
2 Κα.ροι αναψυξεως. The verb αναψυχω is used by the Septuagint in Judges xv. 19, 1 Sam. xvi. 23, and 2 Sam. xvi. 14, of Samson's revival from extreme thirst, -Saul's from the evil spirit, on David's playing the harp,—and David's from the weariness and sadness of his retreat from Jerusalem, on Absalom's rebellion.-- Rosenmuller says; “Avayužis, avatavois. Itaque kaipoi avayusews sunt tempora quietis ; id est summæ felicitatis, in regno Messiæ expectandæ, quod Christus è cælo rediturus olim inaugurabit.”
3 Mr. Faber objects ; "The syntax (referring úy to xoorwr) forced and unnatural in itself, though grammatically possible, is constructively impossible. We may properly say, Until the times concerning which God hath spoken ; but we cannot properly say, Until the times which God hath spoken.”—I am not sure whether I rightly understand Mr. F. He surely cannot mean to say that the áv may not be explained as either for epi wv, or in the genitive from the Attic attraction : seeing that it is on one or other of these principles that the relative in the genitive must be explained, even though construed with martwv. The only possible sense which I can attach to his objection is, that out of two antecedents alike agreeing grammatically with a relative, the one nearest must necessarily be the one connected with it. A rule, I need not say, far from universal.
(As this sheet is passing through the press, I see that Mr. Faber in his “ Eight Dissertations,” just published (i. 8.) cites Prof. Gaisford, adjudging that havTWV must be the antecedent, not xpovwv. I must therefore bez to add the following decisive example, in justification of my view, from Jude 15 : Tepi TAUTW TW εργων αυτων ων η σεβησαν" where the antecedent of ων 15 εργων, not αυτων. This
My third passage is from Rom. viii. 18, &c. After speaking of himself and other true disciples, alike Gentiles and Jews, (for the mystery of Israel's temporary blindness had now broken on the apostles, and of the equal admission of believing Gentiles to the blessings of the Abrahamic covenant,) as those with whose spirits the Holy Spirit itself witnessed that they were children of God, and how that if children they would be then heirs, heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if so be that they suffered with him that they might be also glorified together, --St. Paul thus goes on : ' “ For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. For the creature was made subject to vanity, (not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same,?) in hope;-because arises, I suppose, from considering the phrase consisting of the first noun, and connected genitive of the next grammatically, somewhat as if one. Compare such passages as Luke v. 9, epotn arpą twv ixouw ý ovverabov. and 2 Pet. iii. 15, “ following in the way τ8 Βαλααμ το Βυσος ος μισθον αδικιας ηγαπησεν. In which last passage the ós does not refer to the proximate noun in the genitive, Bosor, but to that preceding it, Balaam
Rosenmuller's view, let me further add, is similar to mine. “Winzerus rectè monet pronomen wv non ad mavrwv sed ad xporwv respicere: quod ex versu 24 intelligitur: ubi, post Mosem anteà memoratum, omnes etiam reliquos vates tas quepas tautas annuntiasse declarat Petrus. Porro Winzerus observat ad Judæos orationem habere Petrum Scilicet, tanquam præmium fidei in Christum, sperare eos jubet καιρους αναψυξεως et χρονους αποκαταστασεως παντων, que phrases inter se non differunt. Jam vero amoKataotaois de restitutione in pristinum statum in integrum, ut Græci, ita Judæi scriptores dicere consueverunt. Polyb. iv. 23.1, Diod. Sic. xx. 31; Septuag Gen. xli. 13, Job viii. 6, Jer. xxiii. 8. Coll. Matt. xii. 13, Marc. iii. 5, viii. 25, Luc. vi. 10, Act. i. 6."-So, he adds, the Jews expected Messiah to restore Paradise, making a "renovationem mundi physici :" and that St. Peter so expected, 2 Pet. iii. 7, &c. compared with Apoc. xxi. 1.—2nd Ed.]
The Greek, of this important passage is as follows in Scholz's text. Λογιζομαι γαρ ότι ουκ αξια τα παθηματα του νυν καιρου προς την μελλουσαν δοξαν αποκαλυφθηναι εις ημας. Η γαρ αποκαραδοκια της κτισεως την αποκαλυψιν των υιων του Θεου απεκδεχεται. Τη γαρ ματαιοτητι ή κτισις υπεταγη (ουχ εκουσα, αλλα δια τον υποταξαντα,) επ' ελπιδι: ότι και αυτη η κτισις ελευθερωθησεται απο της δουλειας της φθορας εις την ελευθεριαν της δοξης των τεκνων του Θεου. .
Οιδαμεν γαρ ότι πασα η κτισις συστεναξει και συνωδινει αχρι του νυν" ου μονον δε, αλλα και αυτοι την απαρχην του Πνευματος έχοντες, και ημεις αυτοι εν εαυτοις στεναζομεν, υιοθεσιαν απεκδεχομενοι, την απολυτρωσιν του σωματος ή ημων.
Both Griesbach and Scholz mark the parenthesis. * Literally a turning or stretching of the head in intent expectation. + St. Paul not infrequently conjoins this word owur in the singular with persons in the plural, though meaning their bodies, in the literal sense, plurally. So Rom. vi. 12, ev TV Ovnte 'uwv owuati also 1 Cor. vi. 19, 20, 2 Cor. iv. 10, &c.
the creature itself shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together, until now. And not only they, but ourselves also which have the first-fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.”—Now, on one point that has been controverted in this passage, viz. the meaning of the word tiois, rendered creature and creation, I am not careful. Unquestionably it may mean the whole visible earthly creation, animate and inanimate. And if it be so construed here, as the early Christian Fathers did in fact understand it,' and I think not without reason, then the premillennial conclusion I contend for follows immediately: the restoration of this lower world to its original paradisiacal state, and freedom from the curse consequent on man's sin, being in that case made to succeed after the redemption of the body, and visible glorification of the predestinated children of God ;? in other words, upon and after their resurrection. But the word may mean also, as Whitby would have it, and as I am content for present argument's sake to admit, the rational creation of God in this world, that is mankind, simply and alone.*
1 Irenæus says, v. 32, 36; “Oportet ergo et ipsum creationem redintegratam ad pristinum sine prohibitione servire justis : et hoc Apostolus fecit manifestum in ea quæ est ad Romanos; sic dicens, Nam expectatio creaturæ revelationem filiorum Dei expectat." And Tertullian, Contrà Hermog. Chap. ii. ; “Tunc erit mali finis cùm revelatio filiorum Dei redemerit creationem à malo utique vanitati subjectam."--So our English translation renders it here creation, as well as creature. And Schleusner on the word Kriors, gives, as one meaning,
“ Omnes res à Deo create, omnis rerum natura, universum ;” referring to this passage in exemplification, as well as to Rom. i. 25, &c. Mr. Scott too, though an antipremillennarian, so takes it.
Compare verse 29. 3 Irenæus, v. 31, notes certain heretics, who expected the saints' glorification to follow immediately after death, and before their resurrection; suscipientes salutem carnis suæ, contemnentes autem repromissionem Dei, simul atque mortui fuerint dicunt se supergredi cælos et Demiurgum.” And so Justin Martyr, Dial. cùm Tryph. Οι και λεγουσι μη ειναι νεκρων ανασασιν, αλλ' άμα τα αποθνησκειν τας ψυχας αυτων αναλαμβανεσθαι εις τον Βρανoν. Statements of doctrine which, while precisely agreeing with what Scripture tells us, contrast curiously with that of the Church of Rome, anathematizing in its Trentine Council as heretics, all who say that the souls of saints do not instantly go to heaven: a point observed on already Note* p. 193.
4 So Mark xvi. 15, Preach the gospel to every creature," rat? TI KTIDEL. Compare Col. i. 15, “ The firstborn of every creature," #PWTOTOKOS Toons KTINEWS: and in verse 23, “to every creature,” ev taon Tņ KTIOEL.