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it will be so far from splitting or bursting during of either of these fluids may be ascertained in its cooling, that it will be acted upon in a con- the usual manner, when it does not exceed the trary direction, tending to render it more dense point at which mercury boils; and, by this conand solid.

trivance, the same advantages are obtained in One of the greatest difficulties in hardening lowering the temperature of a whole instrument, steel-works of any considerable extent, more or any number of them at once, as have already especially such articles as are formed of thin been stated in favor of my method of hardening. plates, or have a variety of parts of different sizes, Oil is preferable to the fusible mixture for seconsists in the apparent impracticability of heating veral reasons. It is cheaper; it admits of the the thicker parts before the slighter are burned work being seen during the immersion, by reason away; besides which, even for a piece of uni- of its transparency; and there is no occasion for form figure, it is no easy matter to make up a any contrivance to prevent the work from floating. fire which shall give a speedy heat, and be Mr. Nicholson requested Mr. Stodart to favor nearly of the same intensity throughout. “This him with an account of the temperatures at which difficulty,' says Mr. Nicholson, óformed a very the several colors make their appearance upon considerable impediment to my success in a hardened steel; in compliance with which he course of delicate steel-work, in which I was en- made a series of experiments upon surgeons' gaged about seven years ago; but, after various needles, hardened, highly polished, and exposed unsuccessful experiments, I succeeded in re- to a gradual heat, while foating at the surface of moving it by the use of a hath of melted lead, the fusible mixture. The appearances are which, for very justifiable reasons, has been kept. follow: No. 1, taken out at 430° of Fahrenheit. a secret till now. Pure lead, that is to say, lead This temperature leaves the steel in the most excontaining little or no tin, is ignited to a mo- cellent state for razors and scalpels. The tarnish, derate redness, and then well stirred : into this or faint yellowish tinge, it produces, is too evathe piece is plunged for a few seconds; that is nescent to be observed, without comparison with to say, until when brought near the surface, that another piece of polished steel. Instruments, in pert does not appear less luminous than the this state, retain their edge much longer than rest. The piece is then speedily stirred about those upon which the actual straw color has been in the bath, suddenly drawn out, and plunged brought, as is the common practice. Mr. S. ininto a large mass of water. In this manner, a forms me, says Mr. Nicholson, that 430° is the plate of steel may be hardened so as to be per- lowest temperature for letting down, and that the fectly brittle, and yet continue so sound as to lower degrees will not afford a firm edge. No. ring like a bell; an effect which I never could 2, at 440°, and 3, at 450°. These needles differ produce in any other way. Mr. Stodart has so little in their appearance from No. 1, that it lately made trial of this method, and considers it is not easy to arrange them with certainty when to be a great acquisition to the art, as, in fact, I misplaced. No. 4 has the evident tinge, which found it.'

workmen call pale straw color. It was taken The letting down, or tempering of hard steel, out at 460°, and has the usual temper of

penis considered as absolutely necessary for the knives, razors, and other fine edge-tools. It is production of a fine and durable edge. It has much softer than No. 1, as Mr. Stodart assures been usual to do this by heating the hardened me, and this difference exhibits a valuable proof steel till its bright surface exhibits some known of the advantages of this method of tempering. color by oxidation. The first is a very faint Nos. 2, 6, 7, and 8, exhibit successive deeper straw color, becoming deeper and deeper, hy shades of color, having been respectively taken increase of heat, to a fine deep golden-yellow, out at the temperatures 470°, 480°, 490°, and which changes irregularly to a purple, then to 500°. The last is of a bright brownish metallic an uniform blue, succeeded by white and several yellow, very slightly inclining to purple. No. 9 successive faint repetitions of these series. It is obtained an uniform deep blue at the temperawell known, that the hardest state of tempered ture of 580°. The intermediate shades produced instruments, such as razors and surgeons' instru- on steel, by heats between 500° and 580°, are ments, is indicated by this straw color; that a yellow, brown, red, and purple, which are exhideeper color is required for leather-cutters' bited irregularly on different parts of the surface. krives, and other tools, that require the edge to As I had before seen this irregularity, particube turned on one side ; that the blue, which in- larly on the surface of a razor of wootz, and had dicates a gond temper for springs, is almost too found, in my own experience, that the colors on soft for any cutting instrument, except saws, and different kinds of steel do not correspond with such tools as are sharpened with a file, and that like degrees of temper, and probably of tempethe lower states of hardness are not at all adapted rature in their production, I was desirous that to this use. But it is of considerable import- some experiments might be made upon it by the ance, that the letting down, or tempering, as same skilful artist. Four beautifully polished well as the hardening, should be effected by heat blades were, therefore, exposed to heat on the equally applied, and that the temperatures, es- fusible metal. The first was taken up when it pecially at the lower heats, where greater bard- had acquired the fine yellow, or uniform deep ness is to be left, should be more precisely straw color. The second remained on the mixascertained than can be done by the different ture, till the part nearest the stem had become shades of oxidation. Mr. Hartley first practised purplish ; at which period, a number of small the method of immersing hard steel in heated round spots, of a purplish color, appeared in the oil, or the fusible compound of lead five parts, clear yellow of the blade. The third was left tin three, and bismuth eight. The temperature till the thicker parts of the blade were of a deep ruddy purple; but the concave face still continued producing a notch. But on the other hand, if yellow. This also acquired spots like the other, the edge be made to move foremost and meet and a slight cloudiness. These three blades such particle, it will slide beneath it, and suffer were of cast-steel; the fourth, which was made no injury. Another precaution in whetting is, ont of a piece called Styrian steel, was left upon that the hand should not bear heavy; because the inixture till the red linge had pervaded it is evident, that the same stone must produce almost the whole of its concave face. Two or a more uniform edge if the steel be worn away three spots appeared upon this blade; but the by many, than by few strokes. It is also of esgreater part of its surface was variegated with sential importance that the hone itself should be blue clouds, disposed in such a manner, as to of a fine texture, or that its silicious particles produce those waving lines which, in Damascus should be very minute. steel, are called the water. Two results are The grind-stone leaves a ragged edge, which more immediately suggested by these facts: it is the first effect of whetting to reduce so thin first, that the irregular production of a deep color that it may be bent backwards and forwards. upon the surface of brightened steel, may serve This flexible part is called the wire, and if the to indicate the want of uniformity in its compo- whetting were to be continued too long it would sition; and, secondly, that the deep color, being break off in pieces without regularity, leaving a observed to come on first at the thickest parts, finer though still very imperfect edge, and tending Mr. Stodait was disposed to think, that its more to produce accident while lying on the face of speedy appearance was owing to those parts not the stone. The wire is taken off by raising the having been hardened.

face of the knife to an angle of about fifty deAn ingenious method of hardening delicate grees with the surface of the stone, and giving a steel-work was some time since communicated light stroke edge foremost, alternately towards to Mr. Stodart by Dr. Wollaston. The steel each end of the stone. These strokes produce enclosed in a tube is surrounded by the fusible an edge, the faces of which are inclined to alloy of eight parts lead, two tin, and five each other in an angle of about 100 degrees, and bismuth. The tube, with its contents, is then to which the wire is so slightly adherent that it heated in a furnace to rednesss, and plunged may often be taken away entire, and is easily reinto a cooling fluid. It is afterwards thrown moved by lightly drawing the edge along the into boiling water, by which the alloy is fused, finger nail. The edge thus cleared, is generally and the steel is left perfectly hardened and un- very even: but it is too thick, and must again altered by twisting or cracking.

be reduced by whetting. A finer wire is by this Suppose our cutting instrument to be forged, means produced, which will require to be again hardened, and let down or tempered; it remains taken off, if, for want of judgment or delicacy of to be ground, polished, and set. The grinding hand, the artist should have carried it too of fine cutlery is performed upon a grind-stone far But we will suppose the obtuse edge to be of a fine close grit, called a Bilston grind-stone, very even, and the second wire to be scarcely and sold at the tool shops in London at a mo- perceptible. In this case the last edge will be derate price. The cutlers nse water, and do not very acute, but neither so even nor so strong as scem generally to know any thing of the ase of to be durably useful. The finish is given by two tallow. The face of the work is rendered finer or more alternate light strokes with the edge by subsequent grinding upon mahogany cylinders, slanting foremost, and the blade of the knife with emery of different fineness, or upon cylin- raised, so that its plane forms an angle of about ders faced with hard pewter, called laps, which twenty-eight degrees with the face of the stone. are preferable to those with a oden face. The This is the angle which by careful observation last polish is given upon a cylinder faced with and measurement Mr. Stodart habitually uses for buff leather, to which crocus, or the red oxide the finest surgeons' instruments, and which he of iron, is applied with water. This last opera- considers as the best for razors, and other keen tion is attended with considerable danger of cutting tools. The angle of edge is therefore heating the work, and almost instantly reducing about fifty-six degrees. The excellence and its temper along the thrin edge, which at the uniformity of a tine edge may be ascertained, hy same time acquires the colors of oxidation. its mode of operation when lightly drawn along

The setting now remains to be performed, the surface of the skin, or leather, or any orwhich is a work of much delicacy and skill: so ganised soft substance. Lancets are tried by much so, indeed, that Mr. Stodart says, he can- suffering the point to drop gently through a piece not produce the most exquisite and perfect edge of thin soft leather. If the edge be exquisite, if interrupted by conversation, or even by it will not only pass with facility, but there will noises in the street. The tool is first whetted not be the least noise produced, any more than upon a hone with oil, by rubbing it backwards if it had dropped into water. This kind of edge and forwards. In all the processes of grinding cannot be produced, but by performing the last or wearing down the edge, but more especially two or more strokes on the green hone. The in the setting, the artist appears to prefer that operation of strapping is similar to that of grindstroke which leads the edge according to the ac- ing or whetting, and is performed by means of tion of cutting, instead of making the back run the angular particle of fine crocus, or other first along the stone: for if there be any lump material bedded in the face of the strap. It reor particle of stone or other substance lying quires less skill than the operation of setting, upon the face of the grinder, and the back of and is very apt, from the elasticity of the strap, the tool be first run over it, it will proceed be- to enlarge the angle of the edge or round it too zeath the edge and lift it up, at the same time much. The chief manufactories of cutlery in England, are at Sheffield and in London. At CU'TTLE. Ang.-Sax. cutele. A fish, which, the former by the local advantages of coal, &c. when pursued, darkens the water with an inky on the spot, and the greater division of labor, substance; a foul-mouthed fellow; a knife. cutlery in general is afforded at much lower

Away, you cutpurse rascal; you filthy bung, away : prices than in the metropolis, where the finer by this wine, I'll thrust my knife in your mouldy descriptions of this important manufacture are chaps, if you play the saucy cuttle with me. more attended to, and surgical instruments, in

Shakspeure. Henry IV. particular, are made witn the greatest skill.

It is somewhat strange, that the blood of all birds CUʻTLET, n. s.

Fr. cotelette. A steak; and beasts, and fishes, should be of a red colour, and strictly, it means a rib.

only the blood of the cuttle should be as black as ink. So mutton cutlets, prime of meat. Swift.

Bacon. CUTTACK, a considerable district of Orissa, He that uses many words for the explaining any Hindostan, situated between the twentieth and subject, doth, like the cuttle fish, hide himself for the twenty-second degrees of north latitude. It is most part in his own ink. Ray on the Creation. bounded on the north by Midnapoor and Mo- CUTTLE-FISH. See SEPIA. lurbunge; on the south by the Circars; on the CUTTS (John lord), was son of Richard east by the Bay of Bengal; and on the west by Cutts, esq. of Matching in Essex; where the sereral small states of the interior. Its length is family were settled about the time of Henry VI., about 150 miles, and breadth about sixty, con- and had a large estate. He entered early into taining a population of 1,200,000 souls. Between the service of the duke of Monmoutn, was aidGaintee and Bamori the country is richly pro- de-camp to the duke of Lorraine in Hungary, ductive, and is inhabited by weavers, who and signalised himself in a very extraordinary manufacture muslins in pieces for turbans. manner at the taking of Buda by the imperialists From Arickpoor to Cuttack the land is chiefly in 1686; which important place had been for arable, but interspersed with bushes, and not near a century and a half in the hands of the thoroughly cultivated. The Mahanuddy River, Turks. Returning to England at the Revolution, in passing through this country, often changes its he obtained a regiment of foot; was created name, according to the vicinity of different towns baron Gowran in Ireland, December 6th, 1690 ; and villages. It is also watered by other con appointed governor of the Isle of Wight, April siderable streams. The rents are chiefly paid in 14th, 1693; was made a major-general; and, cowries.

when the assassination project was discovered, The holy land of Juggernauth extends about 1695-6, was captain of the king's guard. He fifteen miles on each side of the temple of Jug- was colonel of the Coldstream gnards in 1701 ; gernauth, to the north and south. Its occupants when Mr. Steele, who was indebted to his have from time immemorial been exempt from interest for a military commission, inscribed to the taxes which Hindoos pay for access to the him his first work, The Christian Hero. On the temple, except during the ruth and dole jattries, accession of queen Aune, he was made a lieutewhen they also are liable to a small impost. nant-general of the forces in Ilolland; com

The chief towns are Cuttack, Juggernauth, mander in chief of the forces in Ireland, under Buddruck, and Balasore. This district is men- the duke of Ormond, March 23d, 1704-5; and tioned by the Mahommedan historians as early afterwards one of the lords justices of that kingas the year 1212, under the title of Jagepore, or doin. Ile died at Dublin January 26th, 1706-7, jeliazpore. It was then subject to a Hindoo and was buried there in the cathedral of Christ psince, who resided at Jagepore; it was subdued Church. He wrote a poem on the death of queen by and annexed to Bengal in the reign of Soly. Mary, and published, in 1687, Poetical Exercises, man Kerang, 1569. Thus it remained till the written upon several occasiors, and dedicated to year 1751, when it was ceded by the nuwah her royal highness Mary, princess of Orange. Alyverdy Khan to the Nagpore Mahrattas, who, One of his songs is quoted by Steele in his Tatin 1803, were again compelled to resign it to the ler; but his Muse Cavalier is erroneously victorious arms of the British, and it is now ascribed by Walpole to lord Peterborough. managed by a civil establishment of judge, CUT-WATER, the sharp part of the head of collector, &c.

a ship below the beak, so called because it cuts CUTTACK, the capital of the above district, or divides the water before it comes to the bow, called also Cuttack Benares, formerly Saringgur, that it may not come too suddenly to the breadth was once fortified, and a highly respectable town; of the ship, which would retard it. hul during the period it was governed by the CUT-WORK, n. s. Embroidered work. Mahrattas, it fell to decay. In the year 1592 it CUXHAVEN, a sea-port of Germany, in the withstood the Mogul arms for nearly a month, duchy of Bremen, situated on the left bank of and is naturally strong, but the climate is un- the Elbe, at its embouchure. The harbour, being healthy. It is at present the residence of the very large and commodious, is much frequented, gentlemen of the civil establishment, and has a and vessels generally take in pilots here, in order cantonment for a corps of native infantry. to ascend the river to Hamburgh. A yacht is

CUTTER, a small vessel, commonly navigated stationed out at sea, near the outermost buoy, in the channel of England. It is furnished with with pilots ready to conduct any vessel that may one mast, and rigged as a sloop. Many of these demand them. The town and bailiwic belong Vessels a.e used in an illicit trade, and others are to the corporation of Hamburgh, who have held employed by government to take them; the them ever since the fourteenth century. During later of which are either under the direction of the late revolutionary wars Cuxhaven became a iie admiralty, or custom-house.

place of great importance as an entrepôt of


British goods. On the fall of Hamburgh in mixed with the confused noise of drums, tabrets, 1806, it came into the possession of the French, bucklers, and spears. This was in commemoand remained under their domination above seven ration of the sorrow of Cybele for the loss of her years. When, at the close of the war, the French favorite Atys. The goddess was generally repredefended Hamburgh, Cuxhaven was the scene of sented as a robust woman, far advanced in some severe fighting. It is sixty miles north- pregnancy, to imitate the fecundity of the earth. west of Hamburgh, and the light-louse is in long. She beld' keys in her hand, and her head was 8° 43' 1" E., lat. 53° 52' 21" N.

crowned with rising turrets, or with leaves of CUYO, or Cuso, an extensive province of oak. She sometimes appears riding in a chariot, Peru, and a portion of the former vice-royalty of drawn by two tame lions : Atys follows by her Buenos Ayres, is bounded on the north by side, carrying a ball in his hand, and supporting Tucuman, on the east by the Pampas deserts, himself upon a fir-tree, which is sacred to the on the south by deserts, and on the west by the goddess. She is also represented with a sceptre Andes. It is mild in climate, and very fertile in her hand, and with many breasts, to show that in grain of all kinds, and pasturage: much wine the earth gives aliments to all living creatures ; and brandy are made, and immense herds of and she generally carries two lions under her cattle range the valleys.

From Phrygia the worship of Cybele CYATHUS, kvadóc, from xvelv, to pour out, passed into Greece, and was solemnly established was a common measure among the Greeks and at Eleusis under the name of the Eleusinian Romans, both of the liquid and dry kind. It mysteries of Ceres. The Romans, by order of was equal to an ounce, or the twelfth part of a the Sibylline books, brought the statue of the pint, and was made with a handle like our goddess from Pessinus into Italy; and when the punch-ladle. The Romans frequently drank as ship which carried it had run on a shallow bank many cyathi as there were muses, i. e. nine; or of ihe Tiber, the virtue of Claudia was said to as many as there were letters in their patron's have been vindicated, by removing it with her mame. The cyathus of the Greeks is said by girdle. It is supposed that the mysteries of Galen and others to have weighed ten drachms ; Cybele were first known about 257 years before elsewhere he says, that a cyathus contains twelve the Trojan war, or 1580 years before the Augusdrachms of oil, thirteen drachms and one scruple tan age. The Romans were particularly superof wine, water, or vinegar, and eighteen drachms stitious in washing, every year on the 6th of the of honey. Among the Veterinarii, the cyathus kalends of April, the shrine of this goddess in contained two ounces.

the waters of the river Almon. Many obsceniCYAXARES I., son of Phraortes, king of ties prevailed in the observation of the festivals ; Media and Persia. He bravely defended his and the priests themselves were the most eager kingdom against the Scythians; made war to use indecent expressions, and to show their against Alyattes, king of Lydia; and subjected unbounded licentiousness. to his power all Asia, beyond the river Halys. CYBELICUM Marmor, a name given by Ile died after a reign of forty years, in the year the ancients to a species of marble dug in the of Rome 160.

mountain Cybele. It was of an extremely bright CYAXARES II. is supposed by Dr. Prideaux white, with broad veins of bluish-black. and others to be the same as Darius the Mede, CYCAS, in botany, a genus of plants of the the son of Astyages, king of Media. He added monæcia class, and polygamia order. The fruit seven provinces to his father's dominions, and is a dry plum, with a bivalved kernel. There made war against the Assyrians, who Cyrus is but one species described by Linnæus, viz. favored.

the circinalis; but professor Thunberg mentions CYBELE, in Pagan mythology, the daughter another, viz. 1. C. caffra, broad broom, or bread of Cælius and Terra, wife of Saturn, and mother tree of the Hottentots. This plant, discovered of Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, &c. She is also by professor Thunberg, is described in the Nova colled Rhea, Ops, Vesta, Bona Mater, Magna Acta Reg. Soc. Scient. Ups. vol. ii. p. 283, tab. Mater, Berecynthia, Dindymene, &c., and by V. The pith, or medulla, which abounds in the some is reckoned the same with Ceres : but most trunk of this little palm, Mr. Sparrman informs mythologists make these two distinct goddesses. us, is collected, and tied up in dressed calfor According to Diodorus, she was the daughter of sheep skins, an then buried in the earth for the a Lydian prince, and, as soon as she was born, space of several weeks, till it becomes sufficiently she was exposed on a mountain. She was pre- mellow and tender to be kneaded up with water served by sucking some of the wild beasts of the into a paste, of which they afterwards make forest, and received the name of Cybele from the small loaves or cakes, and bake them under the inountain where her life had been preserved. ashes. 2. C. circinalis, or sago-tree, which When she returned to her father's court, she had grows spontaneously in the East Indies, and an intrigue with Atys, a beautiful youth, whom particularly on the coast of Malabar. It runs her father mutilated, &c. Most of the mytholo- up with a straight trunk to upwards of forty feet gists mention the amours of Atys and Cybele. in beight, having many circles the whole length, In Phrygia the festivals of Cyhele were observed occasioned by the old leaves falling off'; for with the greatest solemnity. Her priests, called standing in a circular order round the stem, and Corybantes, Curetes, Galli, &c., it is said were embracing it with their base, whenever they drop, not admitted to the service of the goddess without they leave the marks of their adhesion. The leaves a previous inutilation. In the celebration of the are pinnated, and grow to the length of seven or festivals, they imitated the manners of madmen, eight feet. The pinnæ or lobes are long, narrow, and find the air with shrieks and bowlings, entire, of a shining green, all the way of a


breadth, lance-shaped at the point, closely orbs ; a circle in the heavens. Cyclometry is the crowded together, and stand at right angles on art of measuring cycles. each side the mid-rib, like the teeth of a coinb.

How build, unbuild, contrive The flowers are produced in long bunches at the To save appearances; how gird the sphere foot-stalks of the leaves, and are succeeded by With centrick, and excentrick, scribbled o'er oval fruit, about the size of large plums, of a red Cycle and epicycle, orb in orb!

Milton. color when ripe, and a sweet flavor. Each con- We do more commonly use these words, so as to tains a hard brown nut, enclosing a white meat style a lesser space a cycle, and a greater by the name which tastes like a chestnut. This is a valuable of period; and you may not improperly call the betree to the inhabitants of India, as it not only ginning of a large period the epocha thereof.

Bilder on Time. furnishes a considerable part of their constint bread, but also supplies them with a large article

We thought we should not attempt an unacceptable of trade. See Saco.

work, if here we endeavoured to present our garCYCEON, from evrativ, to mix, a name given deners with a complete cycle of what is requisite to be

done throughout every month of the by the ancient poets and physicians to a mixture

Evelyn's Kalendar. of meal and water, and sometimes of other ingre

Chained to one centre whirled the kindred spheres, dients. These constituted the two kinds of And marked with lunar cycles solar years. Darwin. cyceon; the coarser being of the water and meal the richer and more delicate composed of Joseph Scaliger's cyclometry.

I must tell you that Sir H. Savile had confuted alone;

Wallis. wine, honey, four, water, and cheese. Homer,

CYCLE OF Easter. See CHRONOLOGY. in the 11th Niad, speaks of cyceon made with cheese, and the meal of barley mixed with wine, is called also the golden number, and the Metonic

CYCLE OP THE Moox. See CuroNOLOGY. It but without any mention either of honey or water; and Ovid, describing the draught of cyceon the time of the council of Nice, when the method

cycle, from its inventor Meton the Athenian. At given by the old woman of Athens to Ceres, of finding the time for observing the feast of mentions only flour and water. Dioscorides understood the word in both these senses; but Easter was established, the numbers of the lunar extolled it most in the coarse and simple kind: cycle were inserted in the kalendar, which, upou

the account of their use, were set in golden lethe says, when prepared with water alone, it refrigerates and nourishes greatly.

ters, and the year of the cycle called the golden CYCINNIS, a Grecian dance, so called from number of that year.

Cycle of the Sun. See ChronOLOGY. its supposed inventor, one of the satyrs belonging to Bacchus. It consisted of a combination of form of a half moon, used in scraping the scull,

CYCLISUS, in surgery, an instrument in the grave and gay movements.

in cases of fractures of that part. CYCLADES, in ancient geography, islands so called, as Pliny informs us, from the Cyclus

CYCLOID, n. s. 2 Kukloriens. A geomeor orb in which they lie; beginning from the

Cyclo'idal, adj. Strical curve, of which the promontory Geraestim of Eubea, and lying genesis may be conceived by imagining a nail in round the island Delos. Their situation and the circumference of a wheel: the line which the number is not so generally agreed upon. Strabo nail describes in the air, while the wheel revolves says, they were first reckoned twelve, but that in a right line, is the cycloid. Relating to a many others were added : yet most of them lie cycloid; as the cycloidal space is the space to the south of Delos, and but few to the north, contained between the cycloid and its substance. so that the middle or centre, ascribed to Delos, A man may frame to himself the notion of a parais to be taken in a loose, not in a geometrical bola, or a cycloid, from the mathematical definition of sense. Strabo recites them, after Artemidorus, as

those figures.

Reid. follows: Helena, Ceos, Cynthus, Seriphus, Melos, Cycloid, or Trochoid, a mechanical or Siphnus, Cimolus, Prepesinthus, Olearus, Naxos, transcendental curve, which is thus generated : Paros, Syrus, Myconos, Tenos, Andros, Gyarus; Suppose a circle F E II to roll along the straight but he excludes from the number, Prepesinthus, line A B, so that all the parts of its circumference Olearus, and Gyarus.

be applied to the straight line in succession; the CYCLADES, GREAT. See HEBRIDES, New. point E, that was in contact with A B at A, will,

CYCLAMEN, sowbread, a genus of the by a motion thus compounded of a circular and monogynia order, and pentandria class of plants: rectilineal motion, describe a certain curve line natural order twenty-first, preciæ. cor. verticil. A, to ED B, which is called a cycloid. The lated, with the tube very short, and the throat straight line A B is called the base, and the line prominent: the BERRY is covered with the cap- CD perpendicular to A B, bisecting it at C, and sule. There are but two species, which, however, meeting the curve in I), is called the axis of the produce many beautiful varieties. They are low, cycloid. The circle by whose revolution the herbaceous, flowery perennials, of the tuberous curve is described is called the generating circle. rooted kind, with numerous, angular, heart- The following are some of the most remarkable shaped, spotted, marbled leaves; and many fleshy properties of this curve.-1. The base A B is fooi-stalks six inches high, carrying monopetalous, equal to the circumference of the generating circle. five-parted, reflexed flowers, of various colors. 2. The axis CD is equal to the diameter of the CYCLE, n. s.

Lat. cyclus ; Rokdoç. generating circle. These two properties are obCyclu'METRY, n. S. | A circle ; a round vious from the definition of the curve. 3. Let of time; a space in which the same revolutions the generating circle CKD be described on the begin again; a method, or account of a method axis ( D as a diameter, and let GKE perwill the same course begins again ; imaginary pendicular to the axis, meeting the circle in h,

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