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of men.

such an instrument; an incised wound; an arti- My lady Zelmane and my daughter Mopsa may ficial channel; a part cut off from the rest; a draw cuts, and the shortest cut speak first. Sidney. small particle; a lot made by cutting into un- Why should a man, whose blood is warm within, equal portions, a stick, straw, or bit of paper, Sit like his grandsire cut in alabaster? Shakspeare. which portions are held between the finger and

Ah, cut my lace asunder, thumb, while another draws the lot; a near That my great heart may have some scope to bear, passage, which saves distance, by cutting off an Or else I swoon with this dead killing news. angle; an impression taken from an engraving

Id. Richard III. on wood or copper; the plate on which the draw

He that cuts off 'wenty years of life, ing is engraved ; the dividing of a pack of cards; Cuts off so many years of fearing death. anciently, a fcol or cully; a gelding. Cut and

Id. Julius Cæsar. long tail is a proverbial expression for all kinds

By the pattern of mine own thoughts I cut out the The participial adjective, cut, signifies purity of his.

Id. Winter's Tale. prepared for use, in which case it is joined with

To have an open ear, a quick eye, and a nimble dry; rather the worse for liquor; burt in the hand, is necessary for a cutpurse.

Id. feeling. Cut and come again is a trivial ex

Send her money, knight, if thou hast her not in pression, denoting that there is an abundance, the end, call me cut. Id. Twelfth Night. Cutter is the agent that cuts any thing; a small swift-going vessel; the incisores, or cutting teeth; That, sure, they've worn out Christendom.

Their clothes are after such a Pagan cut too, an officer in the exchequer; a ruffian. Cutter

Id. Henry VIII. off means a destroyer. Cutting is, a piece cut

A paultry ring off; an incision; a caper, but this is obsolete ;

That she did give, whose poesy was division, as of a pack of cards. Cut-purse is a For all the world like cutler s poetry thief; cut-throat a murderer; a butcher of

Upon a knife : love me, and leave me not. men; the animal which is sometimes miscalled

Shukspeare. a hero. For Cutlery, see the article.

At quintin he, And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and

In honour of this bridaltec, cut it into wires.

E.rod. xxxix. 3.

Hath challenged either wide countee :
And they caught him, and cut off his thumbs.

Come cut and long tail ; for there be
Jud. i. 6.
Six bachelors as bold as he.

Ben Jonson. Underwood. Thy servants can skill to cut timber in Lebanon.

2 Chron. ii. Nor can good Myfon wear on his left hand Who cvt up mallows by the bushes and juniper

A signet ring of Bristol diamond, roots for their meat.

Job xxx. 4.

But he must cut his glove to shew his pride,

That his trim jewel might be better spyd. Hall. A bowe in honde and arowis had she, Her clothis cuttid were unto the kne.

The king of this island, a wise man and a great Chaucer. The Legende of Dido.

warrior, handled the matter so, as he cut off their land forces from their ships.

Bacon. Right as a sword forcutteth and forkerveth An arme atwo, my dere son! right so

It is no grace to a judge to shew quickness of conA tonge cutteth friendship all atwo.

ceit in cutting off evidence or coursel too short. Id. Id. Cant. Tales. I, for iny part, do not like images cut out in juniper,

Id. Now draweth cutte or that ye forther twinne;

or other garden-stuff: they be for children. He which that hath the shortest shal beginne.

The burning of the cuttings of vines, and casting Id. Prol. Cant. Tales. them upon land, doth much good.

Id. The cotelere dwellith in this town that made the

All the timber whereof was cut down in the mounsame kuyff, tains of Cilicia.

Knolles. And for to prove the trowith he shall be here as

This great cut or ditch Sesostris the rich king of blyve.

Id. Cant. Tales.

Egypt, and long after him Ptolemus Philadelphus, Either with nimble wings to cut the skies,

purposed to have made a great deal wider and deeper, When he them on his messages doth send,

and thereby to have let the Red Sea into the MediOr on his own dred presence to attend.

terranean.

Id. Spenser. Hymn on Hearenly Love

Will you then suffer these robbers, cut-throats, base But that same squire to whom she was more dere people, gathered out of all the corners of Christendom, Whenas he saw she should be cut in twaine,

to waste your countries, spoil your cities, murder your Did yield she rather should with him remaine people, and trouble all your seas?

Id. Alive then to himself be shared dead.

Id. Faerie Queene.

If to take above fifty in the hundred be extremity,

this in truth can be none other than cut-throat and Eftsoones her shallow ship away did slide

abominable dealing. Carew's Survey of Cornwall. More swift than swallow sheres the liquid skye, Withouten oare or pilot it to guide,

In this form, according to his description, he is set Or winged canvas with the wind to fly :

forth in the urints or cuts of martyrs by Cevallerius.

Browne. Only she turnd a pin, and by and by It cut away upon the yielding wave.

Id.

There is some help for all the defects of fortune ; All Spain was first conquered by the Romans, and for if a man cannot attain to the length of his wishes, filled with colonies from them, which were still in- he may have his remedy by cuttiny of them shorter. creased, and the native Spaniards still cut off:

Cowley. On Ireland.

Presume not on thy God, whoe'er he be. It hath a number of short cuts or shreddings, which Thee he regards not, owns not, hath cut off may be better called wishes than prayers. Hooker. Quite from his people. Milton's Agonistes.

Id.

excuse.

nan.

His tawny beard was th' equal grace

Before the whistling winds the vessels fiy,
Both of his wisdom and his face;

With rapid swiftness cut the liquid way,
In cut and dye so like a tile,

And reach Gerestus at the point of day.
A sudden view it would beguile. Hudibras.

Id. Odyssey. To cut off all further mediation and interposition, When the teeth are ready to cut, the upper part is the king conjured him to give over all thoughts of bbed with hard substances, which infants, by a aa

Clarendon.
tural instinct, affect.

Arbuthnot. He chose no other instrument than an ordinary

The antiquaries being but indifferent taylors, they knife, which he bought of a common cutler. Id.

wrangle prodigiously about the cutting out the toga. A man may have the stone, and it may be useful,

Id. on Coins. more than indirectly and at a distance useful, to him

How can the muse her aid impart, to be out; but yet this usefulness will not justify the Unskilled in all the terms of art? most skilful surgeon in the world, by force to make

Or in harmonious numbers put him endure the pain and hazard of cutting; because

The deal, the shuffle, and the cut. Swift. he has no commission, no right, without the patient's own consent, lo do so.

Locke.

Sets of phrases, cut and dry, This doctrine cuts up all government by the roots.

Evermore the tongue supply.

Id. Id. If we could imagine a whole nation to be cut-purses A man may as reasonably draw culs for his tenets, and robbers, would there then be kept that square and regulate his persuasion by the cast of die. Id.

dealing and equity in such a monstrous den of thieves? The ignorant took heart to enter upon this great

Bentley's Sermons. calling, and instead of their cutting their way to it

Sharp weapons, according to the force, cut into the through the knowledge of the tongues, the fathers,

bone many ways; which cuts are called sedes, and and councils, they have taken another and a shorter

are reckoned among the fractures. South.

Wiseman's Surgery. The boar's intemperance, and the note upon him

Suppose a board to be ten foot long, and one broad, afterwards, on the cutting him up, that he had no

one cut is reckoned so many foot. brains in his head, may be moralized into a sensual

Mortimer's Husbandry. L'Estrange.

From tne marrowless bones of these skeleton estaThe molares, or grinders, are behind, nearest the centre of motion, because there is a greater strength blishments, by the use of every sort of cutting, and of or force required to chew the meat than to bite a

every sort of fretting tool, he flatters himself that he piece; and the cutters before, that they may be ready diet into some similitude of health and substance the

may chip and rasp an empirical alimentary powder, to to cut off a morsel from any solid food, to be transmitted to the grinders. Ray on the Creation.

languishing chimeras of fraudulent reformation.

Burke, And when two hearts were joined by mutual love, The sword of justice cuts upon the knot,

I am a son of Mars, who have been in many wars, And severs 'em for ever. Dryden's Spanish Friar.

And show my cuts and scars wherever I come;

This here was for a wench, and that other in a trench, Thus much he spoke, and more he would have said, When welcoming the French at the sound of the drum. Kut the stern bcro urged aside his bead,

Burns. and cut him short.

Id, Eneid. The ruffian robbers by no justice aw'd,

He says you and your cut-throats have a plot upon

his life, and swears he had rather see his daughter And unpaid cut-throat soldiers are abroad;

in a scarlst fever than in the arms of a soldier. Those venial souls, who, hardened in each ill,

Sheridan. To save complaints and prosecution, kill.

Id. Juvenal. Her first thought was to cut off Juan's head; You know I am not cut out for writing a treatise, Her second, to cut only his-acquaintance; por have a genius to pen any thing exactly. Rymer.

Her third, to ask him where he had been bred ;

Her fourth, to rally him into repentance.
Supine they in their heaven remain,

Byron. Don Juan.
Exempt from passion and from pain;
And frankly leave us, human elves,

Two casks of biscuit, and a keg of butter To cut and shuffle for ourselves.

Prior. Were all that could be thrown into the cutter. Id. The man was cut to the heart with these consola

Cutting is particularly used in heraldry, tions.

Addison.
It may compose our unnatural feuds, and cut of from right to left

, parallel to the horizon, or in

where the shield is divided into two equal parts, sequent occasions of brutal rage and intemperance.

Id. the fesse way. The word is also applied to the Every man had cut out a place for himself in his honorable ordinaries, and even to animals and own thoughts : I could reckon up in our army two or moveables, when they are divided equally the three lord-treasurers.

Id. same way; so however, as that one moiety is A third desires you to observe well the toga on color, the other metal. The ordinaries are said such a reverse, and asks you whether you can in con- to be cut, couped, when they do not come full science believe the slceve of it to be of the true Roman to the extremities of the shield.

Id. Cutting, in painting, the laying one strong So great is his natural eloquence, that he cuts down lively color over another, without any shade or the nnest orator, and destroys the best conírived argu- softening. The cutting of colors has always a ment, as soon as ever he gets himself to be heard. disagreeable effect.

Id. Count Turijf Cutting, in surgery, denotes the operation of I am cut out from any thing but common acknow- extracting the stone out of the bladder by the ledgements, or common discourse Pope. knife. See LITHOTOMY.

Cuttino, in the manege, is when the horse's by the Gillysinde river. The chief towns are feet interfere; or when with the shoe of one foot Dewagur and Soonel. he beats off the skin from the pastern joints of CUTH, signifies knowledge or skill. So another foot. This is more frequent in the hind Cuthwin is a knowing conqueror; Cuthred, a feet than the fore: the cause is commonly bad knowing counsellor; Cuthbert, famous for skill. shoeing.

Much of the same nature are Sophocles and CUTTING IN Wood is a particular kind of Sophianus. sculpture or engraving; the invention of which, Cuth, or Cutuan, a province of Assyria, on as well as that in copper, is ascribed to a gold- the Araxes, the same with Cush; but others take smith of Florence : but it is to Albert Durer and it to be the country which the Greeks called Lucas they are both indebted for their perfection. Susiana, and which to this day, says Dr. Wells, See Engraving and Printing. Hugo da Carpi is by the inhabitants called Chusistan. Calmnet invented a manner of cutting in wood, by means is of opinion that Cuthah and Scythia are the of which the prints appeared as if painted in same place, and that the Cuthites who were clair-obscure.

removed into Samaria by Salmaneser (2 Kings Cuttings, or slips, in gardening, the branches xvii. 24), came from Cush or Cuth, mentioned in or sprigs of trees or plants, cut or slipped off to Gen. ii. 13. They worshipped the idol Nergal, set again ; which is done in any moist fine id. ibid. 30. He adds that they came from Cush, earth. The best season is from August to April; or Cutha upon the Araxes; and that their first but care is to be taken, when it is done, that the settlement was in the cities of the Medes, subsap he not too much in the top, lest the cut die dued by Salmaneser and the kings of Syria, bis before that part in the earth have root enough predecessors. The Scriptures inform us, that the to support it: nor must it be 100 dry or scanty; Cuthites, upon their arrival in this new country, the sap in the branches assisting it to take root. continued to worship the gods formerly adored In providing the cuttings, snch branches as have by them beyond the Euphrates. Esarhaddon, joints, knots, or burrs, are to be cut off two or king of Assyria, who succeeded Sennacherib, three inches beneath them, and the leaves to be appointed an Israelitish priest to go thither, and stripped off so far as they are set in the earth. instruct them in the religion of the Hebrews. Smail top branches, of two or three years' But these people thought they might reconcile growth, are fittest for this operation.

their old superstition with the worship of the CUTCI, an extensive province of the south- true God. They therefore framed particular gods western part of Hindostan, situated principally for themselves, which they placed in the several between the twenty-third and twenty-fourth de- cities where they dwelt. But afterwards they grees of north latitude. It is bounded to the gave up idolatry, and adhered solely to the law north by a sandy desert and the province of of Moses. The Samaritans were their descendSindy; to the south by the gulf of Cutch; to ants. the east by Gujrat, and to the west by Tatta, from which it is separated by the most eastern branch

CUTICLE, n. s. Lat. cuticula. The outof the Indus. Its limits northward are not ac

Cuti'cular, adj. ward skin of the body; a

CUTA’Neous, adj. S thin skin formed on the curately defined, but it may be estimated at 110 miles in length, by seventy the average breadth. surface of any liquor. Belonging or relating to

the skin. The greater part of the province is composed of woods and uncultivated plains; where a number

This serous, nutritious mass is more readily circuof very fine horses are bred, superior camels, lated into the cutaneous or remotest parts of the body. and black cattle. Other parts produce grain and

Floyer on Humours. cotton. It is chiefly possessed by various independent chiefs, who are often connected with the When ang saline liquor is evaporated to cuticle and pirates of the coast: the inhabitants are princi- let cool, the salt concretes in regular figures, which pally Mahommedans. The chief towns are Boo- creted, floated in the liquor at equal distances in rank

argues that the particles of the salt, before they con. jehooje, Luckput, Bundar, and Mandavie.

and file.

Newton's Opticks. Curcu GONDAVA, district of Baloochistan, in Persia, situated at the bottom of the Some sorts of cutaneous eruptions are occasioned by mountains south-east of Kelat, and about 150 feeding much on acid unripe fruits and farinaceous miles in length, by forty-five in breadth. The substances.

Arbuthnot. soil is black and rich, growing every species of

In each of the very fingers there are bones and grain, together with cotton, madder, and indigo. gristles, and ligaments and membranes, and muscles, The rains are in June, July, August, and in the and tendons, and nerves and arteries, and veins and spring months, during the summer, the simoom, skin, and cuticle and nail. Bentley's Sermons. or pestilential wind, is frequent and very destructive. The climate is otherwise good, and Where the spontaneous adhesive electric atmothe soil excellent, producing a large revenue to spheres are employed to charge plates of air, as in the the khan of kelat. Great quantities of grain membranes or cuticles, as perhaps in the shock given

Galvanic pile, or probably to charge their animal are exported to the sea-ports of Corachie and Sonmeany. To the northward of Cutch Gunda- by the torpedo or gymnotus, it seeins necessary that

the in.ervening non-conducting plate nust be exva lies Anund Dijil.

tremely thin.

Darwin. CUTCHWARĀ, a district in the province of Malwah, Hindostan, situated about the twenty- Those parts of our system which are in health exfifth degree of north latitude, and mostly tribu- cited into perpetual action, give us pain when they tary to the Malwah Mahrattas. It is intersected are not excited into action : thus, when the hands are

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for a time immersed in snow, an inaction of the cuta- the wave or water being given to them by sul neous capillaries is induced, as is seen from the pale. phate of alumina applied to the final surface. ness of the skin, which is attended with the pain of Other accounts state them to be hardened by coldness,

Id.

repeated immersions, when red-hot, in goat's CUTICLE. See ANATOMY.

blood. But the real process has never been CURTLASS, 1. s. Fr. coutelas. This word is accurately known in this country ; and it is not written sometimes cutlace, sometimes cuttleax; improbable, that the iron ore of Syria may posiu Shakspeare, curtleax; and in Pope, cutlash. sess some peculiarity which is the foundation of A broad cutting sword: the word is much in this excellence in its manufactured steel. use among the seamen.

Such a conjecture has been offered by Mr. Were 't not better

Stodart, with regard to the ores out of which That I did suit me all points like a man? the wootz of India is formed. For the introA gallant curtlear upon my thigh,

duction of it into this country, we are indebted A boar spear in hand ?

to the late distinguished naturalist, Sir Joseph Shakspeare. As You Like It.

Banks, who first procured a pen-knife to be Mores, in his curious dissertation on letter founders, made from a cake of it, in the year above-mencalls a cutlass, as it seems, a courtlelasse, among the tioned. The forging was attended with some antique typographic ornaments.

Warton.

difficulty, owing to the unequal fusion of the CUTLER (Sir John), bart. and citizen of metal, some parts being overcharged with the London, was a great benefactor to the grocers' steely principle, and others being as much deficompany, and contributed largely to the rebuild- cient in it." But the pen-knife made was exceling of the college of physicians in Warwick-lane. lent. The Indian method of making wootz has After his death, however, in 1699, his executors been described as follows: forged iron, in pieces, claimed the sum which he had advanced, with inte- is enclosed in a crucible, and heated in a furnace rest, amounting in all to £7000. They finally com- with wood. Two or three pairs of bellows are promised the claim for £2000. Pope commemo- employed to augment the heat, until the wood is rates this circumstance in some well-known completely charred, and the iron fused and converses; describing our baronet as a perfect miser. verted into steel. The chief peculiarity of the It appears, however, that he liberally subscribed process seems to be the use of 'uncharred wood. to many charities, and built at his own charge the A variety of cutting instruments have been manorth gallery of his parish-church, St. Margaret's, nufactured froin this steel with great success. Westminster. He had two daughters, who were Those articles of cutlery which do not require respectively married to John, earl of Radnor, and a fine polish, and are of low price, are made Sir William Portman, bart. His funeral it is said from what is called blistered steel, or that which cost the sum of £7666.

has not undergone fusion. See our article STEEL. CUTLERS, COMPANY OF. This

Those which require the edge to possess consicompany was incorporated in

derable tenacity, but in which superior hardness 1413 by Henry V.; their arms

is not required, are made from sheer steel. The are gules, six daggers in three

finer kinds of cutlery are made from steel which crosses saltire argent, handled

has been in a state of fusion, and which is termed and bilted or ; the crest an ele

cast-steel, no other kinds being susceptible of a phant with a castle.

fine polish. Table-knives are mostly made of CUTLERY, in connection with the mecha- sheer-steel, the tang and shoulder being of iron, nical arts, will embrace all kinds of edged and and the blade being attached, by giving them a sharp tools, of iron or steel, and the modes of welding heat. The knives, after forging, are their manufacture.

hardened, by heating them red-hot, and plunging It might be expected, that in no department them into water; they are afterwards heated over of the arts of a country, would the progress of the fire, till they become blue, and then ground. civilisation be more distinctly marked, than in Forks are made, almost altogether, by the aid of the degree of excellence attained in this manu- the stamp and appropriate dies. The prongs facture. A knife will purchase half the lands of only are hardened and tempered. Razors are a village from a barbarous tribe ; and Great Bri- made of cast-steel, the edge of a razor requiring tain has well sustained her superiority among the combined advantages of great hardness and civilised nations in the general quality of her tenacity. After the razor-blade is forged into its cutlery goods.

proper shape, by the aid of a convex-faced Bui in other, and far less civilised countries, a hammer and anvil, it is hardened, by gradually superior steel has been manufactured for ages. heating it to a bright red heat, and plunging it It is a little remarkable, that none of our modern into cold water. It is tempered by heating it discoveries in chemistry have enabled us to imi- afterwards until a brightened part appears of a tate, successfully, the sword and sabre blades of straw color. This would be more equally efDamascus; and that, within a very few years, in fected by the use of sand, or, what is still better, 1795, we believe, a new kind of foreign steel, by hot oil, or a fusible mixture, consisting of the wootz of India, has been introduced into eight parts of bismuth, five of lead, and three of this country, and been found superior to any tin; a thermometer being placed in the liquid at thing manufactured here for the blades of pen- the time the razors are immersed, for the purpose knives.

of indicating the proper temperature, which is The Damascene blades are supposed, by Euro- about 500° of Fahrenheit

. After the razor has pean cuilers, to be constructed of fine iron and been ground into its proper shape, it is finished steel-wire welded together in alternate layers ; by polishing.

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The glazer, used in polishing, is formed of lisher, and the brush; the last being used to wood, faced with an alloy of lead and tin; after polish those parts which have been filed, and its face is turned to the proper form and size, it which the lap and the polisher cannot touch. is filled with notches, which are filled up with Previous to screwing the scissars finally together, emery and tallow. This instrument gives the they are rubbed over with the powder of quickrazor a smooth and uniform surface and a fine lime, and afterwards cleaned with soft sheep edge. The polisher consists of a piece of cir- leather. The quick-lime absorbs the moisture cular wood, running upon an axis, like that of from the surface. Scissars are ornamented by the stone or the glazer. It is coated with leather, bluing and gilding; also with studs of gold or having its surface covered with crocus martis. polished steel. Very large scissars are manuThe handles of razors and knives are made of factured partly of iron and partly of steel; the ivory and tortoise-shell, bone, or other materials, shanks and bows being of the former. These, directed by fashion, or the use for which they are as well as those all of steel, which are not designed. The horn of razor-handles is com- hardened all over, cannot be polished : an inmonly cut into pieces, and placed between two ferior sort of lustre, however, is given to them dies, having a recess of the shape of the handle. by means of a burnish of hardened polished By this process it admits of considerable exten- steel, which is very easily distinguished from the sion, and is dyed black by means of logwood real polish, by the irregularity of the surface. and green vitriol. The clear horn-handles are having entered into these particulars, relating to sometimes stained, so as to imitate tortoise-shell, the manufacture of the usual articles found in by being coated with a composition of three cutlers' shops, we shall now enter upon some of parts of potash, one of minium, ten of quick- the more general principles that are applicable lime, and as much water as will reduce the to the finer articles of cutlery. whole into a pulpy mass. Those parts of the Cutlers do not use any coating to their work handle requiring darker shades are more thickly at the hardening heat, as the file-cutters do; incovered, and the stains are dried in before the deed, it seems evidently unnecessary when the fire.

article is intended to be tempered and ground. The manufacture of pen-knives is divided The best rule is to harden as little as possible into three departments; the first is the forging above the state intended to be produced by temof the blades, the spring, and the iron scales; pering. Work which has been overheated has a the second, the grinding and polishing of the crumbly edge, and will not afford the wire hereblades; and the third, the handling, which con- after to be described. The proper heat is a sists in fitting up all the parts, and finishing the cherry-red, visible hy day-lighi. No advantage knife. The blades are made of the best cast- is obtained from the use of salt in the water, or steel, and hardened and tempered to about the cooling that fluid, or from using mercury instead same degree with that of razors. In grinding of water; but it may be remarked, that questions they are made a little more concave on one side respecting the fluid arc, properly speaking, apthan the other, in other respects they are treated plicable only to files, gravers, and such tools in a similar way to razors.

The handles are as are intended to be left at the extreme of covered with horn, ivory, and sometimes wood; hardness. but the most durable are those of stags-horn. While Mr. Stodart does not seem to attach The general fault in pen-knives is that of being much value to peculiarities in the process of too soft

. The temper ought to be not higher hardening, he mentions it as the observation of than a straw color, as it seldom happens that one of his best workmen, that the charcoal fire a pen-knife is so hard as to snap on the edge. should be made up with shavings of leather :

The beauty and elegance of polished steel is and that he never had a razor crack in the hardnever displayed to more advantage than in the ening since he had used this method. It appears manufacture of the finer kinds of scissars. The from a consideration of other facts, that this steel employed for this purpose should be of the process is likely to prove advantageous. When choicest description; it must possess hardness brittle substances crack in cooling, it arises from and uniformity of texture for the sake of securing the outside contracting and becoming too small a fine polish, and great tenacity, when hot, for to contain the interior parts. But it is known, the purpose of forming the bow or ring of the that hard steel occupies more space than soft, scissar, which requires to be extended from a and it may be easily inferred, that the nearer the solid piece, having a hole previously punched steel approaches to the state of iron, the less will through it. It ought also to be very tenacious be this increase of dimensions. If, then, we when cold, to allow that delicacy of form ob- suppose a razor, or any other piece of steel, to served in ladies' scissars. After they are forged be heated in an open fire with a current of air as near to the same size as the eye of the work- passing through it, the external part will, by the man can ascertain, they are paired. The bows loss of carbon, become less steely than before ; and some other parts are filed to their intended and when the whole piece comes to be hardened, form: the blades are also roughly ground, and the inside will be too large for the external part, the two sides properly adjusted to each other, which will probably crack. But if the piece of after being bound together with wire, and hard- steel be wrapped up in the cementing mixture, or ened up to the bows. They are afterwards if the fire itself contain animal coal, and is put heated till they become of a purple color, which together so as to operate in the manner of that indicates their proper temper. Almost all the mixture, the external surface, instead of being remaining part of the work is performed at the degraded by this heat, will be more carbonated grinding mill, with the stone, the lap, the po- than the interval part, in consequence of which

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