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arc DK: therefore E is a point in the cycloid ABD. 7. Let D V be drawn parallel to AC,
and EV perpendicular to DV, the area contained R
by the straight lines EV, VD, and ED, the arc
that is Gg: Vv:: EV;GK, therefore the rectangle GK Gg=rectangle E V.V v, that is, the contemporaneous increments
of the circular area Dkg and cycloidal area Dve ILL
are equal, therefore the circular area DKG is and the cycloid in E. The straight line EG is contained by the base A B and the arc of the
equal to the cycloidal area DVE. Cor. The area equal to the sum of the circular arc DK, and its cycloid AD B is equal to three times the area of sine KG. Let the generating circle F EH pass the generating circle. For complete the rectangle through E and touch the base A B at F; join DCAY, and the space D E AY is equal to the semiEF and KC, and draw the diameter FH. The circle DKC, therefore the rectangle DYAC is chords FE and CK are evidently equal and equal to the cycloidal area DEAC together with the parallel, therefore F C=EK; now AC=semi- semicircle DKC; but the rectangle DYAC is circumference FEH, and AF=arc F E which contained hy DC the diameter of the circle and has quitted it, therefore FC=arc EH, or EK= AC which is half its circumference, it is therefore arc D K, and EG=arc DK+sine KG. 4. If four times the area of the semicircle, therefore EH be drawn touching the cycloid at E, it is three times the area of the semicircle is equal parallel to K D the chord of the generating circle. to the cycloidal area DEAC. See farther reDrawe kg parallel and indefinitely near to EKG, lating to the cycloid under Mechanics. meeting the chord KD in n. Draw KL, DL, touching the generating circle. The triangles
CYCLOPÆDIA, or / Kuklos, a circle, and KLD, Kkn are similar, and KL-LD, there
CYCLOPE'DE, n. s. 5 παιδεία. A circle of fore Kk=kn; now arc DK=EK, and arc
knowledge; a course of the sciences. Dk=ek, therefore K k, or kn=EK-ek, and, The tedious and unedifying commentaries on Peter adding ek to each of these equals, EK=en, Lombard's scholastic cyclopede of divinity." Warton. therefore the indefinitely small part of the cycloidal arc Ee, which coincides with the tan- in modern times,
has been appropriated, from the
CYCLOPÆDIA, or ENCYCLOPÆDIA, a term which, gent, is parallel to K n, therefore the tangent EH is parallel to the chord K D. 5. The are DE of Greek, to express those useful and superior the cycloid is equal to twice the chord D K of the Dictionaries of Science and Literature, of which generating circle. Join Dk and draw ko per- the term Encyclopædia, which is the more
we hope to furnish a favorable specimen. Under pendicular to Kn, then Ko is the indefinitely small increment of the chord k D, and Kk has common, we shall give some account of the been proved equal to kn (4), therefore Kn is principal works of this kind which have appeared bisected in o; but Kn=Ee (4) therefore Ee the
in our language. increment of the cycloidal arc De is always dou- CYCLOPE'AN, adj. ? From the Cyclops. ble Ko the corresponding increment of the chord CYCLO'PICK, adj. ŠVast; inspiring terror; Dk, therefore the whole arc D E must be double furious; savage. the chord DK. Corollary. The whole cycloid ADB is equal to four times the axis CD, or
The cyclopean furnace of all wicked fashions, the
heart. four times the diameter of the generating circle.
Bishop Hall. 6. If CD is produced to M, so that C M=CD,
Cyclopick monsters, who daily seem to fight against heaven.
Bishop Taylor. and if the half of the cycloid B D be placed in the position AM, and the other half A D in the CYCLOPS, in fabulous bistory, the sons of position M B, then, if a thread MQE=MQA Neptune and Amphitrite : the principal of whom be unfolded from the arc MA, the extremity E were Polyphemus, Brontes, Steropes, and Pyof this thread will describe the cycloid AD B. racmon; but their whole number amounted to Make AP equal and parallel to CM, and on above 100. Jupiter threw them into Tartarus as AP describe the semicircle ATP. Let the soon as they were born ; but they were delivered thread touch the curve at Q; draw QR perpen- at the intercession of Tellus, and became the dicular to AP, cutting the circle in T, and join assistants of Vulcan. They were of prodigious AT. Then F Q is parallel to AT (4) and there- stature, and had each only one eye, which was fore equal to it; now EQ is equal to the arc placed in the middle of the forehead. Some AQ which is double AT (5) or F Q, therefore mythologists say, that the cyclops signify the vaEF=FQ=AT, if therefore EKG be drawn pors raised in the air, which occasion thunder perpendicular to CD, CG is equal to AR, and and lightning; on which account they are rearc CK=arc AT, also the chord KC is equal presented as forging the thunderbolts of Jupiter. and parallel to the chord AT, which is parallel Others represent them as the first inhabitants of to EF, therefore FC=EK; now A F or TQ= Sicily, who were cruel, of a gigantic form, and arc AT (3). Therefore FC or E K=arc T P= dwelt round mount Ætna.
CYCLOPTERUS, the sucker, in iththyology, serve the different methods of preparing it. This a genus belonging to the order of amphibia may be divided into three processes :-1. Prenantes. The head is obtuse, and furnished with paring the fruit. II. Grinding and expressing saw teeth : there are four rays in the gills, and the juice from it. III. Fermenting and bottling. the belly fins are connected together in an orbi- I. In preparing the fruit, care must be taken cular form. There are ten species. The chief both as to its peculiar quality, and its stage of are:-1. C. liparis, or the sea snail, so called ripeness, or the season at which it is gathered. from the soft and unctuous texture of its body, Few apples are ready for gathering before Miresembling that of the land snail. It is almost chaelmas; though they are sometimes inanufactransparent, and soon dissolves and melts away. tured before that time. For sale-cyder, and It is found in the sea near the mouths of great keeping-drink, they are allowed to remain on rivers, and has been seen full of spawn in Janu- the trees till fully ripe; and in general the ary. The lengťh is five inches; the color a pale middle of October is considered a proper time brown, sometimes finely streaked with a darker. for gathering the stire apples. The ripeness of Beneath the throat is a round depression of a the fruit is judged of hy its falling from the tree; whitish color like the impression of a seal, sur- and Mr. Marshall, as well as Mr. Crocker, thinks rounded by twelve small pale yellow tubera, by that the forcing it away before that time robs it which probably it adheres to the stones like the of some of its most valuable properties. “The other species. 2. C. lumpus, the lump, fish, cock , harvesting of fruit,' says the former, “is widely paddle, or sea owl, grows to the length of nine- different in this respect from the harvesting o. teen inches, and weighs seven pounds. The grain, which has the entire plaut to feed it after shape of the body is like that of the bream, deep the separation froin the soil ; while fruit, after and very thick, and it swims edgeways. The it is severed from the tree, is cut off from all posback is sharp and elevated : the belly fat, of a sibility of a further supply of nourishment, and, bright crimson color. Along the body there run although it may have reached its wonted size, several rows of sharp bony tubercles, and the some of its more essential particles are undoubtwhole skin is covered with small ones. The edly left behind in the tree. Fruits which are late pectoral fins are large and broad, almost uniting in ripening, however, will sometimes hang on the at their base. Beneath these is the part by which tree until spoiled hy frost, and particularly the weak it adheres to the rocks, &c. It consists of an watery fruits. The general practice of beating oral aperture, surrounded with a fleshy, muscular, them down with poles is much disapproved o. and obtuse soft substance, edged with many by Mr. Marshall, because the fruit must thus be small threaded appendages, which concur as so unequally ripe, the apples on the same tree not many claspers. The tail and vent fins are pur- ripening all at the same time; and thus part o. ple. This fish is sometimes eaten in England, the richness and favor of the fruit is entirely being stewed like carp: but is both flabby and lost: besides, if the fermentation is interrupted insipid.
or rendered complex by a mixture of ripe and CYDER, n. s. A fermented drink, made of uripe fruits, and the liquor is not, at first, sufthe juice of apples. See Cider.
ficiently purged from its feculencies, it will be A tendency to these diseases is certainly heredi- lifficult to clear it afterwards. To 'avoid these tary, though perhaps not the diseases themselves; nconveniences, arising from the unequal ripethus a less quantity of ale, cyder, wine, or spirit, will ning of the fruit, the trees ought to be gone over induce the gout and dropsy in those constitutions first with a hook when the fruit begins to fall nawhose parents have been intemperate in the use of curally, and the trees may be afterwards cleared those liquors.
Darwin, with the poles when it is all sufficiently ripened, Cyder, in rural economy, is particularly used or when the winter is likely to set in. Mr. Marfor he liquor expressed and prepared by fer- shall obseries, that the due degree of maturation mentation from the juice of apples. It has been of fruit for liquor is a subject about which men made in this country from a very early period. differ much in their ideas. The prevailing pracHenry of Huntingdon, in describing a quarrel tice of gathering it into heaps until the ripest that arose at the court of Edward the Confessor, begin to rot, is wasting the best of the fruit, and between the two sons of earl Godwin, represents is by no means an accurate criterion. Some one of them as departing in a rage to Hereford, shake the fruit, and judge by the rattling of the (still famous for this beverage) where his brother kernels; others cut through the middle, and bad ordered a royal banquet to be prepared. judge hy their blackness: but none of these ap* There he seized his brother's attendants, and pear to be a proper test. It is not the state or cutting off their heads and limbs, he placed the kernels, but of the flesh; not of a few indithem in the vessels of wine, mead, ale, pigment, viduals, but of the greater part of the prime morat, and cyder.' llenry Hunt., vol. vi. p. 367. fruit, which renders the collectire body fit or But the art of preparing it has never been in- unfit to be sent to the mill. The most rational vestigated with much attention, nor improved by test of the ripeness of the fruit is, that of the science: it is principally, to this day, in the flesh having acquired such a degree of mellowhands of the growers of the fruit. We shall ness, and its texture such a degree of tenderness, present the reader with the best practical direc- as to yield to moderate pressure; thus, when the tions that have been given to the public on the knuckle or the end of the thumb can with mosubject, viz. by Messrs. Marshall, Crocker, and derate exertion be forced into the pulp of the knight.
fruit, it is deemed in a fit state for grinding, The first of these gentlemen made a tour Mr. Marshall is of opinion that one of the through the cyder counties with a view to ob- grand secrets of cyder-making is the skilful sepa
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** 1831, AYRI Tenererting ton. serves between the base of evdar temppies, ***1 rybiai, nurses that noch waa azri wire on ires: the metrod weich * **f6 years try *21* but in z ra.r.7 season ; but te wine-maser pursuesve to be fitowe i by tha 1,41 fit rate gener by any ziver quan- te cydes-traker. It ac e pers of the crises bas Het , wine, Fouad to diminish as it be- lan some time in the rats the rintier trusts his 071.68 Mees *; egen in very wet weather, band into the pup and has sure from the mn.dgyerm. ces the ground when troruchy dry. die of the mass and use ire perceives, by the 1. ny*4/09, 5.00etare, of covering tie fruit smell, that the iuscicus sweetness is one od, and will predmety in the sunsch less tian may at first truat his pose is avial with a slight piquancy, * komerferl. No criterion apțears, the Le immediately cares it to the press, and by a 411 **, 10 me known, by which the most litt pressure expresses dis prize juice. Inlike Parrot Lanset of matarly in tre fruit can be as Dancer, should live evuerst decertaine the time Denained with aesurary, but he has good rea- w.en his pulp should be carried to the press. my Braley that it improving as long as it con- If he carry it intediately from the riil to the ****** t6 #16fponte a depas shade of yellow. press, he may lose soaz suall advantage which biety 1*n, tmuld be erased prior to its being nay be expected from the rind and kernels, and W*, *** #yerayer or green fruit carefully his liquor may be of lower color man le might **v .n *nny. The hof this will, he ob- wish. If he suffer it to remain too long un******, 1 very en all, and will be amply repaid pressed, he will tind to his cost that the acetous Pv4 126 11 horen dat the loquor, and the care with fermentation will come on before the vinous is and in the testo se na deiree of fermentation may be perfected, especially in the eariy part of the cy[*** tvi tiek prase of making it into cyder. der-making season. He will generally tind that 11. **** ochrany favorable half a hogshead bis pulp is in a fit state for pressing in about the plot my ****41001 from the fruit of each twelve or sixteen hours. If he must of necessity 11*1A an tcharid in full beaning. As the num- keep it in that state longer, he will find a senhip of trust on the acte varies from ten to forty, sible heat therein, which will engender a prema
ture fermentation ; and he must not delay turn- however, is also very undetermined. The best ing it over, thereby to expose the middle of the inforined cyder-makers are said to repeat the mass to the influence of the atmosphere.
rackings until the liquor appears quiet or nearly In order to press the fruit, or pommage as so; and when this cannot be accomplished it is now called, it is folded up in pieces of hair- by the ordinary methods of fermentation, they cloth, or placed between layers of clean, sweet have recourse to fumigating the casks with straw or reed, and piled up in a square frame or sulphur, which is called stooming or stumming. mould: the press is then pulled down and squeezes For this purpose a match nade of thick linen out the juice, formi the matter into thin and cloth, about ten inches long and an inch broad, almost dry cakes. Care ought to be taken to keep well coated with brimstone for about three-fourths the straw, reed, or hair-cloths sweet, or the ill ef- of its length, is lighted and hung in at the bungfects of their acidity will be communicated to hole of the cask (which has been previously the cyder. The first runnings come off foul and well seasoned, and every other vent' stopped), ruddy, but the last, particularly in perry, will be and, while the match burns briskly, the bung is as clear and fine as if filtered through paper. driven in, keeping the uncoated end of the match The refuse is generally thrown away as useless, by its side. The match thus suspended, burns or, when dry, used as fuel ; if it has not been as long as the air contained in the cask will supthoronghly squeezed, the pigs will sometimes eat ply the fire; and when it dies the bung is taken it; and some people grind it a second time with out with the reinnant of the match, after which water, and press it for an inferior liquor for fa- the cask is allowed to remain two or three hours, mily use.
As long as a drop can be drawn, Mr. more or less, according to the degree of power Marshall recommends to continue the pressure. the sulphur ought to have, before it is filled with Even breaking the cakes of the refuse with liquor. A smell of the sulphureous acid is thus the hands only, he says, gives the press fresh communicated to the liquor, but it goes off in a power over it: regrinding them has a still short time. Mr. Crocker says, when the fermengreater effect : in this state of the materials, the tation ceases, and the liquor appears tolerably mill gains a degree of power over the more rigid clear to the eye, it has also a piquant vinous parts of the fruit, which in the first grinding it sharpness upon the tongue, and if in this state could not reach. The most eligible management the least hissing noise be heard in the fermenting in this stage of the process appears to be this: liquor, the room is too warm, and atmospheric grind one pressful a-day; press, and regrind air must be let in at the doors and windows. the residuum in the evening ; infuse the reduced "Now,' he continues, " is the critical moment, matter all night among part of the first runnings, which the cyderist must not lose sight of; for if and in the morning repress while the next press- he would have a strong, generous, and pleasant ful is grinding.
liquor, all further sensible fermentation must be III. Of fermentation und bottling. In the fer- stopped. This is best done by racking off the mentation of the liquor, the common practice is pure part into open vessels, which must be to have it put into casks or hogsheads, immedi- placed in a more cool situation for a day or two; ately from the press, and to fill them quite full; after which it may again be barrelled, and when the casks are put into airy sheds, where the placed in some moderately cool situation for the warmth differs little from the open atmosphere. winter.' They are sometimes even exposed to the open It is advisable in racking, that the stream from air without any covering but a piece of tile or the racking-cock be small, and that the receivingflat stone, propped up over the bung-hole to tub be but a small depth below the cock, lest, carry off the rain. It would seem, from Mr. by exciting a violent motion of the parts of the Ilarshall's account, that the time with cyder, liquor, another fermentation be brought up when the fermentation begins, is quite uncertain, The feculence of the cyder may be strained in general varying from one day to a month after through a filtering-bag, and placed among the it is tunned ; though liquor taken immediately second-rate cyders, but it must not be returned from the press, if much agitated, will sometimes to the liquor designed for prime cyder. pass directly into a state of fermentation. If the It is observed by Mr. Knight, that "after the commencement of the fermentation is uncertain, fermentation has ceased, and the liquor is become its continuance is no less so ; liquors that have clear and bright, it should instantly be drawn off, been agitated will frequently go through it in one and not suffered on any account again to mingle day; but otherwise, when allowed to rest, it will with its lees; for these possess much the same take from two to six days. The appearance of properties as yeast, and would inevitably bring the liquor also varies according to the ripeness on a second ferientation. The best criterion to of the fruit: if the fruit has been properly ma- judge of the proper moment to rack off will be, he tured, a thick scun is generally thrown up, re- says, the brightness of the liquor; and this is seinbling that of malt liquor. After the liquor always attended with external marks, which has remained some time in the fermenting ves- serve as guides to the cyder-maker. The dissels it is racked off from the lees, and put into charge of fixed air, which always attends the profresh casks. But as a fresh fermentation fre- gress of fermentation, has entirely ceased; and a quently takes place after racking, when this thick crust, formed of fragments of the reduced becomes violent, the liquor must be racked pulp raised by the buoyant air it contains, is again; and sometimes, before the fermentation collected on the surface. The clear liquor being is checked, the racking must be repeated five or drawn off into another cask, the lees are put, he six times ; but when there is only a small degree says, into small bags, similar to those used for of fermentation, called fretting, the liquor is suf- jellies, being made, as noticed above; thro fered to remain in the same cask; this degree, ihese, whatever liquor the lees contain gr
filtrates, becoming perfectly.bright; and it is then stated by the writer just mentioned, that in the returned to that in the cask, in which it has the month of April the cyder, in general, will be in effect, in some nieasure, of preventing a second a fit state for this operation; but that the critical fermentation, as already hinted. It appears, he time for this process is, when the liquor has acsays, to have undergone a considerable change quired in the cask its highest degree of perfecin the process of filtration. The color is re- tion: then, when the weather, is fair, the baromarkably deep, its taste harsh and flat, and it ineter high, and the wind in some northerly has a strong tendency to become acetous; pro- point, let the bottles be filled, setting them by bably by having given out fixed, and absorbed uncorked until the morning; then let the corks be vital air. Should it become acetous, which it driven very tightly into the necks of the bottles, will frequently do in forty-eight hours, it must tied down with small strong twine or wire, and not on any account, he says, be put into the well secured with melted rosin, or other material cask. If however, the cyder, after being racked of the same nature. ofi, remains bright and quiet, nothing more is to Mr. Knight thinks, that cyders which have be done to it till the succeeding spring; but if been made from good fruits, and have been proa scum collects on the surface, it must imme- perly manufactured, will retain a considerable diately be racked off into another cask; as this portion of sweetness, in the cask, to the end of would produce bad effects if suffered to sink. three or four years; but that the saccharine part, If a disposition to ferment with violence again on which alone their sweetness depends, gradually appears, it will be necessary, he thinks, to rack disappears, probably by a decomposition and off from one cask to another, as often as a hissing discharge of fixed air, similar to that which takes noise is heard. The strength of cyder is much place in the earlier stages of their fermentation. reduced, he says, as noticed above, by being fre- In our plate we give a perspective view of the quently racked off; but this, he supposes, arises machinery of the common cyderist, viz., the only from a large portion of sugar remaining mill-house, mill, press, vat, and cask, with their unchanged, which adds to the sweetness, at the appurtenances. A mill-house on an orchardexpense of the other quality. The juice of the farm, is as necessary, Mr. Marshall observes, as fruits which produce very strong cyders, often a barn. It is generally one end of an out-buildremains muddy during the whole winter, and ing; or perhaps, an open shed, under which much attention must frequently be paid, to pre- straw or small implements are occasionally laid vent an excess of fermentation.'
The smallest dimensions, to render it any • The casks into which the liquor is put, when- way convenient, are twenty-four feet by twenty; ever racked off, should always have been tho- a floor thrown over it, at seven feet high; a door roughly scalded, and dried again; and each in the middle of the front, and a window opposhould want several gallons of being full, to ex- site ; with the mill on one side, the press on the pose a larger surface to the air of the atmos- other side of the window; as much room being phere.' But,' he adds, should the cyder- left in front, towards the door, for fruit and maker neglect the above precautions, the inevi- utensils, as the nature of the mill and the press table consequence will be this: another ferınen- will allow. A B, the bottom or lower beam of tation will quickly succeed, and convert the fine the press; C D, the upper beam; 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, vincus liquor he was possessed of into a sort of the uprights; 4,4, e, e, spurs ; 2, 2, 12, braces vinegar; and all the art he is master of will ne- cross-pieces; a, b, capitals; x, blocks; ver restore it to its former richness and purity.' g, the screw; E, the back, or receiver; F, the
He suggests, however, the following correc- cheese or cake of pommage, placed on G, the tives :- A bottle of French brandy, half a gallon stage or basin; 10, 10, beams that support the of spirit extracted from the lees of cyder, or a pieces of which the basin is composed; 11, pail full of old cyder, poured into the hogshead perpendicular pieces for supporting these beams; soon after the acetous fermentation is begun; but H, the buckler no wonder, conunues he, if all these should fail, PQR is the circular trough of the apple. if the cyder be still continued in a close warm mill; TL V, compartments or divisions for cellar. 1o give effect to either, it is necessary different sorts of apples; M, the mill-stone; that the liquor be as much exposed to a cooler LM, axis of the mill-stone ; N, the spring-tree air as conveniently may be, and that for a consi- bar. The apple-mill does not differ essentially derable length of time. By such means it is from that of a common tanner's mill for grinding possible fermentation may, in a great measure, be bark; and consists of a mill-stone from two feet repressed : and if a cask of prime cyder cannot and a half to four and a half in diameter, running from thence be obtained, a cask of tolerable se- on its edge in a circular stone trough, from nine cond-rate kind may. These remedies are in- to twelve inches in thickness, and from one to two nocent; but if the farmer or cyder-merchant tons in weight: the bottom of the trough in which attempt to cover the accident, occasioned by ne- the stone runs is somewhat wider than the thickgligence or inattention, by applying any prepa- ness of the stone itself; the inner side of the ration of lead, let him reflect that he is about to groove rises perpendicularly, but the outer is commit an absolute and unqualified murder on levelled in such a manner as to make the top of those whose lot it may be to drink his poisonous the trough six or eight inches wider than the draught. Such means should, therefore, on no bottom, by which means there is room for the account be ever had recourse to.'
stone to run freely, and likewise for putting in The time of bottling depends greatly on the the fruit, and stirring it up while grinding. The quality of the liquors themselves : good cyder bed of a middle sized mill is about nine feet, can seldom be boitled with propriety until a year some ten, and some twelve, the whole being old, and sometimes not till iwo years. It is composed of two, three, or four stones, hound