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entrance, as we feel assured that no one can enter On the previous year we went straight from 'Ary unseen by us. Evidently our followers have lost our to Mezareeb through a wondrous plain of wheat. scent, for we are left a long time undisturbed. At On our left, behind and before, the sea of wheat last a native Christian enters the mosque, makes a stretched away to the distant hills. When, a few casual remark, and slips away. It is time for us to days previously, we had looked down from Jebel be moving once more, for that Christian has been Kuleib, we saw what seemed to be little lakes of sent to explore us. And, indeed, for all such business blood among the wheat. We concluded it was some in the Hauran, Christians are employed. At Schwet phenomenon produced by the setting sun and the el Khudr, Hebrân, and Ormân, we had met Chris- mirage, but as we passed along we found that tians bearing the “ Fiery Cross through the land. wherever there was a break in the wheat the ground

As we leave the mosque a drumming sound at a was all ablaze with scarlet poppies. little distance attracts my companion, and he starts In working our way over the hill to Kefr el Laha, off behind the ruins, promising to circle round to the we are in doubt about the way,

and I strike off to tent. He is off before I have time to suggest a the right to look for the road. Passing over a little warning, and I walk off smartly for the tent. As I hill, a solitary Druze sees me, and makes straight at approach the angle near the four columns, I see a He has an ox-goad, a long pole tipped with an crowd of eight or ten hurrying to intercept me, and iron spike, in his right hand, and as he comes up as I cannot run past them, I husband all my strength close to me, he snatches a dagger out of his belt. to meet them. As I come up they surround me, and According to this man's idea the battle of Mezareeb demand my money. I tell them who I am; that I has been fought, and the Turks have been beaten, am not an ordinary traveller, but a preacher of the and I am one of the Turkish officers escaped thus gospel, and that I have books for them if they will far. I have now a good idea of what these men come to my tent; that I have no money for them, are on their native mountains when their blood is and that I would not give them any if I had. I am up. With head thrown back, and eyes flashing, he up on a high bank, with my back to a wall, and they bounds up to me like a strong bull of Bashan. He are all below me, and thus I keep them at bay for a is confounded by my laughing at him. “Don't you few minutes. At last the leader of the party seizes see I am an Englishman?” I say to him, with a me, and instantly he goes rolling like a bundle to the laugh. His whole demeanour instantly changes, and bottom of the bank. The thing is so instantaneous from being one of the most heroic of men, he becomes that the whole party seem stunned and paralysed, a quiet-looking old patriarch, about sixty years of and I walk quietly away.

I move off in such a age. He inquires eagerly if I have heard how the manner that I can see them without pretending to do battle went, but he is incoherent, and so confused so. When I have got about one hundred yards from that he sends us on the wrong way. At last we enter them I see that they have collected their thoughts Kefr el Laha at a sharp gallop, and the sound of our and are gathering stones and starting in pursuit. i horses' feet brings the Druzes out of their assemblygo on quietly until I get past the corner of a ruin, room, swarming like wasps when their nest is touched. and then turning straight for the tent, and with Nothing worse happens than a kiss from the sheikh. more than my old college pace, I leave a quarter of We rush at each other, place our two hands on the a mile between them and me before they appear at front of each other's shoulders, and reach our heads the place where they last saw me. They must think over as if we were kissing some one behind each there is magic at work, for though I have got to such other's backs. Thus we do not in reality kiss, we a distance from them I am still going at the same only fall on each other's necks. old careless pace, and seemingly more interested in the ruins than in them; and thus without further molestation I reach the tent, and find my companion already there before me.

THE MANDARIN'S DAUGHTER. The officers visit our tent in the evening, and the

CHAPTER XXXV. -REUNION OF CAMERON AND THE watchers are still looking towards the west from the

MANDARIN'S DAUGHTER. towers. Two or three alarms have been given IN

NSIDE the city of Soochow a state of anarchy during the day, when a band of Arabs hove in sight prevailed. There was not only a division in the on the horizon: but through the long day of sus

council of the Taiping chiefs, but their followers were pense no trustworthy news has reached them. They divided into old adherents, chiefly southern men, and urge us to remain, as it is impossible to depart in

new recruits from the north. The former were resafety, and when we assure them that we should go if solved to hold out to the last, and the latter were there were fifty battles being fought, theyinsist that we

anxious to surrender. They were altogether about take twelve men of a guard, led by one of themselves. thirty thousand strong, the greater number being in I verily believe the little Turk wants to escape with favour of capitulation. The minority, under the us to Damascus. We protest in vain, and twelve leadership of the Mo Wang, vehemently cried “No men are told off to accompany us in the morning.

surrender!We spend another sleepless night in Bosra, disturbed, It may be supposed that the household of that however, by no sound except that of the horses chief, including A-Lee, was, under the circumstances, crumping their barley, and my companion quoting in a state of fear and tribulation. In vain did the again and again the Homeric couplet,

ladies try to persuade him to agree with his colleagues And champing golden grain, the horses stood

to yield up the city and save it from the horrors of

bloodshed and famine. Hard by their chariots, waiting for the dawn.”

“Why should I yield ?" he exclaimed ; " are not The dawn at last came, and while the morning star my men braver and more numerous than the enemy? “blazed in the forehead of the morning sky," we We can not only defend the city, but rush out of the gave the soldiers the slip, and started for the Druze gates and drive them before us into the sea. Besides, mountain.

here I have you, my family, and all my property,

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and even if we were permitted to leave and dwell question of surrender was brought before the council somewhere in safety, we would be beggars and out by the Kang Wang, who said that he and the Na casts the rest of our days. Better to die here than Wang had been negotiating with the foreign and to starve elsewhere!"

Chinese generals, who assured them that their lives “But oh! your excellency,” interposed A-Lee, would be spared if they abandoned the Taiping cause pleading with him against what she thought a and gave in their allegiance to the emperor. He

a desperate resolution, in the name of her companions, was of opinion that the terms should be accepted, as " what then would become of your wife and he had great faith in the power and plemency of the daughters, if you, their protector, were gone? I foreign general. Then up rose the Mo Wang, who have a father who has perhaps fallen a sacrifice in denounced the proposal to capitulate on any terms as your cause, and but for your kind protection I should pusillanimous, and not in accordance with the brave now have been destitute. Consider this matter, and veteran Taipings who had marched from the south to if you can make an honourable surrender, then may the north of China as conquerors. Then he made a you, your family and home, continue to be safe. long discourse, in which he praised the superiority You tell us that there is a foreign general of great and faithfulness of the Cantonese and Quang-see renown in command of the victorious army, and that men, saying that the followers from the other prohe will see to the safety of those who return to their vinces were neither brave nor trustworthy. These allegiance. If I know these brave strangers to insinuations caused the other Wangs to resent the be true to their word, and men who would protect affront in strong language, and an angry altercation the poorest woman or child from harm."

took place, which grew hotter and hotter, until the "I know that, my child," he continued, in a calmer chamber was in an uproar. Then the Kang Wang tone of voice; "and if I had only the foreign general stood up, divested himself of his robe, and from to treat with, I would order my men to cut their long underneath his vestment drew a sharp dagger, which hair at once, and wear white turbans, in token of sub- he plunged into the heart of the Mo Wang, who fell mission. But I have to deal also with treacherous instantly dead upon the ground. One of the Tien mandarins, who will promise any terms so as to get Chuangs then drew his scimitar, and with it separated me into their power, and then they would have no the head from the body. The council then resolved mercy upon me. I am now going to the grand that the garrison should surrender, and our lamented council, where this question is to be decided, and master's head was sent to General Ching as a proof will try to bring over the majority of chiefs to my that they were ready to capitulate." views.'

" What shall we do?-what shall we do?" After saying this he quitted the female apartments, groaned the bereaved family. and in a commanding voice called on Wo Cut-sing to "Say, faithful follower of my dead husband," see that his trusty body-guard were in attendance to uttered the mother, addressing Wo Cut-sing, "what escort him to the council-chamber. The emissary would you advise us desolate females to do ?” promptly executed his orders, and the party, all I see no other way of safety for you than to take mounted and well armed, sallied forth from the Mo flight with what articles of value can be conveniently Wang's palace.

carried. I will accompany you, your family, and The female inmates remained in great suspense for A-Lee to a place of safety, until an opportunity the return of their lord and master. They had no occurs to leave this part of the country and we can apprehension of danger to his person as long as he travel to Canton." remained within the city walls. But he was a man While the emissary was making this reply there of so courageous a disposition that they were afraid was a noise outside the female apartments which he would make an attempt to break through the arrested his attention, so he turned to see what occaenemy's lines outside and perish in the fight. sioned it. A Taiping soldier entered unceremoniously, Already several sorties had been made from the gates, and asked if a lady named A-Lee was in the palace. in which he had taken part, but they were driven “I have a missive here to deliver personally to her. back with great loss. On the last of these occasions I am a messe

ssenger from the Na Wang, who received it was the intention of his colleagues that when he it from a foreign officer of the Ever-Victorious was outside they would close the gate of the city and Army,' with whom we are now on friendly terms; prevent his re-entering, so that they might have their and here it is,” said he, handing in my note. own way in treating for a capitulation, while he was A scream of surprise and delight came from the to be made a prisoner by the disciplined corps. This lips of Loo A-Lee when she read its brief contents. treacherous plan was frustrated by a skilful retreat Without noticing the effect upon Cut-sing of this with his men through the gate before the other strange interruption, she addressed her lady friends Wangs had time themselves to get in.

in encouraging words, saying, "Do not fear for your While the members of the household were discuss- safety here. Remain in the palace; there is a bravo ing these matters, Wo Cut-sing suddenly rushed in foreign officer outside the walls who will come and amongst them with looks expressive of fear and protect us when the city surrenders to his men. Is alarm.

it not so ?” she said, turning to the messenger. “ All is lost!” he cried, in a voice of terror that “Fair lady,” he answered, “such will be the caso pierced the hearts of his timid hearers ; “the Mo when the terms are concluded, which we expect may Wang has been assassinated!”

be done to-morrow, or perhaps this very day.” Ah, woe is me!” uttered his disconsolate wife, When the messenger departed the ladies congratuin tones of anguish. “I dreaded this. How did it lated themselves on the prospect of remaining with happen, and who did the accursed deed ?”

safety in their abode. These congratulations, how“All the chiefs were assembled in the council-hall ever, were disagreeably interrupted by the sinister with their robes of office on; five Wangs as grand remarks of the emissary, who abruptly addressed councillors, and twenty-five Tien Chuangs as ordinary A-Lee. “Nay, fair lady,” he said, with an assumed councillors, the Mo Wang being president. The blandness of manner that did not accord with the

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malicious grin on his countenance, “ you reckon too climate or a dense covering of forest, the time remuch upon your security here, for when the besiegers quired for such cutting would be much shortened. enter the city they will plunder the palace, and you We shall be better able to judge of these probawill not be safe. Besides, I have made up my mind | bilities when we shall have considered the next case to have you as my prize when I give in my allegiance presented to us, that of the river-gravels containing to the Imperialists."

implements believed to have been made by man. If “False traitor, begone!” she replied, with a voice we stand on one of the beds of gravel quarried at St. and gesture of indignation. “Who are you that Acheul, near Amiens, we may see before us the dare to speak in this manner to me? Know you not broad flat valley of the Somme, with the little stream that I am affianced to that noble foreign soldier who flowing between banks of alluvium 100 feet below is now at hand to succour me in my distress. He has But the ground on which we stand is a loess or already saved me from danger, and I know he will river mud with fresh-water shells, and below this are do so again."

many feet of river-gravel made up mainly of the flints The eyes of the emissary glared with a fierce ex- which fill the underlying chalk, and in this gravel, pression, and he laid hold of his dagger as if about at great depths from the surface, have been found to avenge his disappointment and jealousy by an act numerous flint implements which it seems difficult to of violence.

explain unless they have been wrought by man. The ladies set up wild screams, which brought in Ancient miners, it is true, may have worked galleries, some faithful servitors who had been listening to since fallen in, through these gravels; but the genethe altercation at the door. Cut-sing turned upon ral impression conveyed is, that they were mixed them in still wilder anger, and struck furiously at with the gravel by the floods of a stream representing the first comer, but they overpowered him by num- the River Somme, but straggling over the country at bers, and succeeded in disarming the miscreant and a height of 100 feet above its present bed. This pinioning his arms.

implies that at the time in question the valley was Immediately a great commotion was heard out- either not cut out, or filled with some material since side the palace, with the firing of musketry. Then swept away, and that the water-flow of the river was the messenger who had just left rushed in, saying going on in a manner not favourable to erosion of its that the “ Ever-Victorious Army" was marching bed. Such conditions evidently bring before us contowards the building. He had scarcely finished siderable changes of level, which we must, I think, giving the information when the steady tramp of dis- be prepared to face more boldly than has been cusciplined soldiers was heard in the vestibule, and they tomary with writers on this subject. To give such a grounded their arms as a voice called out “Halt!" state of things as that implied in these high-level

In another instant I entered, sword in hand. A-Lee gravels, we must suppose that the Somme valley was sprang from the corner where she and her affrighted flat and filled up with detritus, presenting an alluvial friends had cowered before the bloodthirsty emissary, plain over which the river, at times of flood, could and with one bound she fell into my arms, uttering, spread itself with great ease. This implies a lower with joyous exclamation, “I knew my faithful level of the country than at present, and probably a Ca-me-la would come and save me. Now I am very recent elevation out of the sea, followed by a happy," and tears of joy coursed down her cheeks. condition of greater rainfall and floods and of rapid

I took in the situation at a glance, and concluded erosion. Now at the mouth of the Somme there are that the pinioned emissary was the cause of the con- beds of peat, the bottom of which is below the level fusion. The culprit stood with a sullen aspect, of the sea; consequently this modern peat began to scarcely daring to lift his eyes from the ground, but be formed at a time when the land was higher than to prevent him from doing any harm, I put him at it is at present, and the submerged forests with reonce under a guard of my own men, with handcuffs mains of man and modern animals, at several points on his wrists, and marched him away to the camp.

along the coasts of France and England, give us the same indication. First, then, we learn from the peat

that immediately before the historical period the THE NEW WORLD AND THE OLD: Somme valley was higher than now, and the circum

stances more favourable than at present to its rapid AMERICAN ILLUSTRATIONS OF EUROPEAN ANTIQUITIES.

cutting. But the gravels must have been deposited

before this in a previous time of lower level. Now, XII.-ANTIQUITY OF MAN.—(continucd).

that man existed at this time of lower level, we have WE

of evidence for the antiquity of man—that de- skulls found in beds holding marine shells on the rived from the physical changes which have occurred coast of Sweden at an elevation of 100 feet above the since his entrance upon the scene. Reference has sea, and infers that the men to whom they belonged already been made incidentally to the depth to which were drowned when the sea was at that height on the certain river valleys seem to have been cut since the land. It has long been well known to geologists that caverns on their sides were filled. In the case of those the coast of Scotland shows evidence that it was near Liege, the depth is estimated at 200 feet in some twenty-five feet, possibly forty feet, lower in the cases, and it is stated as possible that the caves on early human period than it is at present. Mr. opposite sides of certain deep gorges may correspond. Milne Home has very recently given some interesting If this could be proved, it would show that this great illustrations of this in the valley of the Forth, where depth had been cut out of the solid limestone of the skeletons of whales occur in the carse of Stirling, at country. It may well be, however, that old valleys an elevation of twenty or thirty feet above the sea, have only been emptied of débris; and in any case, if and with them were found pointed instruments of an elevation of the land had_occurred, and there deer's horn. In the West of Scotland, also, numerous were floods or volcanic debacles, or a permanently canoes, dug out of solid logs of wood, have been disswollen condition of the rivers owing to a more humid | interred from marine beds now twenty feet or more

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BY PRINCIPAL DAWSON, LL.D., MONTREAL.

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ANTIQUITY OF MAN.

above the level of the sea. Human bones have also | century, being the rate in modern subsidences now been found in Cornwall in elevated beds covered with observed, we shall require periods in comparison marine shells; and in Sardinia there are said to be with which the received chronology of historians old beaches no less than from 230 to 234 feet above shrinks into insignificance. This rate is, however, the level of the Mediterranean, with fragments of confessedly “purely conjectural,” and there are pottery associated with sea shells.*

many considerations which seem to show that it is We do not certainly know that these depressions based on insufficient data. Such modern elevations were contemporaneous, but they all belonged to the as are on record, as for example those in Italy, the early human period, and if this depression extended Greek islands, and South America, have been rapid from Sweden to the Mediterranean, and amounted to land paroxysmal; and the raised beaches of Western from fifty to one hundred feet in the valley of the Europe and of North America show that this must Somme, it would give precisely the state of things in have been its character in former times. Slow and which the lower part of that valley might be a sort of gradual movement, even if interrupted, could not delta, with banks of gravel to which aborigines of have produced these sharply defined terraces. Mothe country might resort for materials for their im- dern depressions have, with few exceptions, been plements, or into which their rejected or lost imple- gradual, but their rate is so unequal that we cannot ments might be drifted, and thes aborigines would reason with any certainty as to the past. While, be contemporaries of the drowned men of Stangeness, therefore, it must be admitted that the physical in Sweden, and of the ancient Caledonians, whose changes of elevation and subsidence which have canoes and implements we find in the estuaries of the taken place since man's arrival may have occupied Clyde and Forth. Before their time there had been long periods, it cannot be said that they must have a continental period, in which the bed of the German done so. Ocean and Irish Sea had been dry land, and men had It is much the same with the arguments derived been able to walk dry-shod to Britain ; their ances- from aqueous erosion. This must have gone on tors had witnessed a great, and probably sudden, simultaneously with the elevations and depressions, depression of the land, and in their day it was again and must have been greatly modified by these. slowly rising. In subsequent generations it rose still When we stand by the grassy and tree-clad slopes farther, and what had been in their day under the of a river valley, and consider that they have been sea at Abbeville, became a bog, while the Somme just as they are during all the centuries of history, valley, raised to a higher level, became reduced to it is difficult to resist the prejudice that they must its present form, and the river shrunk into a deeper always have been so, and that vast periods have been channel, its volume becoming greatly diminished by required for their excavation at the slow rate now the increasing dryness of the climate and removal of observed; but if we carry ourselves in imagination to the forests, changes which also extirpated the last the time when a plain was raised out of the sea, bare survivors of those species of quadrupeds which had and bald, and a river began to run in it, we at once been suited for a wilder and more wooded country. see our error. The river so running and beginning

These changes are well summed up by Sir C. to cut a channel, must in a few years execute a Lyell, in his " Antiquity of Man," pages 331 et seq., stupendous work of erosion almost diluvial in its and by tabulating his succession we may clearly un- character; but in the course of centuries its work derstand the position of the supposed Amiens flint- becomes completed, a state of equilibrium succeeds, chippers.

and its banks, protected by vegetation, scarcely exTable of Physical Changes in Western Europe in the later perience any modification. An elevation to a higher Tertiary and Modern Periods.

level, or a new depression succeeded by re-elevation,

or fires or other causes laying bare the surface, would (See Lyell, “ Antiquity of Man," p. 321.)

at once initiate a new series of erosions; but until

this occurs all things continue as they were. 2nd. Period of Submergence.

It must also be observed that in the period No. 4 depressed 1,000 feet or more. Marine Post-pliocene drift. above, there were not only oscillations of level, but

apparently a somewhat extreme climate, in which Land again elevated until much Passage of German flora into alternate frosts and thaws and violent river floods higher than at present, and

Megaceros and Cave Bear,

must have greatly aided the work of denudation;

etc., living in Europe. and also that in a wooded condition of the country, surface densely wooded

its streams, as we know from sad experience of the Age of Amiens gravets and effects of clearings in America, are great in volume

Palæocosmic and beginning but equable in flow, and that the removal of the 4th. Period of depression and oseil- of Neocosmic age. Men sub- forest leads to great floods alternating with periods

lation, ending in re-elevation, jected to great diminution
and present geographical condi-

of desiccation, remarkably increasing and modifying tion of Europe

subsidences.

the denuding power of the streams. Sir Charles extinct

. Stone age of anti- Lyell gives some striking illustrations of this in his

quaries
5th. Modern or historic age. Land Bronze and Iron ages of anti-

« Principles of Geology.
slowly subsiding
.] quaries.

It is, perhaps, necessary here to refer to the con.
All this leaves us, however, still in uncertainty as

clusion recently developed at great length by Proto the absolute time involved. Our estimate of this fessor Geikie, in a recent work, that the remains of must depend on the rapidity or slowness of the Palæolithic men are not Post-glacial, but belong to a oscillations in the period No. 4 above. If we adopt Pre-glacial or Inter-glacial period. This is, no doubt, with Lyell a strictly uniformitarian method, and

a view forced upon him by his belief in a great estimate the elevations and depressions of which continental "ice-sheet,” itself, as I have shown in a there is geological evidence at twenty-two feet per good foundation. He supports it principally on the

former series of papers, in all probability without • Lyell, “ Antiquity of Man," p. 115.

geographical distribution of the animals supposed

Land ele

Cromer Forest bed.

1st. Continental Period.

vated. Climate ipild

Land

POST-PLIOCENE.

Climate cold and much floating

ice
3rd. Second Continental Period.

Mammoth and

England

British Islands united to main
land. Climate continental and

Advent of men?

raised beaches, and close of

MODERN,

of numbers by floods and

Several species of mammals become

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to have been contemporary with Palæolithic man, and which he tries to divide into two successive groups, and on the probability that the last period

Varieties. of continental elevation referred to in the table above was not of a character to change the insular climate of Western Europe. On all these points I

Romisi PERVERTS.-In commenting on Lorl Ripon's seces. must entirely differ with him, for reasons which I sion, the “ Daily News” thus spoke of the consequences of such have already stated in the publication above referred Papist," said O'Connell once, when protesting against some step.

a step in our day :-"'I am a Roman Catholic, but I am not a to. I may add that it is most unsafe to reason as to taken by the Roman authorities. The decree of the Council of the climate required by extinct mammalia, especially the Vatican has rendered such a declaration from such lips imin contravention of the evidence of contemporaneous possible in our times. A convert has a great deal more to existence afforded by the occurrence of their re

swallow, if we may use so homely an expression, in 1874, than

he would have had twenty-five years before. He has to accept mains. Even the hippopotamus of the English caves the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin and the Infallibility and gravels may have been protected by a coating of of the Pope. He has to submit to all the consequences which fat like the walrus. The elevated land of Post-glacial the latter dogma imposes on him. He has to subject his con. Europe, if it were clothed with forests, would have victions on the subject of education and on nearly all political precisely the climatal properties which we know in questions to the dictation of Rome. His vote as a member of America and Asia favour the intermixture of the follow some principle prescribed for him with which his reason

either House of Parliament, his actions as a public man, must animals of different latitudes. Again, that so-called may no longer concern itself. One cannot think without Palæolithic implements are not found over the wonder and regret of the life to which an Englishman, long boulder deposits of North Britain is merely a con

habituated to the free ways of our public arena, has doomed himsequence of the fact that they are in the main limited self when he takes spiritual service under such command. To

a mind and temperament steeped in mysticism, regarding this to the chalk and flint districts, a circumstance which, world and its affairs as of no account, and entrancing itself in a as already hinted, throws grave doubts on their contemplation of an ideal future, as the pupil of the mesmerist being even so ancient as usually supposed, and gives is sometimes stupified by the steady contemplation of a disc of them a local rather than a chronological character. metal, such a

course of existence would be natural and

welcome. But it is hard to understand how a man trained Further, in Eastern America we know that the to activity and independence in the healthful and bracing higher condition of the land immediately preceding atmosphere of English public life can settle down to a conthe Modern period was accompanied by a milder dition of such intellectual servitude. There must surely be climate than that which now prevails, and that this oc

some natural infirmity in the mind which, either from senti. curred after the close of the Glacial period. I must,

ment merely, or from tracing out a narrow line of logical therefore, reject this supposed later Glacial age in- life which lie on either side of it, is brought at last into

sequence regardless of the broad facts of history, nature, and tervening between Palæolithic and modern man, and that condition when mental serfdom is a relief from intellectual maintain that there is no proof of the existence of perplexity.” man earlier than the close of the Glacial age.

CHELSEA OLD CHURCH.--The Rev. R. H. Davies has sucIt is a curious conclusion of this part of our inquiry ceeded in purchasing the chapel built by Sir Thomas More, in that the history of man, as indicated by Lyell in the connection with the old church, but at the same time private above table, presents, after all, such a striking property. It was a singular combination, the chapel being an parallelism with the sacred and traditional histories absolute freehold, and beyond the jurisdiction of the bishop, yet with which we have long been familiar. The second

a portion of the parish church. Had a Roman Catholic been

the purchaser, an awkward complication might have been the period of continental elevation is the equivalent of result. Mr. Davies deserves honour for his exertions in securing the early antediluvian times—a period, however, of the historical old chapel, and transferring it to the rector, which we have seen we really know little from church wardens, and trustees of St. Luke's, under whose care is archeology or geology, for they cannot, with the Old Chelsea Church.

, absolute certainty, affirm that the oldest skeletons Four GREAT Words.—Professor Huxley lectured at the known are of this age, though this may be regarded recent meeting of the British Association at Belfast on as probable. If they are, their extreme rarity, and former president, in proposing a vote of thanks, agreed to

Hypothesis tliat Animals are Automata." Dr. Carpenter, a the paucity of works of art, with the exception of nuch that had been said about automatic action, but said that flint implements in the flint districts, where their there were four great words which should also be taken into material abounds, give the impression not of a long, account-I am, 1 ought, I can, I will. but of a very limited period of residence of ante- THE DOG-HEADED MONKEY.-A full-grown specimen of diluvian man in Europe. The period of continental the dog-headed monkey from. Abyssinia has been presented to oscillation is the correlative of the later antediluvian the museum of the University of Geneva. This monkey is period, and the last of these oscillations may have part of its body. It was held in veneration by the ancient

characterised by the long hair upon its cheeks and the greater been the traditional deluge. The last period is un- Egyptians. Its figure is engraved upon the monuments of questionably that of the Post-diluvian world. A ancient Egypt, and there have been found mummies of the leading school of modern archæologists no doubt animal well preserved. According to Ehrenberg, this monkey demands much more time than that of our ordinary served as the emblem for the god Thoth, the Egyptian Hermes,

or Mercury, the mythical inventor of the arts and sciences, chronology, but the succession is the same. Further, music and astronomy, and especially of speech and hieroglyphs, this succession, when critically examined, gives no or letters, over which he was supposed to preside. The ground for the belief in the existence, even in the Abyssinians now call it Tota. Horapollon reports that this most ancient times, of any race of men more rude monkey was consulted in the temples ; a tablet, reed, and ink, than the modern semi-civilised races, or less developed presented by a priest, were used as tests to ascertain if the

particular animal belonged to the race that knew how to write. physically. The most ancient man whose bones are

This representative of Thoth also symbolised the judgment of known to us may be referred to a race still extant, souls ; and upon one of the temples of Phile there is one repreand perhaps the most widely distributed of all—a sented with a balance in hand weighing the actions of men. In fact which tells strongly in favour both of the unity other places it is represented writing with a reed. Ehrenberg and moderate antiquity of the species, while it is also supposes that it is the locks of this monkey that have

served as the model for the perruques figured upon the heads of directly opposed to all theories of evolution from different divinities in the Egyptian mythology.--London Medical brute ancestors.

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