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finally lose the use of their limbs. Such are many some jens, where not a tithe of the air necessary of the processes carried on at chemical works, where for heilthy existence can penetrate, and where, in an most of those who labour are compelled to breathe a atmosphere above tropical heat, and saturated with poisoned atmosphere, under the effects of which they reeking villainous cdours, they are frequently comsuccumb sooner or later. The mortality from this pelled to work sixteen hours out of the twenty-four, source is, however, in the ratio of production, not so it inay be for mouths together; or they are buried high as it used to be; and it may be that when in callars or sheds pervious to every blast of the Chemical science is more advanced, it shall decrease wintry winds, an are debarred from the sight of still further, if it do not cease altogether.
a fire the live-long day. Any place, in short, the The loss of life from what are generally regarded vilert loft or the most fætid hoveī, is accounted good as unavoidable accidents is very great, much greater enough for the operations of the workman ...
In than is commonly supposel. In the building and a woril, the employer contracts for the labour of tho engineering trades alono the annual deaths and workman, and takes his life into the bargain.” This maimings are numerous indeed. There is hardly testimony was given some years ago, and it is but ever a building of any importance erected, or an fair to say that some small reform in this direction engineering feat executed, without adding to the list has since taken place; but the mass of the evil still of fatal casualties. Men fall from scaffoldings, from remains to be dealt with, and we fear is not likely roofs, from ladders; they are crushed by falling to be done away with until workshops, like schools materials; they are buried alive in collapsing tunnels and poor-houses, are brought under systematic inand excavations; they are drowned in sewers and spection by official surveyors authorised to compel water culverts ; they are asphyxiated in old wells, the needful reforms. and in a hundred different ways are exposed to the The above are some of the principal items of the risk of sudden death or permanent disablement while life cost of our boasted industrial achievements. in the exercise of their daily calling. Numbers of How far they are preventible, and how far they are valuable hands perish every year from the explosion inevitable, we are not prepared to say. That the of steam-boilers, and still greater numbers are perpetuation of some of the saddest of them is duo crippled or otherwise seriously injured from the same to our over-tender regard for vested interests, no cause. Not a few are blown up with gunpowder, man who looks at the relations which always prevail while others fall victims to the firing, spontaneous or between those who have and those who lack will for otherwise, of the explosive mineral fluids which of a moment question. When the law of love shall late years have come into such general use. Again, get the better of the greed for gain (if ever that time numbers whose vocation has to be pursued on rivers comes) we shall fight the fight of labour with less of and canals are drowned.
suffering to the rank and file, and with fewer losses Lastly, a great source of mortality among the of valuable lives. workers, is one of which the average public knows nothing, and therefore takes no account, though it has been supposed to be as fatal in the long run as all the other causes taken together. This cause of evil is a negative one, and is for that reason all the BOATING AT HOME AND ABROAD. less likely to be speedily got rid of. We alludle to the reckless neglect of the workman's health on the IN a former paper, 1873, I gave some recollections part of employers, as manifested in the condition of of boating expeditions, first, when “paddling the wretched places in which men are crowded to- my own canoe,” the Oyster, and afterwards, no longer gether at work. Plenty of light and plenty of fresh in " single blessedness," in the Binomial. A few air are two indispensable elements in the workshop, brief notes of later cruises at home and abroad may but it is only in exceptional instances that these be acceptable to canoeists, and also to “ the general indispensable requisites are provided. We are all reader.” acquainted with the term “sweater," which origi
THE UPPER THAMES-GODSTOW-OXFORD TO LONDON. nated among workmen themselves as descriptive of their condition in working hours. The custom in The Binomial is to leave Oxford's academic shades large cities is to cram as many workers into a place for the Upper Thames. At Folly Bridge Lock (such as it can be made to contain. For the sake of saving is its enphonious cognomen) a man has to lift dozens expense the accommodation is of a kind utterly of paddles and rimers by hand before a passage is unworthy of the name. Ventilation is harlly thought possible. It is better to leave the boat in charge for of, or is so negligently managed that the workers twenty minutes, and be ready to embark on the cannot bear the cutting draughts, and prefer the other side. Before reaching Osney Lock we pass the stilling heat to the certainty of taking cold; and back of the lowest suburbs of the city, ablórred of often the gloom is so dense as to ruin the eye-sight, Rimmel. which only becomes in ured to it by degrees. On The river soon becomes broad and shallow, so that this subject of the perils and discomforts of the only by careful steering in summer can the captain workshop we may quote the testimony of a writer find water enough to float. From hence to Lechlade, who speaks of his personal experience : "The com- a matter of thirty-six miles, locks and weirs abound. pact between master and man,” says he, “by which Passing a weir is a matter of skill. From the the former purchases the labour of the latter, appears barrage across the stream, some boards are lifted in to be the only thing kept in view by either of the ono part, and the water rushes through like a parties. But the employer is morally bound to Canadian rapid in miniature. Up this incline it is regard the health of the workman, for tho very the duty of the captain to labour, and very carefully. reason that the workman cannot take care of himself. Coming down again is different; steer then almost This obligation is in London shamefully repudiated. where you please, the boat is sucked into the current Men are crowded together in dark, damp, unwhole- | which tears through the opening, and spins along grandly-only it is better not to run against posts at But the Binomial is hoisting the blue-peter. The that rate.
ship's company this time is composed of the captain, Godstow, distant three miles, is a spot where the the first-mate, a little daughter, and, a novel accomMuses might linger, and aspirants for the Royal paniment, an animated musical box. Academy study the picturesque. Pressing on to First comes the bathing-place, and then Imey Lochlade and Cricklade a canal would open the way Church. Where is there a Norman tower with to the Severn, and almost everywhere else; but this lovelier surroundings? Near Sandford Lock a halt was for the future, D.v. For the present we regain made in a meadow for luncheon, but without noticing Oxford, and all duties being completed, the prow of that a wasps' nest was close at hand somewhere. the Binomial is turned down stream towards London. The tinned meats, warmed by a Russian lamp, would
It is a fact which ought to be known, that in the have been a grand success, but for constant battles year of the present epoch, 1872, the railway com- with these winged harpies; the boat also got adrist, panies recovered their senses in part; and instead of and the key of the musical-box appeared to be lost, charging, as hitherto, fabulous sums for the carriage for there was no stopping it. Jumping into a long of boats, agreed to convey them at the ordinary waterlogged punt, the captain pursued and captured rates of freightage, which for light boats are not the Binomial, and then laboured back with both craft excessive; provided only they be packed in boxes, to the luncheon-meadow against the stream. or, better still, in a crate or frame, which is much At length a fresh start was made, and things got lighter. Salter, however, though a monopolist, is into their places; the first day at sea is not always not unreasonable, and will supply pair-oar tub, four- the perfection of order. Six miles from Oxford oar, eight-oar, outrigger, punt, or, even for the forlorn brought the crew to Nuneham Park, with its woodand wretched, a solitary canoe. The same firm will land scenery and noble slopes overhanging the river. also convey them back again by land.
There, by the kindness of the proprietor, Sunday.
schools and Bible classes come out in barges from train to Folkestone, and shortening the refreshing Oxford, especially on a certain week in August, when sea passage, from insane fears about a passing
, they at once escape the riot of the races and enjoy tribute to Neptune, should the ship roll a little. As Die richest scenery of the neighbourhood in good for this tribute, it is a most wholesome custom or company
prejudice, even if it be not all imagination. The Abingdon Lock and bridge are generally threaded deputy steward on board was endued with a logical by boats, as quickly as may be; the town seems to mind, and instead of condemning us to separation, hold out a standing invitation to the cholera. En- he yielded to the force of the Benedictine theory, camping soon after in a meadow for a cup of tea, and without extra charge benevolently gave us a the crew could muster no lucifers; a brave boatman family cabin, which had not been used apparently not only rowed away and procured a supply, but since the last leap year at the very least. Fino sturdily refused any remuneration. The musical fellow! may his shadow never be less, nor his wellbox inclined the heart of every spectator to vie for the deserved fees. honour of rendering aid. A neighbouring hotel It rained heavily as the vessel steamed by wareafforded dinner and beds.
houses and wharves illuminated for work the liveThe luncheon-room nost day, after passing Culham long night; but after a few hours' rest a bright and Sutton, was under: Appleford railway bridge, summer's morning found us opposite the Isle of u here some navvies willingly supplied tools for Sheppey. In due time Margato, the North Foreopening tins of soup. They are not without mother land, Walmer, and tho South Foreland are left wit; to one, who was dining al fresco by a hedge, we behind, and an hour after breasting the welcome said, “You have a large dining-room.'
Cape Gris Nez, we are in Boulogne harbour. We “Yes,” he replied, *with a blue ceiling." are not much concerned with dry land, but a boating
“I should like to borrow your appetite," said I, matter is not to be omitted. In the dim ages of thio looking at his huge hunch of bread.
past (so runs the tradition) a little vessel camo “And I,” rejoined he, "should not mind borrow- careering into the harbour without oars or sails, ing your dinner.”
its occupant a black image, which awed the angry At Clifton Hampden the scenery takes a fresh start, waves and so forth with its majesty, albeit it was but re cannot describe even its quaint little church hideous enough. Unlike the image of Diana of the on its abrupt knoll, with park-like trees projecting Ephesians, it did not fall down from heaven, but its into the river; nor “Wittenham Clump,” the groves arrival was marvellous; and to this day it is wor. on a conical hill, which seem as if they never would shipped with almost Divine honours-or rather, what get out of sight. The old Roman and Druidical remains of it; for, like the images in Isaiah's days, traditions of this clump and of Dorchester, near at it could not defend itself, but in troublous times was hand (not to be confounded with the greater burnt wholly or in part, and consigned to ignoble Dorchester in Dorset), have been worked up into an localities; but the hand is preserved, and, strange t) interesting historical tale of the days of Constantine, say, identified after all, and, enshrined in gold in the relept“Evanus,” which should be read by the tourist. heart of a new black image, not more beautiful than Day's Lock is soon passed, with its groupings of its unfortunate predecessor, receives the homage of foliage, and as Dorchester swing-bridge is but “a continuous crowds, even in the nineteenth century. mile” from Shillingford, the captain, after long delays Through its protection, say they, the town has been for sketching, attempts the last stage of the day's saved from invasion ; but history is singularly unwanderings; but, alas! for guide-books, the distance kind to this infallible tradition, especially about the is three miles. Darkness has descended, and the time of Henry viil, of all men. musical box has played all its loudest tunes ere the Before embarking on the Binomial, another terresport is reached. Worse still, as wo emerged from trial attraction was an expedition to Cape Gris Nez, the bridge the crew of a large "four-oar” walked the lighthouse headland between Boulogne and up to the hotel and took the only remaining beds. Calais. The train goes as far as Marquise, with its What was to be done? The landlord of this same pretty huge ironworks half supported by English strikes, little ivy-covered hotel on the bank is, according to the and thence a drive of four or five leagues by thó books, a churlish individual. Never was a falser charge, telegraph posts leads to the Cape with its breezy nor one that ought to be more handsomely with heights. Little French farms are thick enough, condrawn. Already more than full, when he heard sisting of perhaps three acres or less ; larger ones there was a Benedict in the case, the worthy man are enclosed on all sides in square courts, with no put his own daughters on beds extemporised on the windows to the road, as if the country was not floor of the sitting-room, and discovered for us a bed- always secure. In one farmhouse, or cottage, as we room comfortable enough, though entered, to our should say, while the good woman filled a huge bowl sincere regret, through the drawing-room of an artist with milk for the wayfaring, we answered the sago and his bride. Then came the late dinner, with inquiries of the husband. The English are Protescongratulations at not being compelled to pick the tants? Yes. What kind of pagans are they? Havo way among the rushing weirs and locks of the they baptism ? Certainly. Do they worship the Thames in the dark. I must say no more about Virgin? They esteem good people; they worship the well-known scenes between this and Richmond, God. How much do the very poor pay at a funeral but pass on to a trip in
for masses ? etc. The poor among the French pay
thirty francs at least. These are opportunities for a NORTHERN FRANCE-CAPE GRIS NEZ-TIIE LIANE.
Christian word, and it is a thing never to be forgotten From London Bridge to Boulogne by steamboat, to have separate copies of the Gospels or the Acts of the fare is, or was, eleven shillings, first class ; five the Apostles for gift, or even for sale. They are very shillings and sixpence convey us back again. The inexpensive. boats are never crowded ; merchandise is the chief From Gris Nez the return to Boulogne is made in Joject, and most travellers prefer being stilled in the twelve or thirteen miles by a road which follows the
cliffs by Ambleteuse and other localities well known, between his own army and that of King Philip, to Julius Caesar.
while he made the best of his way in the direction But the river raits. Another day we make for a of Crecy. Of that anon. celebrated corner near the site of the Old Market; its St. Valery is a bracing spot, much frequented by name is still inscribed on the wall, “Coin du Menteur" the English ; long lines of villas by the side of the (Liars' Corner). The modern stall-keepers smile and widening river connect the narrow old town and the Fay
there was probably a reason for the name in those Hauteville, where the ancient church on the ramdays. The River Liane is like the soul of wit; it is parts, surrounded by a deep fosse, looks as if it had brevity itself. At the harbour it is rather imposing, seen William the Conqueror embark hence for but before the bridges are passed it is nearly all England, though in strict fact the church is later shallows, requiring careful pilotage; and then in than that event. The hotels here are more reasonthree miles it shrinks down to a mere ditch. But able than at Abbeville - five or six francs a day will there are charming sketches of the cathedral and pay for each person, cider or beer included. ramparts from the water; and a climb to the churches But Crecy is the attractive spot for an Englishman, of St. Leonard and St. Etienne gives immense pano- unhappily not situate on a river, but some five
1 Before reaching Pont do Briques at the leagues from Abbeville, and reached by a carriage, leaguo's end, we were fairly stranded even in the for which in these parts ten francs (eight shillings) ( leepest part, and getting somehow to shore, walked is a sufficient payment, with another franc (a " pour the last furlong on the railway. Porters vere auto- boire," or, as we always put it, " pour ne pas boire") cratic and minatory-Inglish porters would have for the driver. blushed at their abuse of power; however, the good We mount the hills, and then traverse almost old plan of going straight to the chef de gare (station- interminable roads straight as an arrow, lined with master) put all things right again. The crew on this formal rows of poplars and cherry-trees on the other occasion consisted of the captain and mate, and, un- side of them. Magpies abound in every field. By happily, of a passenger, who, though most amiable, a gipsy cart the man is mat-making; the woman, was suffering from Ritualism on the brain; nothing though equally squalid, is writing from a travellingcould palliate the symptoms or divert the thoughts case--an authoress perhaps. of the patient; his state at one time became almost At length Crecy. Here above the village, on a alarming, and we were far from medical assistance.
slight elevation, is the identical stone windmill from
which Edward III commanded. It overlooks a wideABBEVILLE -THE SOMME-ST. VALERY-BATTLE-FIELD
sproading amphitheatre. Here, having retreated far
enough, he entrenched himself on each flank, with a A few days after this cruise, a short run by rail. thick wood protecting his rear. The only way to way brought the ship's company to Etaples, with a get at the Englishmen was in front, not always a
a promising tidal river; but leaving it behind, two very desirable method. They were but 40,000, hours found us at Abbeville, with its grand old the French 120,000; but Edward's courage and rechurch of St. Vulfrans fast falling to pieces, and a sources gave him great advantages. When next crowded market-place, provided with everything but day the French came up from Abbeville, after three an hotel-for this, one must resort to the side streets. o'clock P.M., they were well-nigh exhausted, and And here let an old traveller give a few hints. Go their leaders would fain have deferred the battle ; to an hotel, order a breakfast, luncheon, dinner, and but some of them getting rather near the Black a separate tea, and then be astonished at the bill. Prince, he suddenly poured a flight of arrows upon The better plan is to make an agreement per diem; their ranks from the English crossbours, while those it used to be in country parts six and a half francs- of the French were rendered almost useless by a heavy now a littio more. But even this is not the best rain, and when they were all in confusion he dropped method. One is away from some of the meals, and on them like an avalanche; they were utterly routed 10 bedrooms are paid for by this arrangement. the same evening. The French king, Philip, in his Ask the prico beforehand of a room, a déjeuner à la anxiety to prevent the escape of his foes, left be. fourchette, and table d'hote dinner; everything else is hind his newly-invented cannon. Edward, on the obtained when required at the café belonging to the contrary, used his little thunderers to good purpose. hotel at the prices paid by other customers. One is Nearly 40,000 Frenchmen bit the dust on that fatal not more respected for ignorance and profuseness ; day, August 26, 1346, and the next. Surely the neither o bill quarrels add to enjoyment.
English, brave as they were, would have been The River Somme resembles somewhat the current better employed at home. of the Rhone at Geneva on a smaller scale, but it is The King of Bohemia, with his son, entitled King navigable with ordinary care. A bathing-place en- of the Romans, did his best to assist King Philip. closed from it, with every appliance, affords a good The poor old man being blind, caused a rein of his swim for twopence.
horso to be attached to a knight on each side, and The river is bounded by double rows of trees, pic-plunged into the fight, seeking glory or the grave. turesque, but somewhat formal. Unlike the brief He found both; and the picturesque remains of a cross Liune, its waters extend, say the natives, a hundred 500 years old, on the wayside, mark the fatal spot. leagues. More soberly, to express the fact for all King Edward from his vantage-ground at the whom it may concern on their travels, it joins the mill saw that the Black Prince was sorely pressed, Oise and the Seine, and so reaches Paris. Our own but refused to send succour, saying that his sou route, however, was seawards to St. Valery, whither must win his spurs that day. a rapid stream and a canal soon carry the boat. A week might well be spent in the quaint old Near the sea an immense railway viaduct spans the village of Crecy and the neighbourhood. river-or rather its enclosing leagues of tidal mud. Somewhere here Heard III, instructed by a French traitor, crossed a ford quickly, and put the rising tide A day was left unoccupied at Calais in order to
CALAIS RIVERS-ITOME IN A STORM.
EAST ANGLIA-LOWESTOFT TO YARMOUTH
navigate the little river, which, by the aid of a canal, I was again. An old widow, whose husbaud and son pierves as far as St. Omer. Indeed, we should call had perished in the gales of the preceding winter, ihe first twenty miles a canal; then commences the bad assisted in the embarkation. The captain being river, which rejoices in the name of the “ Aa.” Of of a compassionate mind, and having a pound St. Omer we have nothing to say, either as to its sterling to spare, offered her that sum if she would fortifications or its manufactures, but the good sense tako tlie Binomial and all its crew. As she was bad of the people is shown by using boats instead of judge enough to hesitate, the money was given withwheelbarrows. The "Aa" is cut about into inter- out conditions, and anid amazement on her part and secting canals, which isolate and refresh each man's peals of laughter from the outwitted captain, the garden and patrimony. He puts his tools into a boat new cruise commenced. . in the morning and proceeds to his work. But It is nearly forty miles ere Crown Point and the altogether it is a swampy region, only furnishing picturesque suburbs of Norwich come in view—too
— those enjoyments which a true boating spirit can find much for one day: and hotels are rare on the bank ; on the taniest river under the sun-exercise, health, but the railway runs alongside and conveys the crew and appetite.
at night to the eastern metropolis, or back to YarA different kind of cruise was to begin that night, mouth, whence it is easy to return and resume the for at Calais a stiff westerly breeze was blowing, and the voyage next morning, a far better plan for a family London boat could not get out of harbour. The crew than roughing it in the country. were against the attempt; but the captain, after
IPSWICH TO HIARWICII - CONCLUDING waiting for an hour for a better tide, ventured out, and though the steamer was almost on her beam ends the whole way, she made the passage both The town of Wolsey possesses a river of singular quickly and well.
beauty. The natives aver that the sail down to Harwich is quite equal to the Rhine; some will
have it that the Rhine is inferior-especially those RUINS OF ST. OLAVE'S AND BURGIL CASTLE.
who have only seen the Orwell. Freston Tower, East Anglia, though not comparable in all respects overlooking the broad stream, and Wolverstone to Switzerland, yet affords river excursions which Park, besides other fair demesnes, with very reawaken all the enthusiasm of the natives. Among spectable hills, and grassy well-wooded slopes these is the cruise round a kind of inland semicircle reaching to the water's
edge at high tide, are unof rivers from Lowestoft to Yarmouth. How many usually fine and luxuriant for a salt-water estuary. thousands of visitors never so much as hear of it! After a short twelve miles the rapid tide has brought
A mile from Lowestoft harbour comes the lock, on us to Harivich, where the River Stour, from Clare, one side salt water, on the other fresh, where begins Dedham, and Manningtree, joins the Orwell, before Lake Lothing or Oulton Broad; this again contracts they unitedly pour themselves into the German in less than a mile into the Waveney. A branch to Ocean by Landguard Point. The Stour is reserved the left leads to Beccles (a pleasant sail) and Bungay. for the future, as also a run by the fine Harwich A cutting farther on leads also on the left to Norwich steamboats to Belgium and Holland. and the Upper Yare and Wensum ; but keeping to This concluding little cruise was marked by a the right, the Binomial, after sighting Burgh St. casualty which ought not to have occurred to the Peter's Church (not to be confounded with Burgh Binomial; the Oyster would have blushed at it. The Castle), attained Somerleyton, once the princely boat was taking a short cut across a mud Hat when the residence of Sir Morton Peto, and soon after St. Ipswich steamer rushed by. In deep water the swell Olavo's, with its quaint ruins of the Priory. But the is easily encountered; but in shallows, the first effect inain attraction is Burgh Castle, at the junction of of the steamer's approach is a backward rush of the the Waveney and the Yare; four and a half acres water to fill up the void in the wake of the paddlearo contained within the ruins of this noble old forti- wheels: the consequence was that the Binomial was fication, whence the Romans commanded both suddenly left high and dry on the mud; in that streams, and all the surrounding country.
helpless condition she remained while the great Some four miles further is the populous old town swell from the steamer's prow came rolling up. Her of Yarmouth, something less than twenty miles from prow faced the wave, but she had no water to float Lowestost by the river. Its bloaters, its memories in. There was no danger, but a humiliating wetting of Nelson, its narrow and busy thoroughfares, are was inevitable. The captain jumped on the mud for other pens; it is enough for us to indicate a and held the stern, lest the boat should be swept off charming cruise, only adding that it is highly desir- ---a very undesirable thing if sho were waterlogged. able to arrange to go with the tide, and to be On came the wave, and broke over those of the crew careful as to the method of landing when the boat who were in the prow; the alarm was soon over, is being swept along at a great paco.
and a little baling put all things to rights. The moral was self-evident: always meet a steamer's
swell in deep water. The good boat the Binomial next prepared to A solitary rower whom we observed was much return with the tide, along the course of the Yare, nearer to grief-apparently, at least. Not looking for Norwich ; a place was specially left for the cap- behind him, his own impetus and the rush of the tuin, with the oars ready to hand, but, to the blank tide carried him straight towards a huge buoy, used amazement of the crew, there was the Oyster with for marking the channel
. As the dark body whizzed the captain on board, 'still leading the way with by him, he gave a start, and only just succeeded in unruffled good-humour: the canoe must be a conju- clearing it. So much for being alone. The committee
The first-mate, preferring to have tho captain held that he richly deserved his fright. on the larger boat, had paid twenty shillings to a Thus ended, safely and thankfully, tho Binomial sailor to have the canoe spirited away: but there it cruises. They afford pleasant recollections for the