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meat of the ascending ramus of the lower jaw, the represent rude outlying tribes belonging to races extent and roughness of the muscular insertions, which elsewhere had attained to greater culture. especially of the masticatory muscles, give rise to the Lastly, both of these old European races were idea of a violent and brutal race."
Tauranian, Mongolian, or American in their headHe adds that this apparent antithesis, scen also forms and features, as well as in their habits, imin the limbs as well as the skull, accords with the plements, and arts. To illustrate this, in so far as evidence furnished by the associated weapons and the older of the two races is concerned, I have implements of a rude hunter life, and at the same figured from photographs two Hochelagan skulls of timo of no mean degree of taste and skill in carving the extreme types found there, and have placed in and other arts. He might have added that this is connection with one of them tracings in outlir.e of precisely the antithesis seen in the American tribes, the forms of some of the oldest European crania, among whom art and taste of various kinds, and above referred to (Figs. 1—3). One may fairly bo much that is high and spiritual even in thought, compared in its characters with the Mentone skull, co-existed with barbarous modes of life and intense and the other with those of Cro-magnon, Engis, and ferocity and cruelty. The god and the devil were Neanderthal; and so like are these and Huron, combined in these races, but there was nothing of Iroquois, and other northern American skulls, to the mere brute.
these ancient European relics and others of their Rivière remarks, with expressions of surprise, the type, that it would be difficult to affirm that they same contradictory points in the Mentone skeleton. might not have belonged to near relatives. On the Its grand development of brain-case and high facial other hand, the smaller and shorter heads of the race angle, even higher apparently than in most of these of the Reindeer age in Europe may be compared with ancient skulls, combined with other characters which the Laps, and with some of the more delicately indicate a low type and barbarous modes of life. formed Algonquin and Chippewayan skulls in America.
Another point which strikes us in reading the If, therefore, the reader desires to realise the prodescriptions, and which deserves the attention of bable aspect of the men of Cro-magnon, of Mentone, those who have access to the skeletons, is the in- or of Engis, I may refer him to the modern Ameridication which they seem to present of an extreme can heads. So permanent is this great Tauranian race, longevity. The massive proportions of the body, out of which all the other races now extant seem to the great development of the muscular processes, the have been developed, in the milder and more hospiextreme wearing of the teeth, among à people who table regions of the Old World, while in northern predominantly lived on flesh and not on grain, the Asia and' in America it has retained to this day its obliteration of the sutures of the skull, along with primitive characters. indications of slow ossification of the ends of the long The reader, reflecting on what he has learned bones, point in this direction, and seem to indicate a from history, may be disposed here to ask :--Must slow maturity and great length of life in this most we suppose Adam to have been one of these primitive race.
Tauranian men, like old men of Cro-magnon? In The picture would be incomplete did we not add answer I would
say that there is no good reason to that in France and Belgium, in the immediately regard the first man as having resembled a Greek succeeding or Reindeer age, these gigantic and Apollo or an Adonis. He was probably of sterner magnificent men seem to have been superseded by a and more muscular mould. But the gigantic Palæofeebler race of smaller stature and with shorter lithic men of the European caves are more probably heads, so that we have, even in these oldest days, the representatives of that fearful and powerful race who same contrasts, already so often referred to in the filled the antediluvian world with violence, and who races of the north of Europe and the north of America reappear in post-diluvian times as the Anakim and in historical times.
traditional giants, who constitute a feature in tho It is further significant that there are some indi- carly history of so many countries. Perhaps nothing cations to show that the larger and nobler race was is more curious in tho revelations as to the most that which inhabited Europe at the time of its great- ancient cave-men than that they confirm the old beest elevation above the sea and greatest horizontal lief that there were "giants in those days." extent, and when its fauna included many large And now let us pause for a moment to picture quadrupeds now extinct. This race of giants was these so-called Palæolithic men. What could the thus in the possession of a greater continental area old man of Cro-magnon have told us had wo been than that now existing, and had to contend with able to sit by his hearth, and listen understandingly gigantic brute rivals for the possession of the world. to his speech, which, if we may judge from the form It is also not improbable that this early race became of his palate bones, must have resembled more that of extinct in Europe in consequence of the physical the Americans or Mongolians than of any modern changes which occurred in connection with the sub- European people? He had, no doubt, travelled far, for sidence which reduced the land to its present limits, to his stalwart limbs a long journey through forests and that the dwarfish raco which succeeded came in and over plains and mountains would be a mere as the appropriate accompaniment of a diminished pastime. He may have bestridden the wild horse, land surface and a less genial climate in the early which seems to have abounded at the time in France, Modern period. Both of these races are properly and he may have launched his canoe on the waters Paleolithic, and are supposed to antedate the period of the Atlantic. His experience and memory might of polished stone ; but this may, to a great extent, extend back a century or more, and his traditional lore be a prejudice of collectors, who have arrived at a might go back to the times of the first mother of our foregone conclusion as to the distinctness of these race. Did he live in that wide Post-pliocene conperiods : its validity will be discussed in our next tinent which extended westward through Ireland ? paper. Judging from the great cranial capacity of Did he know and had he visited the nations that the older race, and the small number of their lived in the valley of the great Gihon, that ran down skeletons found, it would be fair to suppose that they the Mediterranean valley, or on that nameless river which flowed through the Dover straits? Had he horizon from the high buildings in Shanghai. Revisited or seen from afar the great island Atlantis, connoitring parties were sent out to ascertain tha whose inhabitants could almost see in the sunset extent of danger which threatened the place. On sky the islands of the blest? Or did he live at a their return, the authorities were informed that the later time, after the Post-pliocene subsidence, and accounts of the affrighted inhabitants were in .no when the land had assumed its present form ? In way exaggerated. The neighbouring towns and that case he could have told us of the great deluge, villages were devastated by fire and sword, and of the huge animals of the antediluvian world, stockades erected in all directions, with an advancing known to him only by tradition, and of the dimi- force of 120,000 armed men. nished strength and longevity of men in his com- This alarming aspect of affairs roused the foreign paratively modern days. We can but conjecture all community from their lethargy: A meeting was this. But mute though they may be as to the details convened of military, naval, and consular officials, of their lives, the man of Cro-magnon and his con- together with the most influential civilians, at which temporaries are eloquent of one great truth, in whichi a Committee of Public Safety was formed, to find they coincide with the Americans and with the means for constructing defensive works under the primitive men of all the early ages. They tell us superintendence of the military. On looking round that primitive man had the same high cerebral the settlement, they saw, with increased feelings of organisation which he possesses now, and we may alarm for the safety of life and property from attack, infer the same high intellectual and moral nature, that it was vulnerable at almost every approach. fitting him for communion with God and headship The available defensive force comprised about 2,000 over the lower world. They indicate also, like the infantry, one-half French, the other Indian troops mound-builders who preceded the North American and volunteers; and about 300 marines and sailors Indian, that man's earlier state was the best, that from the British squadron, under Admiral Hope, behe had been a high and noble creature before he be- sides a half battery of artillery. That gallant oflicer camo a savage. It is not conceivable that their high took the command of this small force, to contend development of brain and mind could have spon- against the overwhelming Taiping hordes until retaneously engrafted itself in a mere brutal and inforcements could be brought from Tien-tsia and savage life. These gifts must be remnants of a noblo Hong Kong. From day to day he reconnoitred the organisation degraded by moral evil. They thus country in all directions, and came upon the most justify the tradition of a golden and Edenic age, and direful scenes of terrorism, bloodshed, and anarchy. inutely protest against the philosophy of progressive It was evident that the remorseless rebels were development as applied to man, while they bear determined to capture Shanghai at all hazards. witness to the identity in all important characters of Matters continued in this alarming state for two or the oldest prehistoric men, with that variety of our three weeks, during which time much fear and dread species which is at the present day at once the most was entertained by foreigners as well as natires. widely extended and the most primitive in its Almost every resident went about armed, and had manners and usages.
weapons handy in his house night and day; the native domestics were held in distrust, especially if they were Cantonese. The ordinary affairs of the settle
ment were in a measuro suspended, and all who THE MANDARIN'S DAUGHTER. were friends of law and order cheerfully lent their
aid in money and person to defend it. Besides doing so, the walled city was garrisoned by Indian
troops, China during this eventful year. The foreign and At last the banners of the Taiping advanced force native inhabitants of Shanghai city and settlement could be seen in the suburbs, and a notice was surrephoped that its severity would hinder the advance of titiously posted up, proposing to the foreign authorities the rebels, and accordingly little or no preparation that if they gave up the native city the settlement was made to defend the port. At that time it was should not be interfered with. This proposition was calculated that the value of merchandise and bullion rejected, although it was favourably entertained by in the foreign hongs and banks was not less than those who carried on a contraband traffic in arms five millions sterling, and that belonging to native and munitions of war. However, there were good merchants and bankers upwards of two millions men and true at the helm of affairs, who informed sterling Added to theso were other descriptions of the invaders that unless they retired beyond the property atloat in the harbour, such as opium, that thirty mile boundary around the port, as stipulated swelled the amount to at least ten millions, that with the chiefs at Nanking, they would be driven might be plundered by a successful enemy.
over it by main force. Still it was abundantly eriKnowledge of this was conveyed to the Taipings dent that both city and settlement were in imminent by their spies, who had free ingress and egress to peril. and from the city. This spurred them on to pro- Just at this time, when everything presented the secute the winter campaign with vigour. Emboldened most gloomy aspect, a providential check was given by their previous success, thoy swept down upon the to the progress of the main body of the rebels by an devoted settlement, “like the wolf on the fold,” unprecedented fall of snow. This heavy snowstorm from every point of tho compass. While the inha- continued almost incessantly for fifty-eight sucbitants supposed themselves living in comparative cessive hours, and covered the ground to the height security, they were suddenly startled by the reports of thirty inches. It remained more or less for of the fugitives from the country, that the dreaded several weeks, to obstruct communications before it Chang-maou were rapidly approaching. These entirely thawed away. On ordinary land this would accounts were verified by distant clouds of smoke by not have been the case, but the country around! day and fires by night, which were visible on the | Shanghai is so intersected with creeks, canals, and
CILATTER XXVIIJ.-PERILOUS TOSITION OF SHANGHAI.
ditches, that it is a most difficult matter for any body
BY THE REV. S. J. STONE, J.A. pearance again within view of the settlement, leaving time to finish the construction of substantial inner TWENTY-SECOND SUNDAY AFTER barricades, and push on the works forming an em
TRINITY. bankment and ditch for the outer defences.
This providential delay of hostilities was most “Ye all are partakers of my grace.”—Phil. i. 7. valuable in allowing time for the arrival of reinforcements. Among the first to make their ap, not only to believe on Ilim, but also to suffer for His sake.”
Cf. (v. 29) “ Unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ, pearance at this fresh seat of war were the Royal Engineers, under the command of Major Gordon, who subsequently performod so distinguished n part OVER a Martyr's head the sword of doom in crushing this hydra-headed monster of rebellion.
Hangs by so slight a hair a moment's breath These were days of great rejoicing to the in- By but a word may bring it down in death, habitants, both foreign and native, of the beleaguered And crescent darker shadows of the tomb settlement and city, when they saw regiment after Seem now to mingle with his prison gloom regiment of British soldiers land upon the spacious Unto despair. Yet on his brows a wreath Bund, or marine parade. As they marched through
Of the streets with bands playing, colours flying in the
conquest rests, and in his
beneath breeze, and bayonets glittering in the sun, crowds of No shades of terror or of trouble loom ; Chinese, male and female, lined the route, every one And to his children, martyrs too, oppressed, grinning and chin-chinning with the greatest satis- Friendless 'mid foes and fears, of him forlorn, faction. It was curious to note their high estimation Their brethren's pity and the whole world's scorn, of the valour of our forces, and the protection of our authorities, as compared with those of their own
He speaks, as one most blest to the most blest ! soldiers and mandarins. In them they had little or “ Such grace is mine! such grace your sorroirs prove! no confidence for the protection of their persons and The gift * of suffering for the Lord we love." property against the insurgents, and they openly solicited the aid of the British authorities.
* St. Paul at this time was at the close of his first imprisonment at
Rome, waiting the Emperor's verdict. The nature of the “grace" of As to the Chinese authorities, they were in raptures which he speaks in verse 7 is explained by verse 29. at the arrival of our forces, and did everything in their power to make them comfortable. There being no barracks in the city or settlement, the greater number of the troops were quartered in the Buddhist
Varieties. temples, some of which are spacious buildings, with abundance of accommodation. In these cases the priests were confined to some obscure part of the HUMAN FACES IN A NATURAL SUBSTANCE.-A few days edifice, or turned out altogether, while all public since I visited Canterbury Museum. In a picture frame close service in them was suspended. Generally the great
to the window under a glass are two objects that look either like
the wings of butterflies or else sections of agates. Each is about central hall was turned into the officers' mess-room,
the size of a two-shilling piece. The faces portrayed are each and while the giant images looked down upon the abont the size of a fourpenny-bit. Each face has a bearil and a unholy scene at dinner-time, the vaulted chamber re- head-dress not unlike a Persian smoking cap. Under these echoed with song and laughter. To realise such a curious objects are written the following verses :scene in this country, we must suppose some cathe
“Ask you whose curious portraits thesc? dral occupied by a regiment of soldiers, where men
Moses and Aaron, if you please
Great prophets, in the days of yore, and officers bivouacked and had their meals, thereby
Who lived a thousaud years before. desecrating the sacred edifice. Yet the Chinese
" Who formed them, or the colours made, thought it no desecration. On the contrary, the
The features with their proper shade?
Ask liim who made you, He can tell, taoutai, or chief magistrate, thought it an honour to
Whose works all human arts excel." have them in these temples, and sent the oflicers
I can just recollect some specimens of this kind elsewhere. It cases of champagne and other wines to regale them- may have been at the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. Of course selves.
these faces are produced by natural demarcations in the mate. It was a brilliant sight when the officers sat down rial of whatever it may be.-- Frank Bucklanı, in “Land and to mess. Among the recesses hung the regimental Mater." colours and trophies the regiment had captured in AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE ; AND PROPOSED RAILROAD FROM the campaign. On the altar lay swords and shakos. THE COAST TO LAKE TANGANYIKA. - Captain Cameron, R.N., Before it a long table was improvised, and covered in a letter to the Foreign Oflice, from Ujiji
, after describing
what he saw of the East African slave trade, gives suggestions with the mess-plate filled with all the goodly viands for its suppression. “Since leaving Unyanyembe I have that could be had. Each officer sat at table with his , passeil large tracts of country which have been depopulated liv Chinese attendant behind him, who changed his this inferral traflic. With regard to its suppression it is and plate or filled his wine-glass with an alacrity only will continue an impossibility until communication with the exhibited by an experienced waiter. In the verandai civilised world is opened up. There are no engineering diti
culties in the way of a railroad froin Bayomoyo to Ujiji, and a at the entrance the band discoursed pleasant music,
line of single rail 3ft. 6in. gauge ought to be constructed for while the interior was lighted up with gaily-coloured £1,000 per mile. £800,000 ought to bring it into completo lanterns. As the viands wore discussed, and the wine working order. For a large portion of the distance, the was freely circulated, toasts and songs went round sleepers and rails would only have to be laid down and ballasted. in remembrance of home. Altogether, during the The present traffic on this line would pay an interest of 5 por
cent., and the increase of import and export would double or Chinese campaigns, the military had no pleasanter treble this in a few years. Now, ivory ani slaves are almost the times than when they were quartered in Shanghai. only exports, but if means of transport by provided and culti
vation encouraged we ought to get cotton, indiarubber, semsem, might be taken as correct. The instance he bronght forwani and palm oils, hides, rice, grain, cotlee, and spices. I have was of Mrs. Elizabeth Leatherland, now alive and in her llltlı picked up wild nutmegs. In addition, when the line was com- year, her baptism being recorded in the register of the parish pleted, branch roads might be made to the Victoria Nyanza and of Dover, in Kent. This was confirmed by the record of the to Urori, and as time went on lines might be carried on on the drowning of her son and his family, and other persons to the other side of the Tanganyika. When the trunk line to this number of 37, at Hadlow, in Kent, in 1853, in the hop place is finished, I would recommend the appointment of Euro. country, by a catastrophe mentioned and described in the piean commissioners near Mbumi in Unyanyembe (not at papers of the time. Her son was then fifty-nine, and if nox Taborah, which is unhealthy) and here. They should each alive would have been eighty, his birth occurring when his have at their disposal a force of about 500 or 600 Indian mother was twenty-nine or thirty. Other corroboratire cir. soldiers and a suihcient number of European subordinates, cumstances were stated, clearly establishing the great age of in order to be able to punish any one found engaged in the old dame, who was of gipsy descent. The author then dithe slave trade, and to prevent the petty wars which foster scribed her condition, the result of a careful personal examinait. Here should be stationed two or three vessels of about tion at Tring in October, 1873. She walked with the aid of a 50 tons each, which might be sent up in pieces, to protect legal stick, was short in stature, bent with age, complexion brownish, trade and put a stop to the transport of slaves, This being a countenance a series of thick folds, and she had several sound question which affects the whole civilised world, a commission teeth. She chatted away continually in a clear, distinct voice, of the different Great Powers might be formed in order to and was in possession of all her faculties, though somewhat im. decide as to what means should be taken in order to do away paired. She was a little deaf, and took snuff; her skin was as with this curse of Africa. Instead of her being drained of her soft as velvet, and her hair quite grey. She was thin, and the life blood, she requires a much larger population than she has muscles of her neck stood out in bold relief. All her internal
resent in order to develop her vast resources. At present organs were in perfect health, lungs, heart, etc., and her pulse there is a difficulty as to what to do with the liberated slaves. was as regular and soft as in a girl of eighteen. In fact, the Why not found colonies with them, which might be protected at changes of old age as met with in persons from seventy to first, but would soon become self-supporting and able to govern eighty had not taken place in any of the tissues of the body, themselves ? In conclusion, I would adil that, wherever I being thus similar to the nine other cases examined by the have come in contact with Arabs, I have found them most author. She was of course feeble ; but, taking all things tokind, courteous, and hospitable. I do not consider them to gether, that did not prevent her reaching to her present excepblame as regards the slave trade ; they found the existing state tionally great age. Her age, the author said, taught us two of things, and let it remain as they found it. Their slaves are lessons--one was the absence of senile changes for the most nearly always—the exceptions are only enough to prove the part, in centenarians, which was the chief reason of their rule-well fed and kindly treated and looked after."
attaining to such a great age; the other the occurrence now
and then of instances wherein even six score years is reacherl, AMEN IN Church MUSIC.-The writer deems the remark of if not more. To ignore all past cases of extreme ultra-centeDean Alford, in his preface to “ The Year of Praise,” against narian longevity because we cannot get at their proofs at the the common “practice of concluding every hymn with an present day he considered unphilosophical and anscientific, for Amen,” unanswerable. “The tune being complete in itself, no there existed as conscientious and painstaking inquirers after such termination is musically required ; and the sense of the truth then as exist now, whose statements and recorded facts concluding verse not always admitting of the addition, incon.
must not be wholly ignored. gruities are frequently produced by it. When a hymn closes with a prayer or doxology, “the sense" seems to demand it, and
Mr. SUMNER's Civil Rights Bill.—This bill is designed to an Amen is admissible ; but the fact that organists and choirs abolish all distinction arising from colour. The following is are generally capable of transposing and interchanging into the the opening clause as adopted :-“ Be it enacted, &c., That all different keys, major and minor, the perfect and plagal cadences citizens within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be
entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public convey. ances on land or water, theatres, and other places of public amusements, and also of common schools and public institutions of learning or benevolence supported in whole or in part by general taxation, and of cemeteries so supported, and also the institutions known as agricultural colleges endowed by the United States, subject only to the conditions and limitations
established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every racc commonly used for the purpose has, in the writer's judgment, and colour, regardless of any previous condition of servitude." rendered it unnecessary to crowd the pages with what the dean MILTON IN BUCKINGHAMSHIRE.-The chancel of the parish says is not "musically required.” Two exceptions may be church of Horton, in Buckinghamshire, contains a monument noticed-Euphrates and St. Athenogenes, compositions proper to, as well as the remains of, Sara Milton, the poet's mother, to their respective words, containing each its Amen. - From the who died 1637. This portion of the edifice is being restored in Preface to " Common Fraise,” by the Rev. S. G. Hatherly. stone entirely at the expense of the Rector of Horton, the Rer.
R. G. Foot. For six years John Milton attended this church, PAUPER STATISTICS.—The annual return of paupers in Eng. Horton being the residence of his parents. The place has long been land and Wales receiving relief from the rates on New Year's celebrated for the nightingale--hence Milton's sonnet to that Day, shows that on the 1st of January, 1874, the number was bird. Near to Horton Church is the site of Milton's house, 832,370, being one in twenty-seven, or 3.7 per cent. on the and an apple-tree in the garden was long preserved. The old population, according to the census of 1871, and being also tree having perished, the owner of the land has planted a new 58,002, or 6.5 per cent. fewer than on New Year's Day, 1873. one on the same spot. The indoor paupers showed only a small decrease--from 154,171 in 1873 to 152,279 in 1874 ; but the outdoor paupers decreased
HOSPITAL SUNDAY FUND.-The Committee of the Metrofrom 736,201 to 680,091. According to the Poor-law returns politan Hospital Fund for 1874, in their official report in relathe number of paupers relieved in the metropolis during the tion to the distribution, state that no hospital or dispensary has third week of July was 92,259, namely, 33,147 in the work. this year been allowed to participate which could not submit houses, and 59,112 out of doors. Last year the numbers were
returns of their income and expenditure during the last three respectively 32,955 and 65,717.
years. The Committee have also been careful in not only calenlating for themselves the items expenditu
and income supLONGEVITY.—Sir Duncan Gibb, M.1)., read a paper upon plied by the authorities of the hospitals and dispensaries, but “Longevity at five score eleven years,” at the Belfast meeting have also required the secretary of each institution to furnish of the British Association. He said he had brought forward like statements in duplicate, so as to lessen the possibility of nine examples at previous meetings of the Association of error in calculating the bases of distribution. The total amount persons who had overstepped the century by several years, of the collections on Hospital Sunday this year, reported at the and now his tenth Instance was that of a female still living Mansion House, amounted to nearly £29,500, which is very at Tring, in Hertfordshire, who attained her hundred and considerably above that of the first year. Of that sum the Diseleventh birthday in April last. Tables were quoted contain- tribution Cominittee allocated to hospitals £24,727 173. 6d. in ing 84 instances of persons whose age extended from 107 to all, and to dispensaries and kindred institutions, £3,172, 175 ; 40 of these were under 130, and 44 above that age, and making together £27,899 17s. 6d. The remainder was required the author considered that three-fourths of the total number for advertising and various expenses.
BEHOLD IN THESE WHAT LEISURE HOURS DEMAND, -AMUSEMENT AND TRUE KNOWLEDGE LAND IN AAND."-. Corper.
THE SALE OF CALLOWFIELDS. letters on his first appearance in the front room. He
was weak and nervous, and his kind nurse would not CHAPTER XV. “ This precious secret let me hide."
allow him to get up till the middle of the day. She -Cotton.
had never invaded his sleeping apartment since his EES, Mees Millett!” cried the abbé, in a partial convalescence, for, as she remarked to Mrs. somewhat tremulous voice.
Higgins, “ Although both she and the abbé were too “I'm coming, sir," said Kezia, in her cheerful old for any prudish nonsense, yet there were protope.
prieties in life that ought always to be observed." The abbé was in bed. He had had a relapse, So when he called " Mees! Mees !" when he Kezia declared, through his obstinacy in reading his heard her foot on the stairs, as if she were making No. 1193.-NOVEMBER 7, 1874.
PBICE ONE PENNY.