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leave, when tasted, a hot sensation in the mouth and throat, they should be used with caution. Two, how- THE OCTOPUS OF TIIE SOUTH PACIFIC. ever, which are acrid are yet excellent articles of food, viz., Ilydnum repándum and Cantharellus cibàrius. THE octopus is called tho eke by the Server
. With such species it is a good practice to slice them In the shallow waters of our reefs young octopi into hot water, and press the slices in a cloth before
At this stage of their history they are Professor Bentley (the Professor of Botany at
known as maori, and are eagerly sought for by King's College, London) gives the following“ general cuttle-fish which call forth the energy and daring
women and children as a delicacy. The lary characters by which the edible and poisonous species of the islanders, and excite the superstition of a few, of fungi may, as a rule (but not an unerring one), be distinguished. Edible mushrooms: 1. Grow solitary fisherman who catches one of these becomes famous
are known as eke tapairu, i.e., “divine octopi.” The in dry airy places. 2. Are generally white or brownish. 3. Have a compact brittle flesh. 4. Do
amorgst his countrymen. The octopus is a universal not change colour, when cut, by the action of the has been disputed in Europe whether the oitopus
article of diet amongst the South Sea Islanders. It air. 5. Juice watery. 6. Odour agreeable. 7. Taste not bitter, acrid, salt, or astringent. Poisonous
ever attacks human beings. No native of Polynesia mushrooms: 1. Grow in clusters, in woods, and dark doubts the fact. A fisherman never goes alone in damp places. 2. Usually with bright colours. 3.
quest of octopi; he has always a trusty friend in the Flesh tough, soft, and watery. 4. Acquire a brown, anchors the canoe, and dives down to the assistance
cavoe to take care of it. In case of peril, this friend green, or blue tint when cut and exposed to the air. 5. Juice often milky. 6. Odour commonly powerful to the writer, one morning went with a companion
of his companion. A native of Mangaia, well known and disagreeable. 7. Have an acrid, astringent, to dive for cuttle-fish. According to custom, he acid, salt, or bitter taste. It is best to avoid all had a knife, and a small quantity of slacked lime fungi which have arrived at their full development or show any signs of change; and by soaking doubt wrapped up in a leaf of the Dracena terminalis, sus. ful fungi cut in slices for about an hour in vinegar pended from his neck. A stout stake of ironwood and afterwards washing them in boiling water, they a crevice of the coral the eves of a large octopus
was in his hand. On reaching the bottom he saw in may, it is stated, be rendered harmless." suggests that in general “ they should be eaten with Unluckily for him, both his hands grasped the stake
. With regard to the use of fungi, Mr. Berkeley glaring upon him, but ere he could attack it, a
discharge of sopia hid the sea-monster from sight. moderation, and with plenty of bread to securo suffi. To his horror, he suddenly felt the octopus running cient maceration. In case of accident, a strong mustard emetic should be taken immediately, and up his back and firmly clasping his armis. Being a medical advice called in. The narcotic symptoms very powerful man, he struggled hard to release and attendant inflammation of the intestines are too himself, but to no purpose whatever. To add to grave to be tritled with by domestic medicine. If, his terror, one of tho tentacula had got across his however, medical aid is not at hand, the system must open eve, so that he had but one (the left) for use. be kept up with chlorine, ether, brandy, and other Almost bereft of his senses, he quietly remained stimulants; and if diarrhæa and painful colic, as
where he was, hoping that his companion would often happens, are urgent symptoms, opium must be descend to his assistance. Moments seemed hours. given freely. The narcotic symptoms, except from At length his friend, wearied with waiting, exthe use of such fungi as the Fly Agaric, are seldom pressed a little cocoa-nut oil on the surface of the sen, predominant."
and then peering down, perceived the peril the fisherThe Fly Agaric (Agaricus muscàrius, or, as it is now
man was in. Diving to the bottom, he put his left generally called, Àmanita muscària) is a very beauti- hand behind his back, and firmly grasping his knife ful scarlet species, studded with white or yellow in his right hand, quickly severed the tentacula which warts, which is common in beech woods in this
pinioned the poor man. Tho octopus, not relishing
this treatment, made off. Both natives now rose country. It is one of the most poisonous of our native fungi, producing intoxication if eaten. Its to the surface and got ashore. The original direr narcotic properties, indeed, are so strong that in some
was much exhausted, blood oozing from his eyes and countries it is employed, mixed with the juice of His nervous system received a shock from which it
He had drunk large quantities of sea-water. cranberries, to produce intoxication. A number of illustrations of British fungi: very destroyed. A few months afterwards he died.
never recovered. The sight of the right eye was
Tho carefully and accurately drawn by Mr. Worthington Smith, will be found in the department of the South offending cuttle-fish did not exceed six or seven feet Kensington Museum containing the Food Collection in length. (now, I believe, at the branch museum at Betlinal
In a neighbouring island, the shallow waters of Green). In looking at these drawings, however, the the reef are enclosed with stone fences, like meadows public should bear in mind that they are drawn to a
in the north of England. Openings are made, where, scale considerably above the natural size, though this at low tide, fishermen, with large scoop nets, catch
, is not stated, as it should have been, on the draw- Occasionally the grated nut* of the noble Barring,
the imprisoned fish when endeavouring to escape. ingrs.
Though several excellent and well-illustrated works tonia tree is plentifully scattered over the enclosed on fungi have been published, yet we still want a
waters as fish poison, without, however, affecting very cheap illustrated manual för wide circulation the value of the fish as food. The smaller fish amongst cottagers and others
, and for placing in speedily float on the surface dead; the larger and every village school, in the hope of thus instructing
more vigorous fish are only partially stupefied by the masses on a subject of great importance.
* The only name in the lIervey dialect for “heart
is “ntu," which on account of the similarity of shape, is also the name of the fruit of the Barringtonia trco.
the poison. The delight of the natives (in which I put into the canoe, Oiri remarked, “We will feast have often shared/) is to chase these larger fish, and on this big fellow when our work is done.” This stuke them with a piece of stout hoop iron. On the was satisfactory to all parties. They went on diving day of an “ora,” or “fish-poisoning," Captain – and caught a great many more, but none comparable attracted by the sight of hundreds of men, women, to the large one.
The sun was now low in the and chillren enjoying the sport, put on a pair of horizon, so the fishermen went ashore to divide the immeuse sea-boots, and strode into the midst of the spoil, and expected to feast upon the “eke tapairu " merry throng; but passing too close to a hollow in (*divine* cuttle-tish"). But the wily Oiri had
“ the coral, ti liis astonishment, both his legs were changed his mind, and said that as he first saw the sndenly embraced by a large octopus. My friend fish it was his, and he wanted to present it as tribute could not move an inch. The grasp of the tish to his chief. Ilis companions sullenly acquiesced. tiglituned. Alarmed now for his safety, he shouted The smaller cuttle-fish were divided out, and Oiri Justily for help. Friendly natives soon released him marched off in triumph. from this awkward predicament by cutting off the But his triumph was short; for the discontented tentacula which made him captive.
fishermen remembered that if Oiri first sighted and The fish-poison referred to does not sensibly affect dived for the great cuttle-fish, it was Viringa's strong the octopus, but slacked coral lime instantaneously hand that killed it. They resolved on revenge. One kills it.
of the divers (named Atoro) soon after paid Oiri a The ancient classical fable of the Lernean hydra visit, and earn
ernestly invited him to come over to his slain by Hercules, and which is called his " second part of the island to live awhile with his old friends, labour," is doubtless merely an exaggerated descrip- the cuttle-fish divers. So pressing was Atoro, and tion of some actual contest with a gigantic octopus, so seemingly kind, that Oiri unwisely consented to the bile with which Hercules poisoned his arrows accompany him that same evening. It was dusk being the well-known sepia, and the ninth, or im- when they set out. The suspicions of Oiri were mortal head, being the true head of the cephalopod. aroused by their meeting on the way a number of It is interesting to know that while the tentacula armed men, all friends of Atoro, cooking taro. To possess wondrous strength, the heart—which is the allay his fears Atoro gave him his wooden sword to only vulnerable part—is soft, extremely sensitive, carry. Onward gloomily trudged Oiri, pathetically and easily destroyed by inserting the fingers of the chanting an old song about brother fighting brother left hand into the mouth, and with the other tearing on a celebrated battle-field. Ere the song was conit asunder. The fish immediately dies, and the cluded, Atoro snatched the wooden sword out of his tentacula relax.
hand, and with it despatched his victim. And for Sperm whales feed exclusively on cuttle-fish. what? Merely for being deprived of a taste of an
The full-grown fish was anciently regarded as a immense cuttle-fish! divinity in several of the South Sea Islands. Hence Not long afterwards the gospel of peace was the common name for these large ones, “ eke tapairu, brought to Mangaia, and in the inscrutable proor “divine cuttle-fish." At Rarotonga, the cuttle- vidence of God, this same cruel Atoro became one of fish was the special deity of the reigning Makea the early converts. family down to the subversion of idolatry: The
WILLIAM WYATT GILL, B.A. superstition gained support from a remarkable circumstance connected with a pool of water near the
• The cuttle-fish was not worshipped on Mangaia. usual landing-place, where passing vessels fill their
+ Warriors on a killing expedition ate with their weapons in their empty casks. Although usually clear as crystal, at hands in the open air. certain phases of the moon it becomes so inky that no one can use it. This is doubtless owing to the presence of cuttle-fish, which go there to spawn.
From time to time wo have heard stories of enormous octopi being seen extending their terrible
AUTUMN VIOLETS. arms over the shelving coral bottom of the ocean. One day, Ngakian came ashore on the weather side WHE
THEN swallows have departed, of Mangaia, where he had been fishing, saying that
And wreaths of crimson leaves he had just seen a monstrous cuttle-fish at the bottom Are twined around the empty nests of the sea, some little distance outside the breakers.
Beneath the cottage eaves; He was chaffed for not trying to catch the prize, but he persisted that all he had stated as to its size was
When pallid sunlights faintly shine true. Knowing the tendency of the native mind to
Where fading roses glow, exaggeration I have always pooh-poohed such stories, How sweetly in the year's decline regarding them as the offspring of fear mingled with
The autumn violets blow! superstition. A singular-looking lichen, used by native doctors
When all the corn is garnered, as an outward application, is called the “octopus," on account of its resemblance to that fish. It is
And all the work is done, usually five or six inches in diameter.
God gives us back the early joys Five men one day went diving for cuttle-fish. A That bloomed when life begun ; number of small ones had been obtained, when Oiri, Nor shall we mourn the gayer flowers one of the divers, caught sight of an immense fellow
That perished long ago, hiding in a hole at the bottom. Although he re
If in these later day of ours peatedly dived, he failed to secure the prize. Eventually, however, one of his companions stabbed tho
The autumn violets blow. cuttle-fish with a long pointed stake. On its being
LUTHER FESTIVAL AT SONNENBERG.--At Sonnenberg, near our leading papers :— There is probably some subtle pleasure Coburg, a place associated with various memorable periods in in our immigration agents in England making up their invoices the history of the great Reformer, there was a national festival of assisted immigrants, in those neat and compendious fornis this summer. Speeches were delivered, and the assembled mul. which are faithfully reproduced by the officers in charge at the titudes joined in singing the grand hymn “Ein feste Burg ist various barracks, both before and after the arrival of our intendunser Gott,” which had a most solemn and imposing effect. But | ing colonists. Thus, three carpenters, two school teachers, fiflighter and gayer revelry abounded on the festive occasion. The teen farm labourers, two clerks, one artist. These no doubt slopes were covered with booths as for a fair, and all sorts of look better than when afterwards re-assorted and re-classified, amusements were carried on. Near the village inn a group of somewhat after the following manner :-One baked potato mau, monks sat at a table selling indulgences, at fixed prices, accord- two umbrella menders, tive habitual drunkards, one showman, ing to the nature and heinousness of the crimes specified on a two thimble-riggers, two cork-cutters, one feather-dresser, two list. This historical satire caused much amusement. The doll's-eye makers, one “Chelsea bruiser," three loafers (puro weather was warm, and it was droll to see the thirsty monks and simple), two good men and true.
Then the beautifully passing the beer-mug round in the midst of their busy traffic. indefinite description of “three married couples and fifteen ser. At one juncture a cry was raised that “Luther was coming." vant girls,” divided, probably on their own representations, into Some mounted knights rode up, escorting the Reformer, at so many housemaids, cooks, and nurses, leaves no excuse for whose appearance the popish traffickers vanished. A Herr more particular inquiry. It must yet be an open question which Albrecht, personating Luther, and making a very good likeness, country is most benefited by the importation of these people.'" in appearance and manner as well as dress, delivered an address
DARWINISM.--Any one of Mr. Darwin's books, admirable befitting the scene. The thorough zest with which the farce though they all are, consists but in the setting forth of a multi
. was entered into by the people proved that Luther's work was
tude of indeterminate problems. He proves in the inost beau. well understood, and tliat his name is yet a word of power in
tiful manner that each flower of an orchid is adapted to some the Fatherland.
insect which frequents and fertilizes it, and these adaptations CANDLESTICKS, — The following advertisement is from an are but a few cases of those immensely numerous ones which English Ritualistic newspaper :- A missionary shortly going have occurred throughout the life of plants and animals. But abroad to take charge of a poor district, would feel very grateful why orchids should have been formed so differently from other for the gift of any of the following to take with him : Sacra- plants, why anything, indeed, should be as it is, rather than iu mental vessels, altar cross, candlesticks, and set of coloured some of the other infinitely numerous possible modes of exist. stoles." We have a couple of old candlesticks to spare : for the ence, he can never show. The origin of everything that exists rest apply elsewhere.—New York Independent.
is wrapped up in the past history of the universe. At some one Mrs. SOMERVILLE DESCRIBED BY MARIA EDGEWORTH.-In determinations which led to the production of things as they
or more points of past time there must have been arbitrary a letter to a friend, dated Beechwood Park, January 17th, 1822,
are.—“ Principles of Science,” by W. S. Jerons.
Miss Edgeworth wrote :-“We have spent two days pleasantly here with Dr. Wollaston, our own dear friend, Mrs. Marcet,
KNOWLEDGE ON EARTI INCOMPLETE.-No one can have and the Somervilles. Mrs. Somerville is the lady who,
lived long without experiencing sorrowful events of which the Laplace says, is the only woman who understands his works. significance is inexplicable. But if we cannot succeed in avoid. She draws beautifully, and while her head is among the stars,
ing contradiction in our notions of elementary geometry, can we her feet are firm upon the earth. Mrs. Somerville is little, expect that the ultimate purposes of existence shall present slightly made, fairish hair, pink colour, small, grey, round, themselves to us with perfect clearness? I can see nothing to intelligent, smiling eyes, very pleasing countenance, remarkably forbid the notion that in a higher state of intelligence much that soft voice, strong, but well-bred Scotch accent; timid, not is now obscure may become clear. We perpetually find ourdisqualifying timid, but naturally modest, yet with a degree of selves in the position of finite minds attempting infinite proself-possession through it which prevents her being in the blems, and can we be sure that where we see contradiction, an least awkward, and gives her all the advantage of her under- infinite intelligence might not discover perfect logical harmony ? standing ; at the same time, that it adds a prepossessing charm -“ Principles of Science,” by W. S. Jevons. to her manner, and takes off all dread of her superior scientific
GARIBALDI ON PETRARCH. —The “Cologne Gazette" gare learning."
the following letter which Garibaldi sent to the ex-General Bor. SPECTRUM ANALYSIS ANNOUNCED.-One bright morning
done on the occasion of the Petrarch celebration :-“Caprera, Dr. Wollaston came to pay us a visit in Hanover Square,
July 1.-My dear General, saying, “I have discovered seven dark lines crossing the solar
• Di vivi inferno (Roma)! Un gran miracol fia, spectrum, which I wish to show you ;
Sc Cristo teco alfine non s'adira.'
then, closing the window shutters so as to leave only a narrow line of light, he [Hell of the living ! (speaking of Rome). It would be a put a small glass prism into my hand, telling me how to hold great wonder if Christ were not at length enraged at thee.] it. I saw them distinctly. I was among the first, if not the These glorious verses of the great poet of Vaucluse show the very first, to whom he showed these lines, which were the anti-clerical character of his immortal genius. Petrarch is origin of the most wonderful series of cosmical discoveries, and certainly, as well as Dante, one of the most powerful of the great have proved that many of the substances of our globe are also pioneers who have underinined the abominable structure of constituents of the sun, the stars, and even of the nebulæ. Dr. superstition to its very foundations at a time when all kinds of Wollaston gave me the little prism, which is doubly valuable, inquisitors wasted human flesh with as much zeal as only the being of glass manufactured at Munich by Frannhofer, whose man-eaters of the cannibal islands can develop.--GARIBALDI." table of dark lines has now become the standard of comparison in that marvellous science, the work of many illustrious men,
Sparrows.—The sparrow is, I believe, the only bird that is brought to perfection by Bunsen and Kirchhoff. — Mary
a voluntary inhabitant with man- lives in his society, and is hic
constant attendant, following him wherever he fixes his resi. Somerville.
dence. It becomes immediately an inhabitant of the new farm. EMIGRANTS. — A correspondent of the “Times” in New Zea. house, in a lonely place or recent enclosure, or even in an land gives an amusing account of the classes of emigrants that island; will accompany man into the crowded city, and build arrive since free passages have been in vogue: “I see that the and feed there in content, unmindful of the noise, the smoke tide of emigration from the United Kingdom is setting in this of the furnace, or the steam-engine, where even the swallow direction. It is quite time that it should. We have ample and the marten, that flock around him in the country, are room and remunerative employment for a very much larger nam. scared by the tumult and leave him : but the sparrow, thouy ber of men than are in the colony, and fresh resources are daily begrimed with soot, does not forsake him ; feeds on his fool, developing as the public works progress. There seems to be a rice, potatoes, or almost any other extraneous substance lio fear in England that the best men of the old country are mov- may find in the street ; looks to him for his support, and is ing away to the new. The experience out here is that we have maintained almost entirely by the industry and providence of a very fair share of an inferior quality of biped among our im. It is not known in a solitary and independent state.-ports. A few days ago the following notice appeared in one of | Journal of a Naturalist.
“BEHOLD IN THICSF WHAT LEISURE HOURS DEMAND,-AMUSEMENT AND TRUE KNOWLEDGE AND IN HAND.". Cowpcr.
THE SALE OF CALLOWFIELDS.
A heavenly solace in an earthly mind."
as Anthony King approached him. No.1189,- OCTOBER 10, 1874.
"But, my dear friend, listen to me," said Anthony
"Oh no, good Monsieur Antoine, I cannot listen ; I cannot be happy no more. Go, Monsieur Antoine, you have see a poor broken-heart man; too mush of trouble have quite kill my spirit !”
“No, no, my dear abbé, not so,” said Anthony, much overcome; “you will get through this trouble, as I shall through mine." “ Your—your trouble! what is dat? dat is no more
PRICE ONE PENNY.
dan a dust to mine!” cried the abbé, almost angry | claimed the abbé, much excited; "ce monde est with the comparison.
plein de fous, I am fool too mosh, but not dat fool. · Nay; I have lost the prospect of a good post, No, no, good Monsieur Antoine,” he cried, with an and am now quite at sea again as to where I shall | hysterical little laugh. find bread; Cordell, too, his being away just now is “ I believe it,” said Anthony. “I have it on the a sad thing."
best authority.” “Sad ting; it is all sad ting-oer sad. Hélas ! “ You believe it? What you believe ?" asked I can never, never be happy again," said the abbé, the abbé. renewing his lamentations.
“Why, that God has permitted this loss for some “ Your great ancestor, the Constable, forgot his wise and kind end, and that you will one day defeats of Pavia and Dreux in the glories of St. Denis, confess it." It isn't like a Montmorenci to give way to despair." “ You believe dat?” said the abbé, rising on his
“De Constable! bah! he has never been cheat tiptoes; “ believe I shall say "tank God for de and rob like me; he has never been walk and talk breaken bank? Ha, ha! No, Monsieur, I shall not from morning till night for poor tree shillang and pretend as God has breaken de bank; it is a wicked sixpence, and den for it all to be fly away wid.' tief has done it, and shall I say him tanks? Jamais !"
“No; his troubles were not like yours; but I “ I do not want to offend you, nor to press unwelmeant to comfort you by showing that as defeat and come consolations on you, my dear friend. If you captivity, as you often have told us, were in his case were a believer in this Book, you would see as I see, succeeded by victory and glory
and we could join in praying that God would enable “Bah! glory!” interrupted the abbé, with great us to get all the good he intends for us in these disgust; "he die of his wounds after St. Denis." trials. I assure you I am in as much need of it as
“Yes, but he conquered; glory was the aim of his you.” As he spoke he drew out his Bible, in which life, and he died covered with glory.”
he had frequently tried to interest the abbó, and “What is glory?" said the abbé. "I have no turning to the epistle to the Hebrews read these battle to fight; I do not want glory-I want-eh! words: “Now no chastening for the present seemeth my poor two tousand pound!” and again he burst to be joyous, but grievous : nevertheless afterward it into tears.
yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto “I only wished to remind you of your name, de them which are exercised thereby." Montmorenci,” said Anthony; “I thought that would The abbé shrugged his shoulders rather iminspire you with courage to bear your loss."
patiently, but said nothing, “You tought!” exclaimed the abbé, much ex- “ And here, too, listen to this: 'He doth not cited; "you should tought better dan dat, if de afllict willingly, nor grieve the children of men, wicked man dat has break his bank would say to me, Anthony read, again, from the Lamentations.
Saar, you are of de noble family of de Montinorenci, “It is ver good, Monsieur Antoine ; it is all ver you shall have back your two tousand pound,'den good," said the abbé, coldly; "but I tink dere is it would be one graud consolation. Hélas!” he noting to do of God in my trouble ; for wlıy? I have cried, burying his face in his hands, as he felt that been ver good man; I am not sinner like some tiet such a happy result was a fiction.
dat breakens bank, and rob de poor. I am good “I am so very sorry," said Anthony, who thought and kind, and doos no harm-ask my pupil, ask it better to wait till the first frenzy had passed. Madame Higgin, is it not ?—and when I had saved
“ Bah!” exclaimed the abbé, through his fingers. my tree tousand I should have turn again to my own
“Well, I must go and see how I may best remedy country, to my poor sister wid so many chick-uns own trouble, since you will not let me comfort chile, and to my broder who is sick. Is it not good? you under yous," said Anthony, rising to leave him. God 'love do good, he shall punish de wicked; it is
“Do not go, Monsieur Antoine, good Monsieur in de Bible!” he added triumphantly. Antoine, I entreat you to pardon me. I have forget “What do you think of Job ?” asked Anthony, your goodness to come to de miserable! Hélas ! what determined not to give up. miserable I am," cried the abbé, with a despairing "Job? what of him? He has not work hard for gesture.
many year, and he cheat and steal of everyting," Anthony, looking at him with the greatest kind said the abbé, who was very ignorant of the Scripness, reseated himself.
tures, and know nothing of the patriarch's afflictions. This touched the heart of the poor abbé, who “Now listen to this,” said Anthony, and he read cried, “Ah! my good friend, you are my true friend; the first and part of the second chapter of Job. To you come to me in my grief
, and you—yes—I have make it more forcible to the abbé, he translated it not care for your grief; but it is a pity, I am sorry into French as he went on, getting many an infor you. I hope you shall soon have better dan dat voluntary correction from the little Frenchman. you lose. Télas ! what can I do?” he exclaimed,
" Job was a good man, ,” said Anthony at the relapsing into his own sorrows.
close, the abbé keeping silence; "and yet," con"I believe I shall have just what is best for me; tinued Anthony, "tod permitted his trials-such
— I believe that whatever happens is for my good," trials !--children, wealth, health, all taken away." said Anthony.
The abbé shrugged his shoulders, and looked "For your good? Well, it may be; but I cannot musingly at the Bible.
· say dat, Monsieur Antoine, no, I cannot."
“If we have Job's spirit to say, 'Blessed be the * No, I wish you could, it would do more for you name of the Lord,' under our trials, don't you
think in helping you to bear it than all the Montmorenci it will be well for us? I'm sure there's nothing else blood in your reins, which, you see, won't help will really carry us through." at all."
“I have not got it, good Monsieur Antoine,” said "It has happen for my good dat de bank has the abbé, with great simplicity; "I cannot say, 'I breaken, and lose my two tousand pound !” ex- tank God to lose my two tousand pound;' it is not