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CHAPTER XXI.-JOURNEYING ON THE GRAND CANAL.

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naval officer is a more efficient soldier than a followed by the customs official, who excused himself sailor, while sometimes, indeed, the commander- that he had his duties to perform. in-chief of an army belongs to neither of these On came the boats in gallant array, the blast of services, but holds his appointment as the trumpets and the roll of drums increasing as they governor of a province, with his literary degree from passed the station. Meng-kee observed that the the Hanlin examinations. Such is the anomalous duties performed by the officials were to make obei. rank of officials in China, which fairly puzzled the sance in the most humble form, and to bang away early Portuguese to classify according to European at their gongs in token of respect to the much-hated usage. Hence they adopted the general term “Man- foreigners who had conquered their army and navy.' darin” (from mandar, to command) for all govern- As it was not judicious to remain longer at this ment officers, so used by foreigners to this day. place, Meng-kee gave orders to the boatmen to get

Judging from his strut, Meng-koe concluded that under way immediately; and they followed in the the commander of the gunboat was more of a mili- rear of the British-freighted boats, to the chagrin of tary than a naval officer, who was probably appointed the dandy officer, who had been smitten at first sight on special service to keep an eye upon the foreign with the charms of A-Lee. troops travelling between Peking and Tien-tsin. Be that as it may, he welcomed him and his elder colleague with great courtesy on board the passengerboat.

Loo MENG-KEE ordered the boatmen to follow the Loo A-Lee was taken somewhat by surprise on flotilla of troop-boats, keeping within view of the the entrance of these two officials into the cabin, for last one, and on no account to attempt to pass them she feared that something wrong had happened to should even their speed be lessened. He knew that her father. He soon, however, dissipated her fears the Taiping emissary and his recruits were ahead, by recounting what had occurred at the station, and and he had no desire to come into contact with them. the departure of the other two boats. She expressed By keeping in the wake of the British transports herself in choice terms to her visitors, and, as the until they reached the junction of the Grand Canal morning meal was just preparing, invited them to with the Peiho, their boat could pass the western partake of the humble fare on board, which was suburb of Tien-tsin unnoticed, at which place he politely accepted.

expected Cut-sing would be waiting for him. “Do you visit these "barbarian’troops at Tien-tsin The weather continued fine throughout the day, on your way to Yang-chow?" the gallant officer and the breeze became more favourable, so that the asked Meng-kee, after he had done justice to the boats sailed along swiftly, reaching the junction early fish, fowl, and rice served up.

in the afternoon. Here the flotilla dropped their No, I think not. Unless we require some com- sails, and the boats were rowed easterly to the city, forts for my daughter at that town for the remainder while that of Meng-kee sailed westerly, and in a few of our journey, we will not visit the place, but ascend miles entered the famous Grand Canal, which interto the entrance of the grand canal."

sects four of the most fertile provinces in China, from “You are right; and I am sure your fair daughter north to south, over a distanee of 650 miles. would not wish to look upon these Fan-kwei."

After passing a bridge of boats, an extensive prosThis term, which does not sound very polite when pect of the country on both sides opened up to view, translated for foreign ears, brought a blush to the as the level of the canal is several feet above the surcheeks of Loo A-Lee. The blush was observed by rounding plain. Here a very laborious method of the gallant commander, who, misinterpreting its irrigation is adopted by dipping buckets into the purport, addressed her.

canal and throwing the water into a tank, from Hi-yah!” he exclaimed, "you may well blush which it is carried along small channels into the at the name of these outside barbarians, who have adjoining fields. At some places where the banks brought disaster into the land, and dishonoured the are high, two tiers of labourers may be seen drawing name of our late emperor. Ah! if the generals had and pouring water into the tanks. only taken my advice, not one of these redcoats would While the wind was fair it was extremely pleasant have landed alive. We could have had all our gun- sailing along the canal for tho first ten or fifteen boats ranged along the shore, five hundred in number, miles. Not only are the banks in fine order and so that not a boat with troops could pass between, beautifully sloped, but in many places well wooded, and as these came on we would have swept them into which gives a pleasing variety to the otherwise the sea, leaving not one alive. Ah! if I was only a monotonous landscape. In contrast to this is the commander-in-chief, even now I could drive the ruinous appearance of the towns and villages by the boasting cowards out of Tien-tsin. Let them come way. The houses are built of mud-bricks dried in

I could kill a hundred with my own hand in the sun, and plastered with clay and straw, giving battle. Let them come down the river, and I would them a poverty-stricken appearance. blow the rascals out of the water like-"

As they reached a village named Pa-tow, the wind Here he suddenly stopped in his valiant speech, as seemed to have suddenly shifted right ahead. It was he rose to show how he would annihilate the enemy, not so; but in consequence of the canal being torwhen his voice was arrested by hearing the sound of tuous at this place—the channel of a stream haring a brass band spreading its martial music over the been taken advantage of in its construction—the boat murmuring waters. On looking up the stream there had to wind round the reaches, making the distance he saw approach a line of boats filled with British more than double by water what it is by land. Here soldiers, whose bayonets glittered like a forest of there were a number of boats starting in company; steel in the morning sun. It was a stirring sight, the boatmen, having disembarked, attached a long and sent a thrill of delight through A-Lee's heart; but rope to the top of each mast, and marched along the it had a very different effect upon our Chinese Captain right bank in single file, chanting songs to help them Bobadil, who took his departure suddenly, and was to keep time. Some large boats filled with produce

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had as many as twenty men tracking them. On the middle, the sides being so finely balanced and loaded opposite bank another string of boats were proceed that they do not topple over. The sail is hoisted on ing northward, altogether presenting a very animated a mast in the forepart of the vehicle, and is so rigged scene on the Grand Canal.

as to be raised or reefed at pleasure by the steersThe inhabitants of this region are much less re- man, who walks behind with the braces attached to fined than in the more southern provinces, having a hook by his side. There is an immense strain upon a more boorish aspect, and their agricultural opera- him when he has to guide the vehicle according to tions are performed in a ruder manner. In plough- the velocity of the wind. Nevertheless they will ing they use horses, mules, asses, and oxen indis- carry six heavy bales of cotton, or more than half a criminately, and occasionally women may be seen in ton of bean-cake, on one machine. the yoke. Sometimes the whole live stock and house- Through this fertile region Meng-kee and his hold turn into the field to plough, man and beast doing daughter sailed smoothly and rapidly along the labour alike. Otherwise the absence of animal life is Grand Canal for two days, passing some flourishing remarkable. There is no game to be seen, and of cities, which the Taipings had not visited, until one birds the magpie is the only kind that abounds, the morning the monotonous level of the landscape was Chinese having a superstitious regard for them, as broken by the appearance of a low range of hills to they frequent the tombs, and thereby are supposed the south. At the base of these hills ran the famous to be possessed of the spirits of their ancestors. Yellow River, which has been fitly designated

At length the boat with Meng-kee and his daughter “China's Sorrow," from the devastation caused by arrived safely at Lin-tsing, where the canal bifurcates; its floods upon the surrounding country through a small branch leading to the south-west, while the which it passed formerly on its lower course to the main channel proceeds in a south-easterly direction. Yellow Sea. Even that course has recently changed, This was once a fine old city of the third order in and a new outlet has been formed in the Gulf of Chinese topography, but when the mandarin landed Pe-che-lee by this most erratic and devastating to call upon some friends, he found it a mass of ruins, stream. From time immemorial the character of the suburbs, which extend for two miles along the this river has been the burden of the ancient sages east bank of the canal, being the only habitable part and princes, in their lamentations of the people's of a once flourishing town. On inquiry as to the sufferings.

a cause of this destruction, he was informed that the It was with some difficulty, and no small degree of Taiping rebels had captured it some years before, danger, that their boat was taken across the turbid and levelled it with the ground after burning and torrent of the river. In order to effect an entrance sacking the shops and houses. This was the first to the canal on its southern bank, the boatmen example he had seen of the desolating warfare carried dragged their craft some distance up the stream, then on by the army of the so-called “Heavenly Kingdom re-embarked, and guided it over with their powerful of Great Peace,” whose cause he had espoused, and sweeps to the opposite side, where the current was the contemplation of the ruins gave a great shock to least felt. While crossing, Meng-kee was impressed his.feelings. “If this be the manner, " he said to with the mighty volume of water in this river, which himself, “in which they spread the doctrines of has been compared to a yellow dragon monster eating Christianity and peace, then are they hypocrites and up the land along its course. deceivers. "I must wait, however, until I can ques- At length they arrived safely at that part of the tion some of the chiefs upon this matter."

canal where it joins the greatest of all the Chinese The boat having been hired only as far as Lin- rivers, the famous Yang-tsze Kiang. However, as tsing, Meng-kee and his daughter had to dis- Meng-kee's destination was some twenty miles disembark and hire another for the remainder of tant from that point, they disembarked from the their journey. Here the passenger boats were very boat, settled with the boatmen, and proceeded by inferior to the one they had left, as the owners of land to Yang-chow, in one of the clumsy vehicles of the better class did not care to venture near the the district. districts occupied by the rebels, who had always an This was the native city of Meng-kee, where he eye to comfort and luxury in their depredations on had been educated in the Chinese classics, by which the peaceable inhabitants.

he obtained his degree at the triennial competition After a day's rest they resumed their voyage on in the provincial capital, that qualified him for his the canal where it intersects a country more inte-government post at Peking. Many years had elapsed resting than what they had hitherto traversed. In since his previous visit, and great changes had como one tract extensive cotton plantations covered the over the surrounding country from the incursions of land, and in a another large flocks of sheep were the Taipings. He knew that they had attempted seon grazing on the pasture. Whole families, the capture of Yang-chow, but were driven off with especially the females, were everywhere busy in the great slaughter by the imperialist forces. Still he cotton-field picking the cotton wool, while the men was anxious to see if the town had suffered much were employed in shearing the sheep. These animals during the engagement, and it was with no small have huge flat tails, three, four, or five pounds in feeling of satisfaction that he beheld the pagodas weight, and many of them with black heads and and campanile towers appearing uninjured as they white bodies. There is also a curious hybrid in this rose above the crenellated walls illuminated by the part of China between the sheep and goat, where the rays of the setting sun. animal sheds its wool annually and exhibits the At the city gate the mandarin and his daughter smooth hair underneath.

left the vehicle, and hired sedan-chairs and porters On these extensive plains the mode of carrying to convey them and their baggage to the home of his produce by land is curious, where the propelling aged mother. It was no false excuse on his part to power is the wind, and the vehicle an adaptation of have obtained permission to visit her on account of a canal boat with sails. Some of them are as large serious illness, for he had received letters from his as a spring-cart, but with only one wheel in the relatives stating that his widowed mother was on her

based upon

death-bed. As he neared the quarter of the city in throughout the Mississippi valley. Of all this Hochewhich she dwelt, his heart throbbed with emotion at laga shows little except a few copper beads, and, the possibility of being too late to see her alive. besides the two small pieces of metal already referred When the chairs stopped at the gate of the family to, nothing of the numerous tools and trinkets left by mansion he felt reassured, as he did not see the usual Cartier himself. Yet one of these fragments-the announcement of a death in the house, by a tablet little piece of brass mentioned in a previous papersuspended at the door-post inscribed with the name, may have been a part of one of Cartier's crosses age, and honours of the departed.

which it is not unlikely were cut up into small pieces The mandarin embraced his beloved daughter as and distributed to different persons, or disposed of in he led her towards the inner chambers, which she trade with less fortunate tribes. This absence of had left when quite a child with her mother, who had evidence of commercial intercourse may be accounted died at Peking not long after their arrival there. for in one of two ways. At the time of Cartier's “Welcome, my child !” he said, “to the home of visit the people of Hochelaga, owing to the hostility of your ancestors; and although our faith is changed the Hurons on the west, and of the Iroquois on the from theirs, yet it is incumbent on us not to disturb south, were very much isolated, and may for a long the family harmony by disputing with our kindred | time have lost the intercourse with foreign nations on the occasion of our visit."

which they had once enjoyed. Changes of this kind “Dearest father,” she replied, “I will obey you tending to isolate tribes, often reduce them to great in everything."

scarcity or absolute want of foreign commodities, and At the threshold of the inner apartments they may account for such remarkable differences as hare were most cordially received by the families of been observed in this respect between the people of Meng-kee's two brothers, who inhabited the family the older and more recent Palæolithic ages in Europe mansion, of which his mother, on her sick-bed, was by Dupont and others, the oldest European race being still the acknowledged superior. This is one of the evidently better supplied with foreign objects than apparently anomalous customs in China, where that which succeeded it. Again, at the destruction females generally hold a degraded position, but it is of Hochelaga, its treasures may have been thoroughly

the ancient patriarchal communities, plundered by the conquerors, a fate which has no where the eldest bears rule.

doubt befallen many of the old haunts of primitive Father and daughter were ushered into the sick- men in the Old World. chamber, where the octogenarian lady lay propped I fear such considerations are too often overlooked up in a stately bedstead ; her withered features and by observers who study such remains, and who may glassy eyes scarcely giving indications of life, cer- reach the most opposite results from the investigation tainly not of recognition, as they knelt before her of different localities occupied contemporaneously by and spoke some affectionate words. She herself had tribes in precisely the same stage of civilisation. been speechless for some weeks, and it was evident Thus of three or four sites occupied by different secthat the vital lamp would be soon extinguished. tions of a tribe simultaneously or at times not very

remote from each other, one may have been destroyed and plundered by an enemy; another may have wit

nessed the hurried manufacture of a quantity of THE NEW WORLD AND THE OLD:

rough weapons for an emergency; another may

have been only abandoned from slow decay. Each AMERICAN ILLUSTRATIONS OF EUROPEAN ANTIQUITIES. of these would be so dissimilar from the others that BY PRINCIPAL DAWSON, LL.D., MONTREAL.

it might be regarded as having belonged to times remotely distant.

But a careless or too enthusiastic antiquary might IT T is a remarkable fact that all our researches on commit still graver errors of this kind. A village

the site of Hochelaga have disclosed so few relics of like Stadacona or Hochelaga had its outlying the trade and intercourse which existed between the stations. Its pottery would be made at some claynations of distant parts of America, and of which bed, probably distant from the town. It must have we shall see we have evidence in the narrative of hau its mines or quarries of flint and other useful Cartier, as well as in the objects found elsewhere. stones perhaps far away within the confines of In the burial mounds of the Hurons, for example, iriendly tribes on the Ottawa. Its hunting and Wilson and Taché found specimens of the Pyrula of fishing parties had their places of resort, where in the coast of Central America, brought all that dis- spring, autumn, or winter, they may have spent tance as objects of superstitious veneration or of weeks together in the pursuit of particular animals national pride. In an Indian grave at Brockville, requiring special kinds of tackle or weapons. Many west of Montreal, I have already mentioned the tribes on the sea-coasts had their summer stations existence of a necklace made of pierced shells of near to oyster-beds, on the produce of which, along Purpura lapillus from the New England coast, and of with sea-birds and fish, they subsisted during a part ring-shaped beads_of native copper from Lake of the year, though we know that in winter the same Superior. Thus the East and the West had been made tribes welt inland, and hunted deer and other large tributary to the grandeur of some chief or Indian animals. After the extinction of the tribe these lady. Schoolcraft mentions that the Dentalium of the different stations would present the most diverse Pacific coast has been found as far east as Lake appearances. One would yield a great collection of Superior. Pearls from the coast of California occur mis-shapen and half-made implements, difficult to as far east as the Ohio, and copper and silver from understand, and rude and primitive in aspect. Lake Superior were carried to Mexico and the Gulf Another would apparently be the shelter or station of States. The Manatee or Dugong of tropical America a tribe provided only with implements for hunting, figures as an ornament on the pipes of the Ohio, and and leaving behind it abundance of the bones of deer the Mica of the Apalachian mountains was distributed | and other large game. Another would show a

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people living solely on fish, and with implements of end as the Red Indians. I may add, that in the entirely different form, and mostly of bone. Another Hudson's Bay districts, immense numbers of cariboo would present gouges for tapping maple-trees, and are killed in the spring when crossing certain rivers, kettles of pottery broken in the boiling of sugar. where they are waylaid by the natives. Such facts Another on the coast might show little beyond heaps serve to explain some of the deposits of bones of the of oyster-shells, and a few of the stones used in reindeer found in France. When, by such means opening them for use. The main town would have as those above mentioned, a tribe had succeeded in the aspe

in its kitchen-middens and stores of killing several hundreds or thousands of deer, there pottery, of the settlement of a far more advanced would not only be a great feast and much cracking people. I do not say that all of our modern archæ- of marrowbones, but a long time would be occupied ologists have failed to appreciate the meaning of in drying and preparing the flesh and skins, and these differences, but it is impossible to overlook the working the antlers up into implements. In these fact that many of their researches have been vitiated processes multitudes of flint knives and scrapers to some extent by neglect of considerations so simple, would be used, and when the tribe left the place, a that the most ordinary observers of the prehistoric deposit of remains of the reindeer period would be left. monuments of America scarcely think them deserving This might recur year after year at the same place, till of mention. It must, however, be confessed that the tribe might be driven from the country by some American writers also, taken by the infection wafted enemy, or till the deer became exterminated, or were from the Eastern Continent, have sometimes allowed obliged to migrate in some other direction. At their fancy in such matters to get the better of their other seasons of the year the reindeer hunters might judgment.

be living as fishermen, on the coasts, or even as Even among hunting tribes, culture and the arts farmers, in particular valleys. Even if the people are not wholly dormant. In the ancient Acadia the in question were merely rude hunters, they could not immense abundance of deer, water-fowl, and fish, have lived on reindeer all the year, and must have enabled the Micmac to live in plenty on the produce left elsewhere deposits indicating their modo of life of fishery and the chase, each season having its at the seasons when deer could not be had. appropriate animal, while the rocky character of

I may connect these illustrations of perished arts many parts of the country was not favourable to with a reference to a now obsolete implement—the agriculture. Hence the Micmac was almost wholly grooved hammer, noticed in a previous article of a hunter, and the arts of life had reference mainly this series. Such hammers were the common tools to the implements for the chase, and for fishing, or of the ancient copper miners of Lake Superior. for the preparation of meat and skins; and as he Evans informs, us that they are found in ancient must necessarily move from place to place according copper mines in Wales, also in Staffordshire and in to the seasons for different kinds of fish and game, the north of Ireland, and in Scandinavia, as well as he dwelt in tents, or wigwams (his oik or wick), made in ancient mines in Spain and in Saxony. They also of birch bark, and could easily pack his family and occur in the old Egyptian turquoise mines of Wady property in his bark canoe, or transport his whole Meghara, in Arabia. In North America they are house and furniture on the backs of his party, or on not limited to the mining district. I figure a specia tobogan drawn over the snow. Mamberton, a men with its handle of tough wood and raw hide celebrated Micmac Sachem, and one of the first (Fig. 30), as now, or lately, used by the Avickarees, converts of the French missionaries, when taught à people of the western prairies. Morgan, from the petition, “give us this day our daily bread,” whom the illustration is taken, states that it is used which, by the way, was practically a mistranslation to drive stakes, and for cracking buffalo bones to on the part of the missionaries, objected, “Why extract the marrow. I have seen similar hammers is no mention made of our fish and venison ?" and very properly, since these two in his former creed were gifts of the Great Spirit, and were to him much more than bread. Yet the Micmacs were not only adepts in the more delicate and difficult parts of the art of chipping flints, but, as we shall see, were geographers and travellers of no mean intelligence, and made their name and power known and felt widely over the American coast, both to the north and to the south, and this, perhaps, just for the reason that they were hunters rather than farmers.

Another illustration may be taken from the now extinct Red Indians of Newfoundland. McCormick, Fig. 30.-GROOVED HAMMER WITH HANDLE OF WITHE AND THONG, AS in his expedition to discover this people, found that

From a paper by Morgan, in the Report of the Regents of they had built across the country long fences of University of New York. wood to arrest the migrations of the reindeer, and determine them to certain points where a deer battue brought by Mr. Bell, of the Canadian Survey, from on an extensive scale might give them a supply of the country of the Dakotas or Sioux and other western food for months. One such erection he traced for tribes, who constantly use them for breaking marrowforty miles across the country. It appeared to be bones of the buffalo. Thus, the grooved hammer intended to force the herds of deer towards a lake, may be equally a relic of the civilised Egyptian or and oblige them to take to the water, where they Alleghan miner, or of the rude hunter of the plains. could be easily killed by the natives in their canoes. But, even in the case of the latter, it may not be Similar plans were used by the Indians on the great a token of absolute barbarism. The American Canadian lakes, though it does not appear that they hunter does not merely use it to break bones, that executed so great public works to contribute to this he may at once devour their marrow.

On the con

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USED BY AVICKAREE INDIANS FOR BREAKING MARROW-BOXES OF
BUFFALO.

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trary, he often breaks up the marrow-bones of his hardened wood. Hence, in the traditions of the game,

that he may refine and preserve the precious Micmacs, as collected by Mr. Rand, and in old oil for future use, or may employ it as an ingredient Norse Sagas referred to by Nilsson, it is always a of his carefully prepared pemmican, which is his flint arrow that is used in slaying the giants and dependence in his long journeys, and one of his most other monsters of their tales. Such stories would valuable sources of income. As he says, the agri- readily, after flint weapons fell into disuse, lead to cultural white man may have plenty of bread, but the belief in their magic powers; nor is a great he is “hungry for buffalo meat,” while the Indian, lapse of time necessary to effect such results. with plenty of pemmican, may be "hungry for Already, in some districts of America, the Indian bread," or may be desirous of the goods of the bas so lost the tradition of the arts of his ancestors, European trader. What if some of the old cave that when questioned as to their implements he says men of Europe were not merely savage gorgers the Great Spirit alone knows by whom and for what on flesh and marrow, but industrious preparers they were made. of pemmican, for future use or trade, and if Thus, even if we confine our attention to the one the caves were their temporary workshops at the subject of lost arts, it can be shown that changes, season of preparing this valuable product, and the many of them tending rather to degradation than to implements therein their knives for cutting up the elevation, have taken place in America since its disflesh, their hammers for breaking the bones, and covery, which are comparable in amount with those their bodkins and needles for sewing up the skin extending in Europe from the Palæolithic age to the bags in which it was finally put up for the markets present day. That they occurred as rapidly in Europe of the Stone age. If we take this view, so accordant I do not affirm, yet there is no good reason to doubt with American analogies, it will explain why the that many of those diversities to which vast periods greater part of the chipped bones in many cave have been assigned, were either not successive, or deposits bear no traces of cooking; and will relieve required for their production times not much greater the cave men from the suspicion which has been cast than that which has elapsed since the voyages of upon their memory, that they habitually ato raw Columbus.

It may be asked, If this is so, what venison.

reliance can be placed on archaeological investigaIn a previous article I referred to the old quarries tions? I answer, Much, if observers will carefully of flint in the Flint Ridge on the Ohio, and to the study facts, and compare them with their modern mines of the ancient Alleghans in the copper districts analogues, and will avoid hasty generalisations, and of Lake Superior. These mining arts, like the agri- the common error of making the facts conform to culture of many of the more settled tribes, have preconceived hypotheses. Geologists require also to become lost to the modern Indian, and in the case of learn that the methods which apply to the succession his flint mines, even to the white men who have of formations, in which we have to do only with succeeded him, and who, while they have at a physical causes, and with the structures and instincts comparatively recent time reopened his copper of irrational animals, will not suffice when we have mines, have found that in all the more important of to deal with the results of the many-sided intellithese they had been anticipated by the Indians. gence of man, which, even in his most primitive and In like manner there are obsolete mines of the flint rudest states, gives him a god-like supremacy over age in Europe. Evans describes those of “Grimes many external conditions to which mere animals Graves" at Brandon, where 250 flint mines have succumb, and vastly complicates all his relations to been found. They are shafts sunk through chalk, nature. in some cases to the depth of thirty-nine feet, to reach a layer of specially good flint. Galleries had been run out from them horizontally in this layer. The miners had worked with picks and chisels of deer's antlers and of basalt; and the traces of their

Sonnets of the Sacred Year. sagacious industry are now only traditional “graves" to the agricultural peasants who have succeeded them. Still more extensive ancient mines of the flint period exist in Belgium. That the men who

SEVENTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY. made these excavations were industrious and in

“ Friend, go up higher.”—St. Luke xiv. 10. genious we cannot doubt, yet their flint knives and arrows are to us the indices of a still ruder stage of humanity than that to which we would refer THERE is a valloy 'neath th' imperial height their antler-pointed picks and basalt chisels. It I' the spiritual land. Above it towers should perhaps somewhat moderate our pride of The Golden City, and between them lowers higher civilisation when we find that, with the A ghostly cloud, a border stream of night. exception of a few "flint jacks,” we have not only Deep is the vale, yet clearer there to sight lost the art of fabricating the beautiful chipped Shows the far City than where in fragrant boters implements of the flint age, but that throughout On the hill-side dwell through the careless hours the east, and even among the peasantry of western Europe, they are, when found, regarded as the work The self-exalted seekers of delight. of supernatural beings; and as "elfin bolts," and And when through that dim cloud a trumpet call

” under other names, have strange talismanic virtues From the dread summit shall awake the world, ascribed to them, at which their ancient makers. Then shall those proud to deeper depths be hurled, would have smiled. Still, these fancies have a

While in the vale the sound shall sweetly fall: venerable origin. Among the flint folk themselves a flint-headed arrow was a type of efficiency, as “Friend, go up higher;" and for each gentle soul, compared with one tipped with bone, horn, or Lo, the great gates of pearl shall backward roll.

BY THE REV. S. J. STONE, M.A.

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