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only a little hole for the right eye to peep through- book. She has the “notable horn between her á bright eye in a sooty setting. The Druze women eyes, ," like the other unicorns, and is sewing, with are all busy, and always busy, nursing babies, her book propped up before her. The book is a kneading bread for food, or dung for fuel, or carry- manuscript, written, she says, by a mugraby, coning water in jars, or grinding at the mill, or making taining the traditions of the Pharaohs. It is a misetrays and baskets of straw, or spinning with the rable work on magic. I cannot get her interested in distaff.
the Bible, but she buys a copy of “ Henry and his A short distance up the hill from Kanawât we Bearer" in Arabic. Here, during a halt of an hour, come upon the interesting ruins of Sia. The temple we sell thirty-three different books, and when we was dedicated to our lord King Herod the Great," leave, an armed Druze follows us for a tract, and as and was adorned with groups of sculptured birds and he pays for one he snatches another by force from animals, and festooned fruits and flowers. Herod's the colporteur, and runs away with it in triunph. statue, of which one foot remains, was destroyed The people here are most anxious to secure our conprobably by the early Christians, who bore no good troversial books, and especially the works of our will to the murderer of the infants. This monument own Dr. Meshaka. to Herod the Great is exceedingly interesting when From Atil to Suweideh our path lies for the most taken in connection with a statement by Josephus. part along the Roman road. Nothing in this land Herod commenced the work of civilisation in Bashan, gives one such an idea of the earnest, stern purpose and Josephus (Ant. Jud. xvi. 9, 2.) tells us that “he and iron will of those old Roman teachers of order placed three thousand Idumeans in Trachonitis, and as this road, striking straight as an arrow over rock thereby restrained the robbers that were there.” On and hollow, through the whole length of this dismal the stones about there are Idumean inscriptions, and land. We pass what seem to have been roadside it has been plausibly conjectured that Herod placed inns at regular intervals on the road. the three thousand in Kanawât, and that they erected the monument of Sia. And this conjecture seems almost certain when we remember how badly the great king's efforts at civilising these wild regions
CATERPILLAR MARCHES. were appreciated; and indeed so unpopular was he with the people, that a monument could only have
of the been erected in his honour in a place protected by his land crabs in Jamaica, when countless hosts more garrison.
across the country in crowded array, turning neither Descending from Kanawât tre pass one of the to right hand nor left. Some people have made very loveliest ruins in the Hauran. On a knoll to the merry over Reaumur's description and figures of the right a number of beautiful Corinthian columns stand “processions,” as they are called, of å species of on a raised platform, tovering over the wooded land- caterpillar too well known in some parts of the conscape. Time has made gaps among them, so that tinent. The regularity of the order of march might they stand charmingly irregular, like the trees of the entitle them to take rank with volunteers at least
, if field around them.
not with actual soldiers, though they are not shown We shoot down to Atil through a lovely wooded in our illustration as marching. " by fours" or in country, in which every piece of open ground waves sections; but in an order gradually increasing. First with luxurious wheat. Streams murmur between of all, there are some five or six individuals in single grassy margins, and the air is heavy with the scent file, then follow about the same number of pairs
, of hawthorn and other blossoms, and on the grassy next we have an increase to three, then to fours, slope our horses crush with iron heel
until it reaches six or seven abreast; and what is as “ The little speedwell's darling blue,
surprising, they keep head to head and tail to tail
in an admirable manner. Perhaps the circumstance Deep tulips dashed with fiery dew,
that they have, each individual of them all, sixteen Laburnums, dropping wells of fire."
legs to march upon instead of two, is rather helpful When our minds wander, led by the association of to them than otherwise. No doubt the worthy ideas, to the “ days that are no more," we are gene- entomologist may have given some scope to fancy in rally abruptly called back to the reality of our posi- the delineation, still, as far as the general fact goes, tion by the appearance of some ruffian among the he was doubtless right, and these caterpillars do trees, braced in the antique armour of his hereditary move along with a degree of regularity from their robber race. In Atil, the ancient Athila, there are nests to the spot where they are going to feed; for two temples and many inscriptions, one of which was they are moved to these excursions, not so much by addressed to the Idumean god Theandrias, who was the desire for a promenade, as by the keen demands worshipped elsewhere in Bashan, especially in Bosra. of appetite. Several broken statues, some of them equestrian, are There are two species, indeed, of the moths known lying about, and there is one fine bust built into a as the Processionaries; one of these, designated garden wall. Here first we meet the Druzes armed Cnethocampa processionea, being a feeder upon the and excited, but as yet we do not know the cause. A leaves of the oak principally; the other, resorting to young Druze, who was once in a Protestant school, the pine and fir, bears the Latin name of C. pityorecognises me, and we have a good sale of books. campa. Some interest has been awakened in the The whole village press upon us more familiarly than latter species amongst British entomologists, through is pleasant, and I find one man whose hand has its sudden appearance in some numbers in the vicinity strayed into my pocket. He seems greatly amused of Sevenoaks and Southborough, in Kent. The when I ask him if that is an ordinary custom among facilities, however, afforded by the steam coinmunicathem. We discover in Atil a wonder such as no tion of modern times for the quick transit of living traveller has seen in the Hauran since nor before. insects from one land to another, excites in the mind It is nothing less than a Druze woman reading a of many naturalists a large amount of suspicion with
regard to new appearances and surprising captures | beetle larva, called scientifically Calosoma sycophanta, of rarities, and with some folks even seeing is not which, watching its opportunity, rushes upon them believing by a long way.
as they quit their nest, and so gorges itself with the But it is not needful to go into details on a point luckless Processionaries that it is sometimes quite of importance only to a few, the general habits of the unable to move. The mature beetle also feeds upon insects in question are more interesting to the many; tho caterpillars, but does not commit so much havoc. and I should observe that both agree in the habit of This is certainly a “sycophant” of a desperate sort, constructing nests of silk, into which the caterpillars and, what is rather remarkable, in both stages the retreat during the day, and in which they remain beetle bids defiance to the irritant hairs of the caterduring the seasons when they are passing through a pillar, which, when they come in contact with the change of skin, and are glad to remain quiet and human skin, produce painful and even, in some cases, under shelter. Some, however, assert that on dull dangerous effects. The fact was known to the old days they will occasionally como forth to feed, and Romans, if Pliny is to be believed, and a law punished estimates also vary as to the number in a nest, calcula- severely those persons who attempted to injure others tions reaching from 150 to 400 individuals.
by means of the hairs of this insect. M. Wittich, who had one of these species under There are several species of moth common in his observation at Nico, in the winter and spring of Britain, which in their caterpillar condition live in a the present year, to some extent confirms what had gregarious manner, and form nests, such as the been reported concerning the marches or processions Browntail (Liparis Chrysorrhea), the Small Egger by the observers of former times. There were a (Eriogaster lanestris), and the Lackey (Bombyr number of broods on some fir-trees, and through the neustria). These leave their nests in parties to feed, winter months they remained quite inactive, until yet not with the set regularity of the “ Procession" the warmth of the spring sunshine roused them from species. Some will often be observed going out while their hybernation about the middle of March. They others are returning home, and they mostly proceed at first descended from the trees by ones and twos, from one twig to another in an irregular manner, and afterwards formed processions, which were com- but they have instinct sufficient to find their way posed of, as the observer estimates, froin twenty to back. The young caterpillars of the Buff Tip a hundred caterpillars, "all marching in admirable (Pygæra Bucephala), when first hatched keep toorder." Yet M. Wittich adds, “I have also seen gether in parties of about forty, extending themthem walking three or four abreast, but not often.” selves in a fanlike manner as they devour a leaf. The inference from this is, that the processions he After the first change of skin they separate. Those principally noticed were made up of long lines of of the Gothic (Nania typica) move along a leaf in single caterpillars, or files of two deep. The regu- the same way for about a fortnight, keeping close to larity of these turn-outs must sometimes be consider- each other, and leaving brown patches behind their ably interfered with by the attacks of a ferocious march; they also become solitary in habit when older.
THE MANDARIN'S DAUGHTER.
CHAPTER XIX.-THE TAIPING EMISSARY IN DANGER.
W CUT-SING, the Taiping emissary, with his cause, yet he dreaded, what was just possible, that which preceded that containing the mandarin and his the others might divulge their secret. Hence he daughter, the other being loaded with merchandise. had planned their movements on the route so that As they dropped down the Peiho River, the boats they should avoid being seen by the authorities. As kept within hail of each other. When the storm there was a customs station on the river under the came on, and the mandarin's boat was moored along. charge of a mandarin, where passengers and goods side the right bank, Cut-sing gave orders to the were examined, he had arranged with the boatmen boatmen to follow its example. Then all on board —who were friendly to the cause—to try and evade improved the occasion, notwithstanding the fury of that post under cover of the darkness. The delay the tempest, by partaking of their evening meal of caused by the thunderstorm had thrown him out in rice and fish.
his reckoning, and he eagerly inquired if they could The Taiping emissary sat aloof from his com- now reach the spot before daylight. To his consterpanions in the stern of the boat, glancing furtively nation he learned that it was as much as the boats between the matting at the craft in the distance, as could do to sail so far by that time; consequently, if to catch a glimpse of its inmates while lit up by he gave orders to start at once without waiting for the vivid flashes of lightning. His countenance the mandarin's boat. wore its natural sinister expression as he brooded All was bustle now on board, and the passengers over the contemptuous manner in which he had willingly assisted the boatmen to get their craft been treated by Meng-kee, and the slights A-Lee under way. These recruits were twenty in number, had cast upon his advances.
and formed a motley crew, even under a Chinese While a train of evil thoughts was passing through flag. Some had been ordinary tradesmen who had his mind the storm was at its highest, and the re- fallen into difficulties, and were indifferent as to the verberation of the thunder appeared to his fancy to religious or political phase of the cause they had echo his sentiments. When it cleared off his reflec- espoused so long as they could make something by tions gave way to the emergencies of the moment, it. Others were of even
a less sincere frame of and he becamo alivo to the perils of the position in mind, who bent their thoughts upon plunder during which he was placed. Although he had no reason the raids of the Taiping hordes on the industrious to suspect the loyalty of his recruits to the Taiping loyal inhabitants. Only a few of them joined the
movement from religious convictions, and these were to stop and sail back to the customs station. AcChristian converts like Meng-kee. One motive, cordingly, the boats' heads were veered round, and however, united them to join the rebellion, and that the sails hoisted to the favouring breeze up the river. was to aid in overthrowing the obnoxious Manchoo- | In order to avoid suspicion also, the passengers were Tartar power, and restore the ancient Chinese told to resume their sleeping places, as if they had rule.
nothing to do with working the boats. The majority of these men were not without means, The commander of the gunboat seeing them reas the second boat was well laden with merchandise tiring under sail ceased his preparations for a chase. which was likely to find a profitable market where When they came within hail he rated the boatmen they were going. Moreover, this cargo of goods soundly for attempting to pass without reporting would give colour to their ostensible object as traders their passengers and cargo at the station. They proceeding to traffic with the foreign troops at humbly excused themselves by saying there were no Tien-tsin.
goods on board liable to duty, and that the passengors At starting, the breeze was light but favourable, were going to trade with the foreign troops at Tienand continued so well into the night. Most of the tsin. Cut-sing corroborated this statement, 'and adventurers were confident of passing the barrier begged in the most humble manner that he and his station without molestation before daylight, and fellow-passengers should be allowed to proceed on after drinking their tea and smoking their pipes their voyage. This the commander peremptorily they lay down to sleep. About midnight, however, objected to, saying that he had strict orders from they were aroused from their slumbers by the boat- the government to examine all boats and passengers men calling on them to rise and assist in propelling on the Peiho, since the occupation of the country by the boats by oars, as it was almost a calm, and they the “barbarian" soldiers. were yet many miles from the mandarin's post.
On shore the officials at the station had turned Up jumped the sleepers with alacrity, and manned out, and the mandarin in charge gave orders to his the steer-oars of the two boats. There was only one underlings to see that the suspicious craft were to each boat, but they were enormous sweeps, re- hauled alongside the river bank for examination. quiring two pair of hands to scull with. The labour When this was effected he ordered the passengers to was heavy to those unaccustomed to it, but they land with their baggage, while the merchandise in worked with a will, making good progress where the the cargo-boat was inspected. Nothing subject to current was most favourable. Then the breeze the transit dues was found, as they are levied chiefly freshened towards morning and the sails were on imported articles or native produce on its way lowered. As the dawn lightened the horizon over from the maritime provinces into the interior, of the Gulf of Pee-chee-lee, the two banners, which are which salt is one of the most highly-taxed comhoisted as official insignia at every custom-house modities. station, were fluttering in the breeze.
The passengers were then marched up to the Up to this, the scullers with the heavy, long sweeps custom-house, where each person was questioned kept time by singing a Chinese sailor's refrain, ac- separately, and his trunk or bundle examined. Here companied by stamping with their feet on the deck, no contraband articles were seized, but when the inas the handle of the sweep was siung to and fro, spector opened a sheepskin-covered trunk, having which had a spirit-stirring effect upon the men. one of the curious brass padlocks of the Chinese, he Now as they approached the customs station the pulled out a gorgeous mandarin's robe of yellow song and tramp were hushed. Silently and softly satin, embroidered with the imperial dragon. the boats were propelled by the huge oars, and “Hi-yah!” exclaimed the commander of the gunthere was every prospect of their passing it without boat;" whose trunk is this?" being observed. As they neared the post, it was No one acknowledged himself to be the owner seen, to their dismay, that a gunboat belonging until the head boatman was interrogated, when he to the Chinese navy was at anchor in the river. pointed out Wo Cut-sing, whose name was stamped This class of vessels are not so formidable as those in on the trunk. As it was no use evading the ownerour own navy, yet they are well armed and manned ship, the Taiping emissary at once declared it to be for native warfare.
his. Steering close in shore on the opposite bank, they “ Your excellency,” continued the naval officer, tried to slip past unnoticed, but when they came abaft addressing the customs official, “this is no case of of the gunboat, a dog on board commenced barking, smuggling; but I am specially enjoined to seize all which raised an alarm, and the watch on deck hailed articles bearing the imperial insignia in the possesthem to stop. No notice was taken of this, excepting sion of our countrymen, since the sacking and burnto ply the sweeps more vigorously. Unfortunately ing of the emperor's palace of Yuen-ming-yuen; and for the adventurers, the river at this point formed a this robe of the imperial yellow pattern appears to straight long reach, without a tree or shrub on the be part of the plunder!” banks to screen the boats from the outlook at the
10 10. ", "
"Hi-yah!” replied his colleague, “this matter station. That they were visible from there was soon must be investigated. Clear the court of all these unpleasantly evident, for the gunboat fired a shot people and their baggage, excepting this man and right ahead of their course. Then they observed his trunk, that we may question him." Upon saying her unmooring and preparing to give chase.
which he ascended to his official chair, accomMatters now began to look serious, and it became panied by the commander of the gunboat, who a question whether they should risk the chance of ordered a guard of armed men from his vessel into escaping or bring to at once. Cut-sing and his court. recruits were for attempting the former, but the When all was ready for his examination Cut-sing boatmen were resolved on the latter. A second shot was surrounded by the guard and customs officials. which struck the water not far from the leading boat It required all his nerve to face the matter boldly settled the question, and it was deemed most prudent | while he braced himself up for the worst that might befall him, as he had done on many a previous out of a difficulty which at first threatened to be so occasion.
serious. However, he could not help deploring the “How came you by that imperial robe ?" was the loss of the beautiful robe, for which he expected to first question of the customs mandarin.
get a high price from one of the Taiping chiefs, who “I bought it at a clothes shop in Peking," an- would have prized it and worn it as a veritable regal swered Cut-sing; “I can give you the man's name costume. and address, and here is the receipt for the robe and other articles, where you will see that I paid him a fair price for it,” handing up a note to the magis
TYROLESE TALES AND LEGENDS. trate. It was critically examined, and there was no reason to doubt the statement given. “But were you not aware that the robe ras stolen THE grand scenery and the romantic history
of the Tyrol are familiar to many,
but there from the summer palace ?"
are few strangers who know much about the language “No! I was told that it had been a dress worn by and traditions, the life and character of the people. some actor in a theatre, who became poor and sold it The Countess von Günther, authoress of “Tales and to get food.”
Legends of the Tyrol ” (Chapman and Hall), has That is false ! See you not that it is rich satin wandered long and often among the unfrequented of the imperial colour, embroidered, and of a shape mountain paths and passes, an enthusiastic admirer only worn by the emperor and high officers of state?” of the natural wonders of the district, and also a
• Being a poor, ignorant man, I know not these diligent collector of the strange stories which form things."
the unwritten literature of the Tyrolese. “What, then, were you intending to do with it?” A large proportion of these legends are about “Your excellency, I am a small trader, and thought ghosts and fairies, giants and sorcerers, haunted of making profit by its sale at Tien-tsin."
ruins and buried treasures, with other marvellous "Ah! to these cursed barbarians, who have topics, all clearly showing how ignorant and superrobbed our celestial monarch of his choicest ward. stitious the poor people are to this day. They have robes," struck in the naval commander. “They good qualities, as most mountain races have; but the shall never handle it. By the authority I hold, I light of knowledge and religion has sent few rays seize it, and take you a prisoner to Peking, where into their minds. Some of the legends almost seem you will be confronted with the shopkeeper.
as if they owed their origin to the priests, in order “Oh, do not take me prisoner, your noble excel to perpetuate their influence over the credulous lency!” Cut-sing responded. You
may take the peasants, as in the story of the great glacier called robe, but let me go my way in peace." ”
the Vedretta Marmolata. “You are a suspicious-looking character," re- Near the village of Buchenstein rises an enormous marked the customs mandarin. “Is there any Ferner, or glacier, on the borders of which the person of respectability among your fellow-pas- neighbouring parishes, especially the farmers of sengers who will vouch for your honesty ?”
Sottil, Sottingházza, and Roucat, pasture large herds "Yes! yes!” he exclaimed in trepidation ; "all of cows. Only a small valley separates this spot
* of them can do so, and will become bond for me if from the village of Ornella, which, on account of its necessary. Besides, there is a mandarin coming position, from November to February is devoid of down the river in a boat who will befriend me. And every beam of sun. The aforesaid Ferner, which is there he is,” pointing to the door.
above 11,000 feet high, is called the Vedretta At this juncture Meng-kee appeared upon the Marmolata, and where now its icy fields extend, there threshold of the custom-house, and walked in with used once to be the most beautiful Alpine meadows his usual dignified manner, bowing politely to the and pasture grounds. magistrate on the bench, who returned his saluta- A peasant of Sottil on one Assumption Day hal tions, while they invited him to sit beside them. The brought down from these meadows à cart-load of
was explained, the robe displayed, and the hay, and was about to ascend the mountain again reference made by the owner to him as one who for another, when his neighbours set upon him, could vouch for his honesty. Meng-kee replied very and upbraided him for working on such a great fete guardedly, stating, however, that he had known day. But he laughed and jeered at them, saying, Cut-sing in Peking, and had no reason to doubt his “What will Heaven care if even I make hay on a statement of having purchased the robe in ignorance feast day?” And, saying this, he set off ир
the of its being imperial property. Besides, they had mountain. the name and address of the clothes' vendor, who Just as he was on the point of loading his cart, could be punished for receiving it.
he noticed that the dolomite rocks above began to After a short consultation it was agreed that Cut- assume most extraordinary forms, and even to move sing should be allowed to prosecute bis voyage, about from place to place; dark mists began to with the other passengers, taking with him ail his rise, which at every moment became more and more effects, excepting the imperial robe. He made many dense, and then a heavy snow fell, which buried him abject obeisances to the mandarins on hearing and his cattle, and froze them into blocks. their decision, and was profuse in his thanks to On the following morning there was nothing to Meng-kee.
be seen but a glacier, and the peasants say, “There By this time the morning was well advanced, and above are the cart and cattle, master and meadott
, the sun shone brightly, with a brisk breeze from the which have been changed into that Ferner.” east, which was pretty favourable for the voyage to Somewhat similar is the legend of the Two Hay. Tien-tsin. It may be supposed that the boatmen stacks. One of the most beautiful and noted Alps in and their passengers were rejoiced to get under way the Tyrol is the Seisser-Alp, in the Eisack valley, from such a dangerous neighbourhood, and that the near which stands the Schlern, 8,100
feet high, Taiping emissary thought himself fortunate in getting with its two pyramids of dolomite rock. About four