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may interest carpenters, old and young, to learn that however, also to be shown, for in eighty thousand of their nails are frequently made by women, the these million couples the wives were ten years older number of females thus employed being almost equal than the husbands, four thousand were twenty years to that of the men and boys. When we arrive at the older, three hundred were thirty years older, fortylast class—the indefinite and non-productive--we find two were forty years older, and—will it be believed ? upwards of twenty thousand hands set down as-four of these husbands, ranging in age from thirty machine workers, and about the same number of to forty, were living with wives aged from eighty to factory and shop women whose branch of labour is ninety, or, as people commonly say, with women old not specified ; and thus we see by actual analysis enough to be their mothers. In connection with this that tho statement with which we opened this paper part of the subject, we are able, with the aid of the is literally correct, and that the women of England Registrar-General's returns of births, deaths, and have not" idle hands," but are, in the best sense of marriages, to estimate the number of children born the words, "busy-bodies."

on an average to wives of certain ages, and taking But before we leave this part of our subject there the age from twenty to forty as being the normal are some other facts respecting the women of Eng-child-bearing period, we find that, to every hundred land which can scarcely fail to interest them-and, wives, about thirty-six children were born annually indeed, the general reader too-we refer to what we from 1861 to 1870 ; in other words, each wife may term the matrimonial statistics, which, making between twenty and forty has on an average one due allowance for the difficulties of obtaining trust- child every three years. worthy information, are sufficiently full to form the Looking back again from the children to the parents, basis of several important deductions. In the first a few more facts may be culled from the reports as to place, the tables tell in an unmistakable way of the marrying ages of the people. The men under the marrying tendencies of the nation, for out of the twenty-shall we call them boys ?-show, as we have total population of twenty-two and a half millions, said, such a marked disinclination to marriage, or nine millions had entered the married state; and of rather a prudent delay till in fit position to marry, the remainder, eight millions were under fifteen that the number of those married at this age is so years of age, thus leaving only five and a half mil- small as to be scarcely worthy of consideration. The lions of spinsters and bachelors who were open to moral dissuasives of Malthus and his followers are offers,” to use a colloquial term; or, if we consider not so much needed as formerly. At the same time, the fit age for marriage to be twenty and upwards, in large towns especially, there is much to deplore on the number of unmarried people who might, if all this subject, though not included in “Marriage Stathings had been equal, have entered into wedlock is tistics.” Of every hundred men between twenty and reduced to three and a half millions. This is by notwenty-five, seventy-seven are bachelors, thirty-nine means an unreasonable proportion of such an enor- per cent. are unmarried between twenty-five and mous mass, without ascribing to the people any un- thirty, twenty-three continue single during the next wholesome taste for celibacy. Of those actually decade, twelve per cent. refuse to marry between forty married we have more than three and a-half millions and forty-five, but from this age the percentage of of husbands, and about the same number of wives, bachelors gradually declines. According to other calthe majority of whom were residing together at the culations, founded on the returns from the marriage time of the Census. In 211,352 cases the wives registers of the period of the Census 1861-71, it were returned as absent, or, in other words, were appears that eight in every ten of the brides and not in the same houses as their husbands; and, turn- bridegrooms at their first marriage are between ing the tables, 276,516 husbands were not returned twenty and thirty years of age, the mean age being as in the same houses as their wives.

twenty-five. It is further ascertained that the proThis result was of course largely due to the acci- bable duration of the married life of such persons is dental causes which are always in operation-such twenty-seven years, an argument this without any as sickness, death, and other family events which in indulgence of sentiment in favour of early marriages, every-day life involve the absence of the father or as it enables parents to look forward with some hope mother, as well as to the involuntary absence of men of certainty to seeing their children settled and, perowing to their business in travelling, and of women haps, in their turn also, married. - especially of the poorer classes--omployed as mid- The marriage of widows and widowers is clearly wives, nurses, and in other ways.

shown to be a very common practice, as it is calcuThe women of Great Britain, as a rule, marry at a lated that out of the married couples at the Censusfar earlier ago than common experience would lead one taking, upwards of a hundred and twenty thousand to imagine, there being no less than thirty-four thou- were widowers married to widows, nearly three sand wives under twenty, and some—the authorities, hundred thousand widowers married to spinsters, for some reason best known to themselves, do not and a hundred and fifty thousand widows married to say how many—who are under fifteen are included | bachelors. The "pretty young widow," who so in this column. The husbands take a different view, often excitos the envy of the marriageable young for we find only six thousand married men under ladies in our little rural and suburban coteries, is twenty, or about one-sixth of the number of wives therefore proved to be a really formidable rival to the in the same period of age. But perhaps the most veritable spinster. Of every hundred men above remarkable feature in these matrimonial statistics is twenty years of age, twenty-seven are bachelors, the extraordinary disparity of ages between husband sixty-six are husbands, and seven are widowers; and wives. Thus, out of a million husbands, whose while of every hundred women of a corresponding ages atthe Census-taking varied from thirty to forty, six period of age, twenty-six are spinsters, sixty-one are hundred and seventy thousand of their wives belonged wives, and thirteen are widows. Of the widows to the same age-period, but two hundred and seventy three hundred were under twenty, and five thousand thousand were ten years younger, and fifteen hundred between twenty and twenty-five, while at these two were under twenty. The reverse of the picture is, periods there were eighty-seven widowers in the first,

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and two thousand five hundred in the second. "Old men's darlings," as young wives allied to antique

Varieties. gentlemen are often termed, appear to be tolerably numerous, for we find, out of every hundred hus- IRISH TOURS.—The Belfast meeting of the British Associa. bands, eight men of sixty, four of sixty-five, and

tion will take over many travellers of higher intelligence than three of seventy with wives under twenty, while an

the ordinary run of tourists and sportsmen who visit "the

sister isle." equal disparity of age is frequently noticeable in the side of the Channel will return without seeing more than the

Let us hope that few members from the English higher periods of life. The general result of these Lakes of Killarney and the Giants' Causeway, which a cockney notes is, we think, fairly satisfactory, as indicating tourist said were the only things to do in ireland." Get thing the prosperity of the nation; and early marriages in guide papers published by the Midland and Great Western Rail. the general average, however censurable in special there recommended ; above all, to Galway and the Connemara

way, Broadstone Station, Dublin, and see the circular tours" cases, are an unquestionable proof in this direction.

Mountains. In the “ Leisure Hour” volume of 1873, a geological map of Ireland is given, with various hints useful to tourists.

ANTHROPOLOGY.—The International Anthropological Insti. NOSES.

tute meet at Stockholm this year, and the proceedings are ex.

pected to be of some importance. Our English anthropologists A MEDICAL correspondent sends an amusing

seem to include a large proportion of raw students, judging by letter of comments on the recent article on

occasional reports of their meetings, but the international Noses in the “ Leisure Hour" (January, p. 26). He meeting will probably be marked by higher scientific tone. confirms the statement of the writer that a perfectly LivingstoNE MISSIONARY MEMORIAL. — Among the proposed symmetrical face, with the nose in the exact mesial memorials of the great African traveller, one of the most gratify. line, is a rare, if not impossible case-in fact, a mon- ing and appropriate is the erection and endowment of a missionary strosity. He agrees also in thinking that the devia training institution, in connection with the Edinburgh Melica) tion from perfect symmetry is a beauty, not a defect, and has sent to China, to Syria, and other parts of the world,

Missionary Society. This society has done good work at home, and constitutes one superiority of the living counte- able and successful agents, well qualified for the spiritual as nance over the imitation by painting or sculpture, in well as professional objects of their mission. A meeting to which the slight natural departure from mathematical promote this memorial was presided over by the veteran accuracy is not imitated. He then gives the anato- physician and diplomatist, the Right Hon. Sir John O'Neill, mical explanation of the fact as follows:

POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.—The Registrar" The nose as a feature depends entirely in its

General estimates the population of the United Kingdom in configuration on the arrangement of the bones and

the middle of this year, 1874, at 32,412,010, being 600,000 cartilages of which it is constructed. The structures more than double the population enumerated at the first census here mentioned may superficially be distinctly felt at in 1801. The population of Ireland in 1874–viz., 5,300,485– their point of junction, and if you carefully observe, is only 84,000 more than in 1801. The population of Scotland when no injury has occurred, any deviation from the in 1874viz., 3,462,916—is 212,000 more than double the mesial line only takes place in the cartilaginous por- 1874-viz., 23, 648,609—is above 53 millions more than double

population in 1801. The population of England and Wales in tion of the organ.

the population in 1801. “Beyond what may be thus superficially felt, there POPISH LITERARY PROPAGANDISM.-Some years ago it was occurs a bone called the vomer (from its likeness to a noticed that a little manual of English history, more largely used ploughshare), which plays a very conspicuous part in than any other in our middle-class schools, had been edited with determining the formation and contour of tho nose. Jesuitical art for spreading Popery, and defaming the ReformaIn truth, it is the disposition of this bone which toad, and the manual” of history was restored to original

tion. The Ithuriel spear of some critic touched this crafty determines the question at issue. It has an attach- truthfulness. Propagandism by the press is still busily used ment to the bones of the nose and face very similar in various forms. Shorthand reporters are in request for the to that of the rudder to a ship, and is so situated over newspapers, and these are trained at the popish seminaries, a3 a sulcus or slit in the ethmoid bone of the internal well as other useful underlings of literature. A recent review nose, as of necessity to seek attachment to one or

in “The Rock” calls attention to the popish tone of tho comic

books entitled “Mrs. Brown," the writer of which is a zealous other side of this slit. This bone, therefore, is, or

proselytiser. The poison of such books is the more mischievous ought to be, slightly on one side of the mesial line of from their adaptation to the tastes of the lower middle class of the face, and forming, as it does, part of the septum England, with just enough intelligence to laugh at the situawhich divides the nostrils, and at the same time tions of Mrs. Brown, but without enough intelligence to notice forming the middle or central support and point of how the writer is ridiculing their Protestant and patriotic feel

ings, and insinuating popish or Jesuitical notions. attachment to the nasal cartilage, it must of necessity carry the soft part of the nose to that side to which minutives. To almost every noun at Rarotonga and Mangaia

DIMINUTIVES.—Polynesians are addicted to the use of diit inclines.

are prefixed the diminutives *

or “manga ” = “ bit of;" “It will thus appear that, in an anatomical point a ship” thus becomes "a bit of a ship; " "a man ”is spoken of view, the nose is abnormal which evenly occupies of as a bit of a man,” etc., etc. In presenting a basket of the middle line of the countenance, and that the taro, the owner will depreciate it by calling it " a few buds or

offshoots ;" a bunch of bananas becomes " a sprout;" a great organ which is more or less biased from the centre

feast dwindles to "something wrapped up in leaves." In is correct.

giving out the needful directions for a feasting, a chief will “ In children this characteristic is absent, or only sometimes tell his people " to look out for wild.nono' apples," very slightly apparent, as the romer itself is but intending by this delicate hint that their finest taro should be rudimentary and cartilaginous in its structure till the taken up on the day specified. This style of expression runs age of puberty is past. Nevertheless, an injury of earth," or "a leaf-ful of soil," or "standing-room for å

through everything. A plantation is described as in youth, if unattended to, might and does lead to bread-fruit tree. A widow once told me that her deceased exaggeration in after years.

husband “had left her beneath the post of their dwelling." "I have not observed to which side, as a rule, in meaning that he had given her their house to live in, not the majority of cases the nose inclines. All I can

the food in the interior of the island. A man with an armful

of cloth will confess to "a patch." A fisherman who has vouch for is my own special case, where the bias is secured a shark will describe it as “a minnow.” A comfortable decidedly to the right.'

W. S. dwelling-house becomes a mere “ant-hole."





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watchful eye of her mother could discover. As for MR. DAVID WADDLE'S SPECULATIONS. Mr. Waddle, he observed nothing at all in his CHAPTER V.- ROSES AND THORNS.

daughter, so absorbed was he in his schemes. Now

that the £2,000 were actually invested, there was AFTER this the days and weeks passed with

no cessation in the arrival of legal-looking documents out bringing much change or novelty to setting forth new enterprises; on the contrary, they the family at Plum Cottage. Pussy, indeed, came more thick and fast than ever. Companies for seemed never to recover from her weariness of that every conceivable and inconceivable object showered Sunday evening: She looked sick and drooping; their prospectuses on him. All addressed themselves yet there was no special ailment which even tho to “ David Waddle, Esq.;” all ran, as it were, after No. 1183.–AUGUST 29, 1874.



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him, holding out the golden handfuls and entreating waited upon, frequently talked at, while poor Mrs. him only to be rich.

Hartwell and Emma felt their hearts grow sick as Mr. Waddle divided the prospectuses as they ar- certain decided ladies enunciated general truths of rived into classes, carefully setting aside those which which it was not difficult to make special applicaappeared most promising, and he waited till his pre- tion. As yet there were no “meetings," only omibent shares would rise to such a premium that he nous whispered interchanges of opinion. But tho could quadruple his capital, when he would embark minister lost many a night's sleep and many a day's in other new enterprises. The process, Mr. Graham meal, and his wife looked pale and haggard, and the assured him, might be slow, but it was certain, and, children were more threadbare than ever. as we all know, a bird in the hand is worth two in complained, at least not much; but who will dara tho bush."

say that from the home of this good man there did On one point Mrs. Waddle had obtained a distinct not rise up a great cry heard in heaven itself. promise from her husband. Although his dissatisfac- It will be readily understood that, under the cirtion with his minister was great and growing, as cumstances already detailed, the financial activity of shown even by his looks and manner, yet he would David Waddle, Esquire, was for the present confined neither initiate nor take any active steps against him. to daily visits to Mr. Graham's office. But his mind Nor would he absolutely forbid all intercourse between was serene; his only trouble arose from the forward, Imma Hartwell and Kate; not that the latter gained spring-like condition of certain undertakings anmuch by this, save the relief of speaking out her nounced as in progress, and which threatened to sorrow and finding the warmest sympathy. Of James burst into bloom before the sun of his own prosperity Nicoll she learned no more than that Emma's lover was sufficiently strong to ripen these promising had found him out, and that a fast friendship was blossoms into fruit for himself. To adopt another springing up between the two. Even this was un- illustration. It will be remembered that when Baron speakable relief to Kate. And why should Emma Münchausen, on his well-known visit to the moon, have distressed her friend by telling her that John entered under the influence of hunger pangs in an Laing had expressed earnest fears for James? He elegant dining-saloon, he was straightway surrounded seemed so dangerously hard and callous, he could not by the most tempting smells of delicious viands, bo induced to speak either of Kate or of her parents, which permeated his every pore.

Unfortunately, but would sneer bitterly at all goodness and love. however, the baron found to his sorrow that this was More than that John would not say. In fact, he had the only mode of lunching known to the inhabitants bound himself not to mention his name any more in of the moon, and with it he had to remain content. his correspondence with Greenwood.

Financially speaking, the feelings of David Waddle But although Mr. Waddle so far kept his promise were at this particular period of a precisely analogous about the minister, it could not be but that the more character. But shares had undoubtedly gone up, lynx-eyed among the watchers in the church observed with a still rising tendency. Not all, indeed, for the change that had passed over him, for Mr. David there were rumours about the Windward Waddle was now becoming an important personage Islands, which "exceptionally” “flattened" them, but in Greenwood. He himself had thrown out certain dark nothing to speak of.Mr. Graham could succeshints, intended, however, to spread much light as to sively report three out of Mr. Waddle's four baskets his present prospects and future wealth. There were as at a premium. only too many roady to feed this flame into a gorgeous The excitement was now getting intense and illumination. To the generality of mankind, no halo absorbing. Shares would quiver up and down to so bright surrounds a man as that which the sunlight the same figures, and Mr. Waddle was becoming reflects from his gold. Let any one make the experi- restless. At last the directors adopted a device-or ment. Suppose yourself in a place like Greenwood, rather, they" felt it their duty,” as they stated in the to go to bed, like Mr. Waddle, with £300 a year, printed slip report, although the concerns were not and to get up with say ten times the amount. On very many weeks old, to lay before the proprietors the that very morning you are not ten, but a hundred exact state of the undertakings. They had nothing times a better or worthier man than you were the to conceal, and they were proud to have the satisfacnight before. The postman's letter has made all the tion of showing how fully their anticipations had difference-or rather brought it out-only they dis- been realised. Report No. 1 admitted some discovered it not before! How differently the milkman, couragement. The directors might have to call up grocer, butcher, baker, bow to you ; with what con- five shillings a share, which, it would readily be seen, cern the doctor inquires after your health and that would greatly tend to the benefit of the shareholders. of the “ladies" ; how cordially the lawyer speaks to Report No. 2 announced that platina had undoubtedly you! Your small jokes are laughed at; your sayings been found. Captain Cornwall reported “a vein, are quoted; your remarks are respectfully listened enlarging into "a lode.” More European labour to; invitations increase for you and your dear lady, required. Report No. 3, about the “Great Wheal and your sweet daughter. To be sure, everybody Bang," was divided into two parts, the first detailalways respected you, only now it has come out, ing General operations,” the second hoaded “First everybody can see it, and you, who all your life were, division for April.” Mr. David Waddle's heart gave figuratively speaking, “nowhere," are straightway a great bound. Here, then, were actual profits, or patron or vice-patron, president or vice-president, or how could there be a "division for April"? Neglect

” honorary committee-man and distinguished patron- ing the “General operations,” he eagerly turned first age-giver in general, to everything that breathes in a of all to the proposed “ division.” He felt bewildered corporate capacity at Greenwood.

amid words of whose meaning he could form no idea. In point of fact, David Waddle, Esquire, was fost The “division” detailed how, at certain attaining to that estate, and therefore it needed not the ground was " flookan.” There was "jacotinga." exactly words in order to affect Mr. Hartwell's posi- and in the neantime there had been a certain tion or comfort. The minister was occasionally number of "adobes.” In due time there would, no



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doubt, be a certain quantity of " oitavas," which, at | quite recover by the morning. Only a fit of weaka certain raie, would yield a certain profit. There ness! That was quite a different thing from disease were " explorations," "shafts,”. “ adits," "spalling and death. She needed strengthening. She had floors," "workings,” and “rejected killas.” But not been out ever so long. There was no remedy so for the present they only waited for a “donkey- sure to restore strength and appetite as the fresh air. engine" from England, which, no doubt, would soon His wife had said that Pussy was not strong arrive. Mr. Waddle laid the report aside in enough to walk much. Were there not means to despair, and took up No. 4, which happily gave enjoy plenty of fresh air without walking? Mr. the most flourishing accounts of the Irish bogs and David Waddle thought a while. He had found it ; peats. This was decidedly reassuring, and his face he had solved the problem! How happy that he brightened. Besides, what did it matter, with shares had been so successful in his speculations. What a at a premium?

providence he had so invested ! Otherwise he could Yet Mr. David Waddle would fain have satisfied not have done what he now inwardly proposed for himself about all the technicalities in Report No. 3. the morrow. Let him see? What was the exact He looked towards his daughter, who, as now was state of his funds ? What could he at that moment her front, lay wearily back in the easy-chair beside reckon upon with certainty, according to the present the fire, her cheeks flushed, and her frame alternately state of the share-market ? shivering and burning. For the first time he noticed Mr. David Waddle was deep in his calculations her glazed eyes.

when the door suddenly opened. His wife had "Pussy, have you not a "Johnson's Dictionary'?" come back to say that Pussy had gone to sleep. A pocket edition of this most useful manual was Her heart sank within her when she discovered how accordingly produced. But “ Johnson " had no ex- her husband was engaged. To do him justice, le planations to offer of the terms employed in the was ashamed of himself, and crumpled up the paper * Division of Profits.” Kate sat by her father, and on which his figures had been put down. tried to help him. At last Mr. Waddle grow im- That night, when Mr. Waddle retired to rest, he patient. It was no use, he thought, to give children emphatically declared to his wife that all Pussy a good education. He wished he had never spent so needed was fresh air, and plenty of it. much of his money in that way. There was neither aware she was not strong enough to walk much at pleasure nor profit in it, and children should take present, but he would provide for that. With which some interest in what their parents undertook. mysterious assurance, thrice repeated with evident

This and much more to the same effect did Mr. and increasing self-approbation, Mr. David Waddle Waddle ponder, in reality perhaps not meaning so blew out not only the candle, but also his own better much poor Pussy, as inwardly addressing his re- convictions. monstrances to Report No. 3. It was a pity, however, he should not have made this more clear. As long

CHAPTER VI.--IN THE STORM. as she could, the fevered girl bore tho unmerited IF Mr. David Waddle had gone to bed with a good looks and manner of reproach, the while trying to purpose, he rose next morning with the firm deterlilt up her heart from earth to heaven, and to find mination of carrying it into immediate execution. strength to bear whatever additional trials were sent. Pussy felt better, and would be up in the course Then of a sudden she felt all around give way, and of the forenoon; and there now remained, in her the slid heavily to the ground.

father's opinion, only the use of his special remedy In a moment her father and mother were by her to perfect her cure. Fresh air, and plenty of it ! side. Her father lifted her tenderly, and carried As Mr. Waddle stepped forth into the April air, her gently up to her room. The burden was, alas! he told himself never could there be a restorative too liglit-not much heavier than when he had borne like such a day. The sky was clear, the sun was her about as a child. How those days, with their bright, the ground was dry, and a sharp “ bracing." lyright hopes, came back upon him, as he stood by wind drove down the street. Though not generally the unconscious form of his last remaining child! given to observation of naturo, Mr. Waddlo noticed Were they to lose her also ? And for what then approvingly that even the birds and hedges acknowhad he been working and planning? The keenness ledged the healthiness of the season. The robins of the pang cut like a dagger to his heart.

chirped merrily, and the hawthorn and brier were At length colour returned to her cheeks and con- bursting into leaf. sciousness to her mind. With a hasty kiss, David As always, Mr. Waddle's first walk was to Graham's Waddle left Kate in her mother's hands. As he re- | office, where he was received with the old melanturned alone to tho parlour he felt increasingly un- choly smile by “ Puddles,” who shook his hair easy. He paced the room, and pictured to himself the ominously as the capitalist disappeared within his wretchedness that might be before them. Why had his master's sanctum. Mr. Graham had good news wife never called his attention to the danger? She that day. The reports of the directors had made a had been culpably negligent. Had she? And then very favourable impression in the City. There could his conscience whispered to him certain things, be no reasonable doubt that within a few days shares

a which somehow seemed to remove the blame from would be at a higher premium. The “ Mining his wife. For the first time these many weeks he Gazette" of that morning had a leading article listened to the whisperings of conscience. For the which eloquently described the beauties of scenery first time since he had visited Mr. Graham's office amid which these new undertakings lay. After a did he entertain serious misgivings about the course long discussion of the various lodes, it concluded as on which he had entered.

follows: “We unhesitatingly declare there never Three times during the next half-hour did Mr. were mines on which so much machinery has been Waddle_send Phebe upstairs to inquire after his placed; though for market purposes shares may be child. Each time the reply was more reassuring. Hattened, yet truth is great and must prevail. They It was only a fit of weakness, from which she would may have been beared' for delivery, but we


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