Imagini ale paginilor


was my half-uttered thought, but there was no need | which, with a greater depth of water, and not to express it in words, for I could see our boatman half the height of fall, is the characteristic of Niagara. knew the importance of doing so as well as I. As Looking as we did along this grand perspective of we passed the deeper pools the hippopotami raised snow-white cataracts, the spray, less dense than to their heads like those of uncouth horses, the bright the westward, allowed us occasional glimpses even of red orbits of the eyes, the little ears, and the pro- the eastern end, about half way to which the sonthern truding nostril, from which the condensed breath cliff was broken by the dark portals of the outlet, was ejected almost like the spouting of a whale, while directly opposite us on our right was the showing like vermilion in the sunlight; others, as precipice to which, on the first day of our visit, the we passed along the islands and disturbed them in buffalocs were driven. The diminution of our some quiet rumination, rushed,

shadows on the troubled water below enabled us

almost for the first time to realise the idea of the " Trampling their way through wood and brake,

immense depth ; but the crowning glory of the And canes which crackling fell before their way,”

scene was certainly the brilliant rainbow forming, toward the water, and plunging headlong down the except for the small segment cut out by the shadow bank raised a surge that spread far into the quiet of the rock we stood upon, a complete and perfect reaches, as if a small vessel had been launched, circle, and surrounded by another with reversed while if the water happened to be not deep, a wake colours, faintor and more indefinite as it approached would appear upon the surface as if a submarine the thinner spaces in the mist. steamer were plying beneath it.

Short, indeed, was the time allowed me for sketchThe stream, more rapid and divided into shallower ing; again and again I was warned that the day and more tortuous channels, was hurrying us was waning, that paddling against the stream was toward the verge ; the black forest-crowned cliffs heavy work, and it was not a road that men could appeared beyond, but the chasm of course we could travel in the dark. I closed my work reluctantly, not see. Its depth was only indicated by the rising and followed to the canoe; the water was baled out, mist, and on this, as we came closer and closer still, and now commenced the struggle against the rushing the sun, beginning to decline, just cast a segment of stream, in which, perhaps, one who can, to some the bow so short as to show no visible curve, and so extent, appreciate the various dangers, feels more broad as to tint the whole height of the spray-cloud when compelled to sit as a helpless passenger than with its brilliant colours. This, broken as the curl- one who is totally inexperienced; but he too can ing mist was agitated by the gentle breeze, took the understand and glory in the skill and courage of the appearance of lambent flickering flames, of which veteran who commands the boat. See him now, some idea may be formed by any one who has erect and fearless in the narrow bow, as the water watched the beautiful experiment of the chromatic dances round the canoe, how firmly yet how rapidly he fire-cloud, and will imagine the delicacy its vivid poles her against the current in the shallows, how colours would assume if shown by the light of day. quickly he catches up his paddle in the deeper water

, We were now within ninety or a hundred yards how carefully he guides her across the smoother of the Falls, and heading straight for them, when parts, his unerring eye watching, before he enters Zanjueelah, taking advantage of an eddy caused by a the curl of the various eddies, and with what judg. patch of rock upon our left, swerved suddenly to the ment he shoots, end on, into the exact place where right, and ran ħis canoe upon the shelving rock of a it is just possible to ascend the successive rapids, small cove on the eastern side of Garden Island, jumping out at the proper moment to force her up where, hauling her up a little without fastenings of the steep incline, and in again as soon as she is in any kind, we threaded the tangled little forest to the the level waters. The passage of course up-stream Doctor's Garden. We found the recent track of a was long and tedious, but danger and difficulty hippopotamus within the enclosure, but could not diminished as we advanced, and by sunset 19 discover any plants among the rank vegetation reached our bivouac in safety. fostered by the moisture. We found the name of Dr. It would be beyond the province of an artist to Livingstone, with the date of his first visit, 1855, enter on a discussion of the geology of these Falls, inscribed upon a tree, and that of his brother Charles but the impression on our minds was that nothing below it with 1861, and the broad arrow of the but volcanic agency could have produced so clear and Government, but did not see that of Dr. Kirk, and well-defined à fissure, the opposite sides of which did not cut our own, but passed onward to the cliff, seem in many places to correspond as if they had which projects like a pier of solid masonry so far but recently been torn asunder, and again might be beyond the general line of the Falls as to narrow the united. I may remark that slight shocks of earthchasm here to not more than seventy-five yards. quake are by no means uncommon in Damara and

The view to the eastward was the only good one, Namaqua land, and that some of the hills there, and it was, indeed, magnificent; the Falls nearest especially the Brook Kaross mountain near Beer us were narrowed and broken by projections of the Sheba, are supposed to have been once volcanoes

. rock, but others were of considerable magnitude, Dr. Kirk also thinks the chasm of the Falls and lower and in the rainy season, when the floods submerge river could have been formed by no other agency; all minor rocks, and even, as the natives told us, he considered the rocks basaltic, and tried as we did cover the garden on the island, the sheet of water to effect a descent, but, except for a short


downpouring over the verge must be grand in the extreme, ward at the eastern end, found it impossible to do so. and much of that breaking into festoons, peculiar to As it is hopeless by mere description to convey comparatively small bodies of water falling to great anything like a clear idea of the extraordinary depths, must disappear, though I doubt whether, windings of this gigantic chasm, I have thought it even with the rise of sixteen feet spoken of by Dr. best to repeat from the work published by Messrs. Kirk, Victoria can ever pour to the bottom of the Day and Son a plan or bird's-oye view, constructed ravine that green, translucent, and unbroken sweep from the most careful measurements my companion


[ocr errors]




and I were able to obtain, premising that the “smoke," or spray-cloud, has necessarily been omitted for the sake of distinctness of detail. I will

TIIE MANDARIN'S DAUGHTER. only mention that Dr. Livingstone's measurement of the depth of the fall was more than 310 feet”-his line resting on a heap of rocks which did not allow it SEVER

EVERAL days after this interview with the

mandarin and his daughter, I proceeded to by angular measurements with a sextant; meet them according to appointment.

When we thought it 350, but for want of definite points at reached the house we found them ready to start in top and bottom could not attach much certainty to their sedan-chairs. The chair-bearers were dressed our result. Sir R. Glynn, however, found that even in the livery of their master, and as it would be dark a line of 400 feet was insufficient. I suppose, in on their return, each carried a lantern with the round numbers, the latter will be found quite near mandarin's name and titles inscribed on its paper enough, until increased facilities of travelling shall covering: When they arrived at their destination tempt to the spot some one with time and facilities the gentlemen were ushered into the apartment set for surveying it more accurately, What other aside for the male visitors, and A-Lee went into the measurements we wero able to make are given as one for the ladies. After being introduced to the references to the plan or bird's-eye view.

chief persons of the company, I inquired in whose Comparing the Victoria and the Niagara Falls, house we were. Mr. Layard, who had seen Niagara, when he in- Meng-kee replied, “This is the residence of the

-, spected my pictures in Capetown, declared that the bridegroom's father and family, and where we await Victoria must be the grander of the two, and many the coming home of his bride, who will afterwards other persons have expressed a similar opinion. A live with him in the house." beautiful set of stereoscopes of Niagara were shown “Why, that is the reverse of our marriage custom, me at the Cape, and imperfectly as even these for the bridegroom proceeds to his father-in-law's enabled me to judge, the massive sheet of water house and takes away his bride to an independent pouring unbroken over the cliffs, the possibility of home of his own." passing between the rock and the liquid translucent “ There are instances of that kind among us, screen, of obtaining a view of the full front of the where the bridegroom is a Government official, but great cataracts for miles along the lower river, and, these are rare. In other cases, such as the one more than all, the strange fantastic forms of frozen before us, the young wives are always brought to spray or icicles in winter, must impart to the their father-in-law's house, for it is considered a American Falls a character so different as to preclude breach of filial duty for the son to set up a household comparison between them. The African Falls are, of his own while the father lives. In this house however, more than double the height, and I believe there are four married sons, and this marriage will of greater extent, and in the flooded season the volume make a fifth, so that there are a good number of of water pouring over them must almost, if not quite, wives in the establishment, including the father's rival that of Niagara. Besides which, the wondrous secondary wives. But the first wife is mistress over altitude of the spray-cloud, the numberless views all. These young wives are not only subordinate to that may be taken, the surpassing brilliancy of the her, but they are taught that their most binding duty rainbow, the gorgeous tropical vegetation, and the is to obey and serve her.” wild forms of animal life with which it is surrounded,

"Well," I thought, “these are privileges for old combine all possible elements of beauty, of romantic ladies with a vengeance! Wouldn't our British adventure, and magnificence.

mothers-in-law glory in having such power by Act of Parliament?"

Meng-kee now pointed to a doorway with a screen

before it, and asked me to follow him into the hall. Sonnets of the Sacred Hear. On entering we perceived a, narrow table on the

right hand of the door, covered with sweetmeats and TWELFTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY.

fruit, having two small wax candles burning at each

end. On the side of the hall opposite to this was “He took him aside from the multitude . They were the picture of a deified hero, with the ancestral beyond measure astonished, saying, He hath done all things tablet below, resting on the family altar, before well."-St. Mark vii. 33, 37.

which incense sticks were burning and filling the hall DRAW

RAW me, my Saviour, from the carnal throng, with a pleasant perfume. On each side of the altar

What time Thou hear'st some interceding cry stood a wax candle about three feet high and three Or mine own silent prayer, and drawest nigh

inches in diameter. On a table standing before the To give me that I lack, these crowds among,

family altar were placed at one end more than The ear that hears indeed, th' anointed tongue

twenty female garments and a pair of small embroi

dered shoes. At the other end were packets of red That will henceforth its own deliverance tell,

paper, containing pieces of gold and silver coins, and Proclaiming Thy sweet mercy's miracle

in the middle was a tray, with a cincture for the In brave confession or adoring song,

waist, made of solid gold, a splendid large buckle for Even so withdraw me from the worldly din,

it, a handsome pin for the bosom, and several rings, Be it by sickness, solitude, or loss,

all of gold. These were presents to the bride from May I but have, my very soul within,

various friends and relatives, the mandarin and his Sound of Thy voice and chrism from Thy cross,

daughter being among the donors. The table was

covered with a red velvet cloth embroidered with And sing at last with all Thine Israel,

gold thread, and at each end of it stood a chair with “ The Lord my Saviour hath done all things well.” à similar cloth unon it.



[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

a ears.

Further inspection was interrupted by a bustle , while the priest pronounced a benediction on the outside the hall and the entrance of all the relatives married couple. and friends come to witness the ceremony. Soon

These forms concluded the ceremony. The bride afterwards the word “coming” was spoken by some

was then carried out into her own apartment by the one, whereupon a young friend of the bridegroom, two old women, and the bridegroom was conveyed chosen as “the receiver of guests," put on a long, bodily, head foremost, into his apartment by his light-coloured silk garment over his usual dress. young men. He underwent some chaffing for a little, The exclamation "Coming!” was twice repeated, and then went alone to his bride, where he drew off upon which he put on other two garments, one of the veil, and for the first time beheld her face. figured light-green silk, and the other a dark purple “What think you of the ceremony?" asked Mengrobe of figured satin, having in his hand a pyramidal kee. cap, with red silk at the apex. The father now asked “Well, I have been very much interested in witif all was ready; he was answered in the affirmative. nessing it. Though I am not expected to understand Then his son entered the hall, and “the receiver of the nature of the forms gone through, yet it is suffiguests” conducted him to his seat at the head of the ciently obvious that they are full of meaning—the table.

last one especially, where the two ribbons are tied as The sound of music was now heard outside, together an emblem of their being united. I must say also with the banging of gongs, and the noise culminated that, with the exception of the bridegroom being in a shower of fire-crackers that fairly deafened our carried out so unceremoniously by his friends, the

whole ceremony has been conducted with decorum, When these noises ceased, the procession entered and some degree of solemnity." the court-yard. It consisted of persons holding scar- Yes, you are right; it is a rude, but an old let canopies over the heads of relatives of the bride, custom, and therefore it is tolerated. But that is and others carrying chests, carved and painted in red, mild to what I have seen at some marriages, where edged with gold, containing the bride's wardrobe. the bridegroom is brought into the hall on the In the midst of the procession came her chair, a very shoulders of his friends, who set up a great shouting gorgeous sedan, hired for such occasions, elaborately and laughter, and tumble him down beside his bride, carved and gilded, with the red satin curtains drawn struggling like a prisoner to get free. But here our so that no one could see her. When the four chair- young host comes to entertain us for the evening." bearers arrived at the outer gate, they set down the By this time darkness had set in, and the hall was chair, and opened it to let her out. She was dressed beautifully lighted up with lanterns of the most in a scarlet robe of satin, richly embroidered, and variegated forms and colours, giving quite a brilliant wore a thick scarlet veil of silk crape, so that literally aspect to the scene. Then the relatives and guests she could not see, or her features be seen. Her head-seated themselves at the tables, while servants flitted dress was an elaborate toilet of blue and gold flowers. in and out with savoury dishes, of which they parTwo old women stood at the door of the chair and took took heartily, each one chatting to his neighbour and her out, while she remained perfectly passive in their discussing the ceremony of the day. hands. They then carried her into the hall, where I was introduced by Meng-kee to the bridegroom, they set her down before the altar and tablet of her who was a young man of about four-and-tirenty

, future husband's ancestors.

having a remarkably intelligent countenance. He Meanwhile the bridegroom had left the hall, but thanked me for the honour of my presence in very in a few minutes returned with his young male polite terms. Then he rose, carrying in his hand a friends and the Buddhist priest appointed to perform beautiful porcelain jar filled with sweet rose-coloured the rites of marriage. These friends almost carried wine, and walking round the tables, poured some him in bodily, and set him down beside his bride into each guest's cup. The master of the ceremonies

, before the ancestral tablet, each clasping their hands, or “receiver of guests,” now intimated that the and reverentially bowing their heads. Then the bridegroom wished to express his obligations to his priest began to intone, the service, in the midst of friends who had honoured him with their presence which, at a given signal, the two old women joined on the occasion. hands and knelt before the tablet. Then they tied The bridegroom then invited me into the ladies' a piece of red silk ribbon to the girdle of the bride- apartment, where a large assemblage of the bride groom, and a piece of green silk ribbon to that of the and bridegroom's female friends were partaking of bride. The priest muttered again, and they all joined supper, among whom was A-Lee, who looked the in; after which the two women tied the ribbons belle of the party. The newly-made wife sat at the together, and thus they were united for life in the top of the table, and rose on their entrance, rubbing bonds of matrimony.

her breast up and down with her right hand to exThis done, they all rose from their prostrate posi- press her delight on the occasion.

One of her tion, and the united couple were seated together attendants then called out—"Worthy matrons and before the table where the collation was spread. young ladies, the bride desires to offer her respectful Here the two old women poured out two cupfuls of thanks to you all for your kindness and attention." wine, which they held to the lips of both; they then We then returned to the gentlemen's supper-room, changed the cups, poured the wine out of one cup followed by the bride and her attendants, where one into the other, thus mixing the wine together, and of them acknowledged the honour they had conferred again presenting them to their lips. In like manner upon her by their presence at the wedding. After

. two dishes of rice were intermingled, and partaken this she retired to the bridal chamber. Here, I of by the bride and bridegroom. Having thus seen thought, she would now be screened from the gaze them go through the ceremony of eating together, of her visitors. Not so. On the contrary, it was the old women retired, but immediately returned only now, apparently, that they were to have a good with a pail and a broom, which they placed at the look at her to make up for her past and future secluside of the wife, to indicate her household duties; sion. To any special visitor who entered, the bride


was brought out for inspection, and at the interview | belong to educational employments. In the Civil Serhe or she was allowed to offer any remarks they vice the introduction of female labour is becoming chose about her lips, nose, eyes, brows, feet, or any more and more common. The main objection has, of part of her dress. The composure of the young course, always rested on the very natural feeling bride through it all was amazing—not a smile on her against the mingling of the sexes in the common work lips, not a blush on her face, the muscles seemed of a public establishment; and it is noticeable that, immovable. This demeanour, I was told, added to as a rule, where ladies are engaged they are for the the reputation of the bride for her gravity, calmness, most part employed in offices by themselves. When, and temper in not being fluttered by the remarks, however, we see in a large number of our great good or bad, from favourable or unfavourable criti- shops and warehouses, men and women—and the cism.

latter are often persons of considerable culture and refinement who have chosen a trade, despite its long hours and physical exertion, in preference to the life

of a governess—working together without even a CURIOSITIES OF THE CENSUS.

thought of impropriety, there can be little real arguBY CHARLES MACKESON, F.S.S.

ment against the extension of the system to Govern

ment offices, at any rate of the lower grades. Even VI-OCCUPATIONS OF WOMEN, AND MATRIMONIAL STATISTICS.

now there are three thousand women “under the “MEN

EN must work and women must weep is Crown," many of whom serve, like the male clerk, to

the burden of a well-known song, but ex- a good old age, there being more than two hundred perience proves that there is a good deal of fiction between sixty-five and seventy-five, and nearly a about this as there is about many a poet's tale. If hundred over seventy-five. we look at the census tables we shall be able to show There are about three thousand women engaged in that if women weep they work too, and with no slight our workhouses and prisons as matrons, nurses, and result; in fact, whether in their own houses or in attendants. It is pleasant to note the next subspecific branches of trade, they form by no means division of the same class, where we find upwards the least industrious part of the population. In of a thousand missionaries, engaged in a form of estimating the number of workers among the women “woman's work for women, as it has been happily of England, we must, however, at once decide termed, which is capable of still further development whether we will include wives and mothers under with benefit to the community at large. Of church this category, and it would, we think, be obviously and chapel officers we have fifteen hundred, who may unfair not to do so, as the highest aim of a woman be presumed to include the neatly-dressed pew-openers should be to fulfil her duties in the household. And -now fast disappearing before the cassocked verger this is clearly the view of the census authorities, of modern development and the cleaners of our for in their tables they give a high place to the wives churches and chapels. The other prominent figures and mothers among the workers, no less than four in the professional class are two thousand midwives, millions out of the six and a half millions of women seventy-seven thousand students, a thousand painters, above twenty years of age being thus defined. When seven thousand music-mistresses, sixteen hundred we add to these figures another large item of three actresses, thirty-eight thousand schoolmistresses, and and a half millions of women above fifteen years of fifty-five thousand teachers and governesses. The age, who are returned as serving in shops, ware- largest proportion in both the latter classes is between houses, or in other places than their own homes, we the ages of twenty-five and thirty-five, after which have a total of seven and a half out of the eleven and there is a fall of nearly one-half, suggestive, it may a half millions of the sex who may be said to be, at be hoped, of an entry on the holy estate of matriany rate, far removed from idleness, while a very mony," which, among all young ladies, and especially large number of the remainder are, by their age, and those engaged in the arduous though honourable by the very wise prohibition of Parliamentary enact- task of teaching, is, as we know, a consummation ments, precluded from entering on the business of devoutly wished for. life, or are still at school. This result is in itself In the second great division, the domestic, we have satisfactory, but when we remember that the number a clear arrangement of the wives engaged in purely of actual workers (exclusive of the domestic class) | home duties, apart from those who definitely assist has risen from about two and a half millions in 1851 their husbands in their respective callings. Under to nearly three and a half millions in 1871, we have the first head we have nearly four millions, two a still more conclusive proof that the absolutely idle hundred and fifty thousand of whom are returned woman, like the idle man, is daily becoming more between the ages of fifteen and twenty. Under scarce in the land.

the second head there are six occupations in which Looking at the employments of the female popula- the wives seem to render direct help-the innkeepers, tion in general, we find that out of the total number lodging-house-keepers, and general shopkeepers, of eleven and a half millions, no less than five and farmers and graziers, shoemakers, and butchers, a half millions belong to the domestic class already forming in all about four hundred thousand. Next referred to, four millions to the indefinite and non- to the wives we have a list of “persons,” presumably productive class, a million and a half to the indus- for the most part unmarried, who are engaged in trial class, fifty-seven thousand to the commercial entertaining and performing personal offices for man. class, nearly two hundred thousand to the profes- After fifty thousand thus employed in inns, lodgingsional class, and a slightly smaller number to the houses, and public rooms, we come to the great mass agricultural. In the professions women are to be of women in domestic service, to whom a general found in considerable numbers; in fact, they form allusion has been made in a previous paper. Here, one-third of the population under this head, or, in however, we are enabled to give authentic particulars, other words, for every two professional men there is several of which we are sure will possess some one professional woman. The largest number of them interest for lady readers.

The great body of servants belong to that all- very large, and amounting to sixteen thousand, or embracing class “ general,” and form considerably one-third of the whole. When we come to cotton more than half of the total number, nearly eight and flax, Lancashire shows us more than three hundred thousand. There are a hundred and forty hundred thousand of its daughters in the various thousand housekeepers, ninety-three thousand cooks, branches of its noble industry, but with a number of upwards of a hundred thousand housemaids, seventy- child-workers which is greatly to be regretted, more five thousand nurses, and four thousand laundry. than three hundred thousand being returned under ten maids. Nurses, not domestic servants, number years of age, and fifty thousand between ten and fifteen. twenty-eight thousand four hundred and seventeen, Whether the work tells on the health of the women, including the hospital nurse, and perhaps, in some or whether they become wives and mothers, the tables cases, that dreaded individual, the “ monthly nurse, show not, but there is an enormous decrease when we for whom the only correlative supplied by nature is reach thirty-five, amounting to more than one-half of the equally proverbial mother-in-law. Many more the number employed in the preceding decennial of these estimable Mrs. Gamps are doubtless returned period. under the head of midwives. There are, too, nearly In millinery and dress-making, the energies of seventy-eight thousand charwomen, a significant three hundred thousand women are employed, fire proof of the enormous number of families where thousand of whom are under fifteen, and sixty thoueither no servant is kept, or where the domestic sand between fifteen and twenty-a fact which should service is insufficient for the household wants. not be without significance to those who, by mere

The commercial class opens with a proof of the ex- thoughtlessness, aid in the blighting of many thouistence among ladies of the money-making capacities sands of these young lives, and perhaps in sowing which are usually associated with the mart and the the seeds of premature decay, by giving orders at the exchange, but which are here shown to have their last moment which involve many hours of nightwork representation in the boudoir and the drawing-room, to execute. And then, again, we have the subjects of for we have more than three thousand lady capitalists Tom Hood's “Song of the Shirt,” the victims of the and shareholders, soventeen hundred saleswomen, keeper of the ready-made clothes shop, upwards of and fourteen hundred commercial clerks. The shop- eighty thousand shirtmakers and seamstresses, some women of undefined trades number seventeen thou- being here included who are literally, as the tables sand, and there are the same number of hawkers show, compelled to work on until the needle falls and pedlars.

from their hands. The female hatters, it is noticePassing on to the agricultural class, we find nearly able, have very largely increased on the numbers a hundred thousand farmers' daughters, grand of the previous report, being nearly three times as daughters, sisters, and nieces, the wives having numerous as in 1861, a fact probably explained by the already been accounted for in the domestic class. In greater popularity of the hat as an article of lady's addition to these and they are, it must be remem- headgear, and also by the transformation of bonnets bered, practically farm-servants-there are thirty- into hats which has been gradually going forward three thousand females employed in the fields, more until it requires a good eye to detect the difference. than a hundred of whom are under ten years of age, Turning to the various employments connected two thousand between ten and fifteen, and four with the food supply of the people, the number of thousand between fifteen and twenty. This reveals women is more limited, except in some few instances, an employment of juvenile labour, and still worse of such as the grocers and teadealers, where we find female labour, in the most arduous work, which is one upwards of twenty-two thousand; while of bakers, of the least satisfactory results opened out in these greengrocers, confectioners, and tobacconists, the pages, and certainly goes far to strengthen Mr. Arch number of women and girls varies from four to six and his fellow-advocates of increased wages, as, if the thousand in each trade. men were better paid, it may be fairly hoped that In the list of persons "working and dealing in there would be less need for girls to undertake such minerals,” the chief source of female employment is work. There are more than two thousand women in the manufacture of earthenware, in which sixteen who are gardeners by profession.

thousand are engaged, nearly half of whom are under In the great industrial class, as might be ex- twenty years of age. Their light and quick fingers pected, women and girls find numberless means find ample exercise in many branches of this useful of gaining a livelihood. In bookbinding more than industry, and there is perhaps no pleasanter sight in three thousand girls under twenty are engaged; tho world of work than one of the long rooms at Worartificial flower-making employs five thousand hands, cester, at Torquay, or in the Potteries, where young while even in the making of firearms female labour women, and even young girls, are thus busily enis utilised, especially in the manufacture of percussion gaged in a duty which is often very far from being caps and cartridges. The match girls who marched merely mechanical, as it opens out opportunities for in procession along the Thames embankment to the development of the higher inventive faculties. touch the heart of Mr. Lowe when he threatened to Far more satisfactory is it, for instance, to see women tax their humble industry, only number about six thus employed, than to think of the heavy and unconhundred, more than half of whom are under twenty genial toil represented by the return of three thouyears of age. But it is in the great manufactures of sand coal labourers, of whom more than a third are textile and woollen fabrics that women find, as they mere girls, and of nearly the same number of brickalways have found, their chief employment. In the makers, who we are sorry to find are also for the various forms of woollen and worsted manufactures most part very young. upwards of a hundred thousand hands are engaged, no In the numerous metal manufactures again, and less than twenty thousand being under fifteen years of especially in the great establishments whero platel age. In silk, satin, and ribbon work the numbers goods are turned out with an amount of artistic finish stand between fifty and sixty thousand, tho proportion which attracts the eye even of the lover of the more of female operatives under fifteen being here also ancient work, women are largely engaged; and it


« ÎnapoiContinuați »