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BY LLEWELLYN JEWITT, F.S.A.
twine them round the boat. One of the men seized | not true fishes, though they attain to a degree of a small axe and severed both arms as they lay over magnitude, muscular power, and energy, which, along the gunwale of the boat; whereupon the fish moved with their flexible arms, adhesive suckers, and poweroff and ejected an immense quantity of inky fluid, ful horny beaks, render them formidable not only to which darkened the water for two or three hundred | the larger fishes, but even to man himself. It is yards. The men saw it for a short time afterwards, remarkable that so large species should exist in so and observed its tail in the air, which they declare high northern latitudes; but there is reason to bewas ten feet across. They estimate the body to have lieve that others quite as large and powerful exist in been sixty feet in length, five feet in diameter, of the the tropical soas. same shape and colour as the common squid ; and they observed that it moved in the same way as the squid, both backwards and forwards.
“One of the arms which they brought ashore THE NOMENCLATURE OF STAGE COACHES. was unfortunately destroyed, as they were ignorant of its importance; but the clergyman of the village In my younger days, when quite a bos, something
IN ten and six
like twenty father's , feet in length. The other arm was brought to St. each way, every day. Thus about forty times a day, John's, but not before six feet of it were destroyed. between about eight in the morning and seven in Fortunately I heard of it, and took measures to have the evening, the crack of the whip, the sound of the it preserved. Mr. Murray, of the Geological Survey, horn, or the rumble of the wheels was heard, and and I, afterwards examined it carefully, had it photo about forty times a day did wo raise our heads, or graphed, * and immersed in alcohol; it is now in our run down the garden to see them pass, and a pleasant inuseum. It measured nineteen feet, is of a pale-pink sight it was. There was no sameness in it. Each colour, entirely cartilaginous, tough and pliant as time a coach passed by there were new faces and new
, leather, and very strong. It is but three inches and features to be seen, and each time there was the a half in circumference, except towards the extremity, genial smile of the coachman, and the respectful where it broadens like an oar to six inches in circum- raising of his whip, and the equally respectful recogference, and then tapers to a pretty fine point. The nition by the guard ; and even the prancing horses under surface of the extremity is covered ith suckers seemed to put on extra freshness and extra vigour to the very point. At the extreme end there is a
to be seen as they were driven gaily by; and then cluster of small suckers, with fine sharp teeth round there were parcels and friends, coming and going; their edges, and having a membrane stretched across and messages to be delivered, and errands to be each. Of these there are about seventy. Then come done. If anything were wanted from the neighbourtwo rows of very large suckers, the movable disk of ing towns, all one had to do was to put up the hand each an inch and a quarter in diameter, the cartilagin as the coach came rolling along, and next morning the ous ring not being denticulated. These are twenty- good-tempered coachman never failed to bring what had four in number. After these there is another group of been asked for: If a message had to be sent to any suckers, with denticulated edges (similar to the first), friend whose house it passed-and in those days of high and about fifty in number. Along the under surface postage and slow delivery of letters, it was necessary about forty more small suckers are distributed at so to send-it had only to be given viva voce, or a intervals, making in all about one hundred and slip handed up to insure being duly and punctually eighty suckers on the arm." .
delivered and a reply obtained. if a parcel was
a Mr. Harvey mentions in a subsequent letter, that coming, or a friend had to be set down, the horn another of these gigantic cuttles had alarmed some blew when about a quarter of a mile or more from fishermen by seizing their chaloupe, or decked boat, our gate, and continued to blow as the horses came from below, and dragging it downwards, so that they galloping on, until it pulled up, or wo were seen to feared it would sink. The terrified men escaped in be waiting. But it was not always necessary to pull their skiff, and afterwards saw the creature playing up, for the coachman or the guard would often throw around. It had likely mistaken the boat for a large off the parcel or note while passing, or call out the dead fish. This occurrence, however, may seem to messages he had to deliver. In sending, too, it explain the old stories of the kraken palling down was not always that the coach stopped. If it was ships, since it is quite possible that the small craft of a small packet or a note that had to be despatched, tho old Norsemen may have been subjected to such the coachman or the guard would take off his hat, dnngers. At a still later date Mr. Harvey secured an hold it down at arm's length as the coach swept by, entire specimen of smaller size than the others, and while I-yes, I, or some one else-stretched up to our found the animal to be very near in form and propor- full height, and dropped it in, and cleverly it was tions to the common squid, or calawary, which it no done. With his reins and whip well up in his left doubt resembles in its habits and mode of life, except hand, his hat in his right, and his top-boots firmly that it is fitted to prey on larger fishes. It seems planted on the foot-board, the “scooping sweep likely that the Newfoundland species is not new, but with which he caught up thio missive was “ quite à one of these described by Steinstrup under the name picture” to behold. of Architenthis monachus, and A. dux, both of which In those days, boy as I was, I took a poculiar have been seen upon the European coast. It seems interest in the names of coaches and in the signs of scarcely necessary, in these times of popular instruc-inns from and to which they ran, and in the painted tion in natural history, to state that these cuttles belong decorations with which they were adorned. I beto the highest group of that great province of mollusca lieve at that time I had, in this boyish fancy of mine, to which the oyster, cockle, whelk, and many other written down in a little book which I kept specially comparatively humble creatures belong. They are for tlie purpose, the names of perhaps a couple of
hundred coaches, and pretty nearly the same number * Woodcuts of this photograph have been published in England in the “ Field," and in the "Annals of Natural llistory" for January, 1874.
Among the names of coaches which still cling to | Lane, at the same hour for the same journey. Hunmy memory, were many historic, many poetic, many dreds of times have I seen these two coaches more descriptive, and not a few personal; many were ex- than a hundred and thirty miles from London close tremely appropriate, others not so apparently so. on each other's heels, and scarcely even three minutes Some of these, now that stage coaches are things apart! It was a matter of rivalry which should take almost of the past, are well worth noting.
and maintain the lead; and if a stoppage had to be In the early days when coaches were few they made to take up or set down a passenger, moments needed no
name to distinguish them one from were of consequence, and the whip cracked, and the another. Whether “ Caravans," “Diligences," horses flew to make up the loss and regain their “ Balloon coaches," " Long coaches,” “Flys," "Fly place. But this was not opposition, it was simply emu
. vans," “Flying machines on steel springs," or lation. Not so, however, was it with other personally
| “Flying coaches,” they required only this descrip- named coaches I have known. Thus was the “ Lord tion, without any distinctive name, to be known by. Nelson," for instance, a good, respectable, quiet,
The “Caravan" of course became the father of steady-going old coach, against whom a rival was vans innumerable; the “Fly vans," which made a set up in no less a personage than-not Lady Hamililying journey of eighty miles in four days, wind and ton, for she would never have opposed him—but weather permitting, the parent of the "Flying “Lady Nelson !” Then came another of his titles, machines and flying coaches," and the “ Diligence” the “ Duke of Bronte," and after that the “Trafalthat of the “ Derby Dilly,” and all other dillies on gar;” and these, of the race of Nelson, used to race record.
with each other to the peril of life and limb, swingGood, useful, respectable, and characteristic names ing round corners at terrific. speed, darting madly were the “Good Intent," the “Accommodation," down precipitous hills, and swaying and surging ”
” and “ Accommodator," the “ Reliance,” the “Regu- from side to side along even and uneven ground. lator," and the “Clockwork." These were coaches Then there were “ Prince of Waleses” (when George whose very names were guarantees of stability and the Fourth was Prince), “Rodneys,' “ Queens," punctuality. Different indeed from these were the “Cornwallises,” “Granbys,” “Dukes of Welling- . *Spitfire” and “ Vixen,” which at one time ran in ton,” and other notables in abundance. opposition to each other over a north road. Another Argus,” with his hundred eyes to see passengers very common name was the “Defiance,” defying any and parcels on every side, was a favourite name, and other to enter into competition with it for celerity and not inappropriate; and then there were “Stars," punctuality; and almost a match for this was the “ Pearls, Gems,' Diamonds,” and “Rubies' “ Fearless,” which was ready to meet and overcome scouring the country in every direction, while “ Balall opponents. As a medium between these two loons” and “Dragons” carried one hither and came in the “Live and let live," running on the thither. broad, the human principle, of “ There's room enough The “Eclipse," which was to eclipse all other for all ; " and the “ Give and Take," which opposed coaches, and the “Peerless,” which owned no peer, no one, but went on in the even tenor of its way, were more poetical than unassuming in their applipicking up a living for itself, but doing nothing to cation. One more may be added, and that owes its hinder others from doing the same. The “Inde- origin to the time when projected railways threatened pendent,” and the “Hope," and the “Endeavour" the destruction of the stagers-a destruction which were also good, substantial, well-meaning names, has been as rapid as it has complete. This was the and such as would encourage steady, middle-aged “Steam Horse," a name intended to imply that the travellers to give them their support.
coach which bore it was capable of vieing in swiftFar different from these was another class of ness with its locomotive rival. names—“fast” names, which would suit the fast May-day decorations of those “good old coaching young men of those days and gain their patronage— days were another feature pleasant to recall. On such as the "Lightning," " Rapid,”. “Quicksilver," that day-to say nothing of the metropolitan mail
” “ Telegraph," "Express," " Witch," "Red Rover," coach procession, on which a pleasant chapter may
Rover," whether red or any other colour. yet be written— the stage coaches made their great These conveyed the idea of swiftness, but another display. Generally they were newly painted for that combined that of safety with it—the “Swiftsure time, and came out in all the fresh brilliance of redwhile another (the "Safety") belonged to the same and yellow, blue and green, and unsullied gilding.
Generally, too, the horses had new sets of bright Sporting names, at once expressive of quickness brown harness-not black as now-a-days-for the and spirit, were thé " Tally Ho!” “Ilieover," " Hie occasion, and invariably were gaily decorated with “
· Away," "Hark Forward, i "Tantivy," " Highflyer," flowers and ribbons and bows and rosettes. The “Iligh-mettled Racer," and "Flying Childers " - coachman and guard wore on May-day scarlet coats
. taking its name from the famous racehorse so called. and white breeches, with top-boots and white hats. Then the names of other swift animals were called The coachman had his whipstock tied in bows of into requisition—the “Antelope,” “Reindeer,” and ribbons and bunches of flowers, and more a large “Stag;” and of birds—the Eagle," the "Swal bouquet on his breast. The guard's bugle-horn was
· low," and the “ Lark."
similarly decorated; the coach had festoons of flowers Á very favourite coach in my days was the and evergreens hanging down its sides, and over the * Peveril of the Peak”-one of the most punctual luggage on the roof arches of a similar kind were and best-appointed of machines. Well horsed, well fixed. The horses, which seemed to enter into the managed, well driven, and beautifully painted, it ran spirit and enjoyment of the day as well and as much with precision daily from the Blossoms Inn, Law- as their masters, had besides their new harness white rence Lane, London, to Manchester, and generally saddle-cloths, often tastily embroidered by loving took and kept the lead of its rival, the “Royal hands, and made as gay and showy as possible, and Bruce," which left the Swan with Two Necks, Lad I arches of flowers over each separate head.
THE MANDARIN'S DAUGHTER.
feed you, you savey; but if you were at pace, and living quiet and asy at home, in your little bit of a cabin in Oirland, you savey, do you think you'd get mate every day for your dinner? Oh! never a bit,
CHAPTER XII.--WINTERING OF THE TROOPS IN TIEN-TSIN
MY RETURN IN THE SPRING TO PEKING.
OW that affairs were amicably settled between When the Peiho River was fairly frozen over,
it the Allies and the Chinese Government, it became the great highway for native traflic, changing became a question of importance as to how the troops the whole aspect of the scene at Tien-tsin. As that should be disposed of. At first the British envoy and
signifies the · heavenly ferry,” from a bridge of generals thought of wintering the army outside the boats that crosses the river, this was no longer walls of Peking, but this idea was abandoned from necessary, and those who wished to cross could do the difficulty of forwarding supplies from Tien-tsin, so on foot. The Chinese used small sledges, capable where the stores and head-quarters of the commis- of carrying two people seated, and propelled by a sariat had remained behind. It was resolved, there- third person behind. These were in great requisition fore, that half of the forces should winter at that by the soldiers, who hired them, and worked as hard city, leaving only a small garrison to protect the at pushing them along as if they had been paid for legation at Peking, and the remainder leave for it. Many a tumble they got, but persevered at the Japau and Hong Kong.
exercise as if it was a pleasure. Then the officers The frost soon set in with a severity that is only managed to get skates made after a pattern one of experienced by our troops when quartered in the them had brought from England; so they selected a Dominion of Canada. Its effects told more upon their smooth part of the river several miles below the city health than the swelteriug heats of summer. Not to skate upon. withstanding that every necessary was distributed Farther down a British gunboat was frozen in, and without stint, still there was always a large number of her deck housed for the winter. If anything, the patients in the hospital. Not only was there abun- sailors were better off for provisions than the soldiers ; dance of ration food, but game of various kinds could the deck was one long larder; whole sheep, a side of be bought cheap from the natives. Ilares and beef, strings of pheasants, grouse, wild ducks, hares, pheasants were so plentiful that they formed a daily and a deer or two, were always to be seen. Thus the portion of the soldiers' mess. “Well, Bill," said allied garrison passed the winter on the rigorous one to another, in the hearing of the chaplain, shores of Northern China without the slightest " have you got a good dinner for us to-day ?” No, molestation from the Chinese army; and an amicable that I haven't, lad,” was the reply; “there ain't feeling arose between them and the inhabitants that nothing but some hare soup and two or three impressed them favourably, but which, alas! did not pheasants, and what's the use of that?”
avert the Tien-tsin massacre, which happened ten In his intercourse with the natives the British
years afterwards. soldier displayed all his John Bull contempt for the When spring came round the wintry aspects of Chinese language, which brought out many comical Tientsin and the garrison disappeared more rapidly phrases in the garrison life at Tien-tsin. It is true than they came. The ice broke up, and presented a that they picked up a few native words which they fine sight as it went crashing down the rapid river. interspersed with English, but these would be intro- The snow disappeared from the wide plain under the duced with a running commentary on the Chinese rays of the sun, which soon became uncomfortably hot text. Thus, soldier, loquitur :
in the middle of the day, so as to induce dangerous “I say, my man, there's no use, you see, in your illnesses among the troops. Nevertheless, the change talking to me, because I don't understand your lan- in the season was right welcome to all, as it opened guage, but just you listen to what I have got to say up navigation, and they were again in communion
If you don't bring lots of sooay'— that is, with the outer world. plenty of water-ming tien,' that's to-morrow morn- Among the first arrivals were the ministers of ing at six o'clock, I'll just knock saucepans out of Great Britain and France, appointed to establish in you, that's all. Now wilo,' i.e., 'go away!"" person their respective legations at Peking, which
The most amusing application of a word was had been only temporarily formed after the conclu“savey,” which was used by the soldiers as if it sion of hostilities in the autumn of the previous were å Chinese term, and by John Chinaman as
year. During the winter those in charge had selected Englisli, whereas it is a corruption of the Portuguese suitable residences for the embassies. The building verb sabez, “to know.” The chaplain had an Irish chosen for Mr. Bruce (brother to Lord Elgin) was soldier and two Canton coolies, who attended to the palace of the Duke of Leang, originally an his wants, or as frequently neglected their duties. imperial residence, and rented to the British GovernThey were, however, on good terms with each other, ment, in perpetuity, at five hundred pounds a year, and ate their meals together. One day he heard no rent to be paid for the first two years, owing to Paddy speaking to them in the following manner: the extensive alterations and repairs it required. “Do
you call thim petaytees ?” (contemptuously). As it came within the duties of the Royal Engi“You never was in a country called Oirland, you neers for some of them to superintend these alterasavey, becase if I had you there, I'd show
tions, Captain Gordon was applied to for several of petaytees is, you savey. Sure, the people has to live his most skilled sappers. I was only too glad to on petaytees in Oirland—that's where I come from, volunteer my services, as it afforded the long-wishedthis piecey man, you savey—but surely no one could for opportunity of visiting the mandarin and his live on the likes of them, you savey. It's all very daughter at Peking. I took my departure from well for you now, you savey, becase you get mate every Tien-tsin with several comrades, along with the day for your dinner, you savey; that's becase we are secretaries and attaches of the legations, under an at war now, you savey, with the Emperor of China, escort of mounted troopers and Sikh cavalry, who this piecey couutry, you savey, and the innimy has to preceded the ministers as far as Tung-chow.
After so long an absence, I knocked at the gate | penetrated into the secrets of our hearts, and it is of the mandarin's house with some trepidation. The only proper that I should explain.” Upon this keeper promptly opened it, and in answer to the Meng-kee rose from his seat and walked across the question if his master or mistress were in, he replied room to one of the book-cases, which he unlocked, in the affirmative, and shortly returned with the and out of its most secret recess brought forth a mandarin, who received me in the same kindly goodly volume. Then he laid it on the table manner as formerly, and invited me into his bureau, reverently before his visitor, saying: or library, where he conducted his official duties. “ There, Christian sir, as you can read the cha
This apartment did not differ from others in the racters of our language, you will see that I cherish style of architecture, but it was differently furnished. the doctrines of your sublime faith, and my daughter Ranges of shelves lined the walls, relieved at intervals also, as set forth in that book, and that is why we by elaborately carved bookcases of sandalwood, sapan- honour you and sympathise with your country.” On wood, and ebony. These were filled with books upon looking into the volume, I saw that it was a transall subjects, ancient and modern, necessary for the lation of numerous selected chapters from the Bible, literati to study in passing through the competitive with comments by the missionaries, explanatory of examinations, which require the student to be passages not readily to be understood by the Chinese. specially learned in the classic books of Kong-foo- “ Come," said Meng-kee, “let us proceed to the taze, whose name the Jesuits Latinized into Confucius. apartments of my daughter, and let her know that I Like other anomalies among the Chinese as compared have divulged the secret of our conversion to the with Europeans, a library and its contents differ in Christian faith.”' their arrangement from ours. We print on both It was a joyful meeting, and re three conversed sides of the leaf, they only on one; we page our freely upon religious subjects, and the prospect of books at the top, they on the margin; we place our the spread of Christianity in China. This brought notes on the text at the bottom of the page, they at on the subject of Taiping propagandism, and Mengthe top; we read the sentences horizontally from left kee produced several decrees of the leader of the to right, they perpendicularly from right to left; we movement, setting forth their tenets. " What is mark the title of a book on the back of the binding, the general opinion,” he asked, “ among your they on the margin of the leaf; and in our libraries countrymen as to the doctrines they profess? " we set our volumes upon edge, while they pile them Having read a good deal on the subject, not only on the side.
in the English newspapers, but in the local press After the complimentary salutations were over, of China, I told him that opinions were divided; Loo Meng-kee, or, as I shall in future name him, some espousing the cause of the Taipings, as the Meng-kee, proceeded to inquire how I and my means of regenerating the country and bringing it brethren in arms had passed the winter at Tien-tsin. within the pale of Christian dominion. Not only Many other questions were asked by Meng-kee, con- did they countenance the cause in publications, but cerning the new relations between the Allies and the they assisted in sending the insurgents arms and Chinese Government, which raised my suspicions that ammunition to carry on the insutrection against the I was being made a tool of by an astute official to Imperial forces. elicit secret information regarding the movements of This statement excited the mandarin very much, the British forces. Among other matters he inquired and caused him to ask rather abruptly,
"Do the particularly if any intelligence had reached them, honourable commanders of your forces agree to after the opening of navigation, as to the movements this?” of the Taipings. On this head I had no reason for “No! not exactly in aiding them to fight, although withholding information, and had gleaned a good some sympathise in the cause. But should the deal from the Shanghai and Hong Kong newspapers Taipings attack any of the towns near our settlebrought up by the mails.
ments, such as Shanghai, thoy have been warned During this conversation, the mandarin assumed that the troops will drive them away with shot and so serious and anxious an expression of countenance, shell.” different from his usual equanimity, that I resolved “Ah! we will not say any more on this subject to question him on my part, to ascertain, if possible, just now, but we will the next time you come; and, the reasons for his inquisitiveness, and if it was his honourable sir, say nothing of this to others.”' intention to make use of my information against our I assured him that he had nothing to fear, and armies.
after bidding A-Lee an affectionato adieu, I returned • Be not afraid, honourable sir,” Meng-kee replied, once more to my quarters. I am greatly interested in what you say, but not a word of it shall be used to injure you or your evervictorious army. I am more a friend,” he added, in a subdued tone of voice, “than I dare almost to tell you.”
THE OXFORD UNION. Now, I thought, I shall get at the mystery of all
HE that has puzzled me in my intorcourse with the TE society hearing this name not long ago celedaughter;
brated fiftieth a grand banquet. “Honourable sir, I accept the sincerity of your The speakers on that occasion blew loudly the words, that you do not intend to do me any harm; trumpet of the “little senate” of Oxford as the nurbut I am impressed with the belief that there is more sery of orators and statesmen. Without trespassing than what is apparent in your manner and that of on the ground which these speakers and which your daughter towards me, who am a stranger and a writers in the newspapers have occupied, a short foreigner lighting against your government, that you account of the rise, history, and constitution of the should show me so much attention and kindness.” Oxford Union may be acceptable to some of our
"In saying these words, valiant sir, you have readers.