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may apply for a ballot on the occasion of any election, been given for any one to ask any questions of any in which case one black ball in four will exclude of the officers of the society with regard to their But this practice is rarely resorted to, no instance of official duties, the public debate is opened by the opposition having occurred during the last five or president calling upon the mover to bring forward six years. Members of the Cambridge and Durham his motion. He is allowed half an hour for this, Union Societies, and the Dublin Historical Society, each subsequent speech being confined to twenty may take part in the public debates, and make use minutes' duration. The usages of the Houses of of the society's rooms. This privilege, so far as it Parliament are generally adopted. In case several extends to the use of the rooms, is also granted for members rise at the same time to speak, the prea month to visitors introduced by members.
ference is given to the one who catches the president's A large and commodious building is now in the eye. If at any time in the course of the debate a occupation of the society. It comprises two libraries, member notices that there are less than fifteen present with every convenience for reading, three reading the House is counted out, and the debate is deferred. rooms devoted respectively to periodicals, weekly Any one may propose the adjournment of the debate, and daily newspapers, a large writing-room, lavatory, and in the event of this being carried, he is “in coffee and smoking rooms. The last two of these are possession of the House,” and reopens the discussion recent additions, already extensively patronised. The when the debate is resumed. A new speech may library, founded in 1830, with T. Dyke Acland, of not be commenced after half-past eleven o'clock; the Christ Church, as first librarian, is from week to week meeting being adjourned if any who wish have not enlarged by the addition of books procured with the had an opportunity to speak. At any time in the consent of the members. It is under the supervision evening, on there being no response to the inquiry of a librarian, who is always a member of the Uni- of the president, “whether any honourable member versity. The general management of the society's wishes to address the House on the subject," he calls rooms, and of its financial matters, is entrusted to upon the mover for his reply. This being comthe treasurer, whose jurisdiction in certain cases is pleted, the opinion of the House on the question is subject to the control of the standing committee. sought. This is obtained first by acclamation, and Any important change in the affairs of the Union is in case of doubt, by a division of the House, the effected at one of the two private business meetings members holding the affirmative going to one side of which are held in each term. Thus it has lost its the room, those - maintaining the negative to the character as exclusively a debating society. At an other. The result is posted up in the hall, and often early stage in its history it was thus transformed finds its way into the daily papers if the motion is into a well-managed club with an excellent library, of an interesting character. the treasures of which were made available by the It is no light matter to stand up before an assembly permission to members to take books to their colleges. constituted as this one is, where the freest expression
, Most of its members enjoyed the privileges of reading is given to sentiments of approval or disapproval
. in comfort newspapers and periodicals, of writing And there is by no means a total absence of those letters on note-paper which the society stamped for objectionable practices which might have been them, and borrowing some useful and many enter- expected not to have existed here. Some speakers taining books, without giving more than a passing are constantly subjected to that most discouraging thought to the debates which had once been the sound of shuffling which has been known to make keystone of the Union.
the most determined speakers quail. But if an As it is by this “keystone” that the Union has intelligent and earnest speaker rises, he is always been rendered most famous, it will be interesting to sure to have an attentive and appreciative audience our readers to hear some information about the way which will amply repay him for his exertions.. in which the debates are conducted. Some member There certain classes of orators who places in a box kept for the purposo a notice of a always popular at the Union. The satirical and motion which he is prepared to bring forward for the comic are generally well received, and when public discussion. If more than one of these notices a hot-headed Irish patriot rises to defend his are found in the box, the committee selects one for "counthry,” enthusiasm, though of a doubtful the next debate. Due information having beon character, reaches its height. All shades and given to the proposer of the acceptance of his subject, degrees of politics are represented : religious queshe is required to attend the next public meeting A tions are expressly excluded.
It is a curious fact, debate is held every Thursday evening during term, noted by the late First Lord of the Admiralty, that and to this all members of the society, with friends there has not been a single occasion on which the introduced by them, are admitted. There is also a navy has been the subject of a debate at the Union. strangers' gallery, especially patronised at commemoration, for the accommodation of ladies and other visitors. At eight o'clock the members of the committee, headed by the president, enter the room. THUNDERSTORM OF OTH AUGUST, 1843.
, . He takes the chair, and calls to order any who do
of societyA member keeping his hat on is greeted borinis À AMONG the severest thunderstorms recorded in
of England was that of the 9th August, 1843. disapproval from all parts of the room, and these This terrific tempest extended over a wide tract of are continued till the offending article is removed. country, but its violence and destructive effects were The president reads out the names of those who greatest in Cambridge and the neighbourhood, Fortuhave been elected since the last meeting, and then natoly Mr. Glaisher, F.R.S., who has since become so calls upon the librarian to read the list of books distinguished as a meteorologist, was at that time an which are proposed to be added to the library, and assistant at the Cambridge Observatory, and to him each of which may provoke a discussion. This we are indebted for a description of the storm. matter being arranged, and an opportunity having “ The ninth of August will be for a long time
memorable, on account of the extraordinary storm | much as the gauge did retain, and some years' exand accompanying phenomena which occurred in the perience, I think the amount cannot be less than afternoon. The day previous was sultry, and so two and a half inches. The wind varied but little was this, but hardly sufficiently so to make the from the n. except after the hail-storm, when it blev approach of any storm of consequence expected. from the E. for an hour, and then returned to n. The The morning of this day was fine, with sunshine ; barometer fell but little before it commenced, and the wind until 11 a.m. was from south, after then then continued stationary. from north. At 2 p.m. thunder was indistinctly “When the first storm abated, which it did about heard in the direction of n.w., and from this time a quarter past 5, the aspect presented on looking until four o'clock, the distant, though gradually round was dreary and distressing to the highest approaching storm, gave unequivocal signs of being extent. The streets and roads were like running of more than ordinary magnitude. The lightning, rivers ; Midsummer Common was one sheet of rater, or rather its retlection, was first seen in the w. and in the midst of which a burst drain boiled
like N.w. horizon about 3 o'clock : by 3h. 30m. the miniature Icelandic geyser; glass, wherever exposed lightning itself was visible, and the thunder was to the fury of the elements, was of course shivered to then heard in more distant claps, the previous atoms, and with such extreme violence had the hail sounds being but the echoes from the masses of descended, that in some instances it passed through clouds which hovered about; these echoes were so windows almost like a ball from a pistol; trees were numerous that the reverberations of one clap had half-stripped of their leaves, which were seen lying not subsided before the next occurred, thus causing in layers on the roads, and on apple-trees the fruit a continued rumbling since 2 o'clock.
was battered to pieces, in some cases pieces being “From 4 o'clock until 4h. 45m., the storm ap- actually scooped out; birds, even rooks and pigeons, proached rapidly in an almost due east direction, pas- were killed in large numbers, and picked up in the sing therefore rather northward ; some large drops of country in all directions; the houses in the town rain fell in this interval, and the flashes of lightning were in many parts flooded, the cellars being several became very.vivid and of a brilliant purple colour. At feet deep in water, which had also made its way 4h. 45m., the hail-storm began, and for twenty through the roofs, and destroyed furniture and stockminutes continued with a violence probably unpre- in-trade in its course; garden-produce as of course cedented in the last century, in the latitude of utterly destroyed, and the havoc made amongst the England. The great size of the hailstones was the crops just ripening for the sickle was of the most first thing to attract attention, for many measured lamentable kind. Herein, indeed, the devastation an inch in diameter ; some were even larger, and the effected by this awful storm is greatest and most to average size was probably from half to three-quarters be regretted: harvest had just begun; the bounties of an inch in diameter. They fell as closely as the of the earth were waiting to be gathered and stored drops of rain from a waterspout, and this, with their for the comfort and sustenance of man, and in one weight, and some accelerating force from a brisk short half-hour they were swept away or rendered N.E. wind, caused them to do immense destruction. perfectly useless. The effect on the crops where the The temperature of the rain was certainly not higher storm was most violent was very remarkable. In than 40 degrees; the hail was, of course, icy ; it some instances the straw was actually beaten down fell upon the earth whose temperature was con- and broken up into little pieces, almost as if it had siderably higher, and thus a mist, or almost a steam been chopped, and the ears were as bare as if they arose, and made the view still more dreary. than the had been regularly thrashed.” effect of a snow-white ground alone would have pre- Mr. Glaisher's graphic description was prepared sented.
for the “Cambridge Chronicle, in which paper it “The entire storm went by N.E. to E., and for a appeared on Saturday, Aug. 12, with the following time disappeared, though the lightning now and editorial notice of the event:then became visible; at 6 o'clock it had completed "To-day it is our painful duty to record a storm of three-quarters of a circle, and appeared again in the thunder and hail more terrific in its character, and s. and s.w.; soon afterwards it was evident that more disastrous in its results, than any by which this Cambridge would have its near approach again, district has been visited within the memory of living although it was fast getting westward. The cha- man, or indeed of which history supplies us with an racter of the lightning in this second appearance account. Wednesday, the 9th of August, 1843, will was more terrific than before, for the principal hold a conspicuous place in the annals of this and portion of every flash was in a vertical direction, and the adjoining counties, and the remembrance of it on many occasions several of these vertical streams will never recur without sorrow to the minds of those were visible almost simultaneously; once I counted now living, for to many it brought positive ruin, seven distinctly, at irregular intervals, varying from while very few escaped more or less of the injury four to ten degrees ; from this circumstance it is with which it was fraught. Experience totally fails much to be feared that considerable destruction has to supply us with anything in this latitude approach. occurred from this cause also. No hail accompanied ing the devastation occasioned by the tempest of which this appearance of the storm, but a very_copious we speak, or the terror which it diffused amongst all rain fell whilst it was passing from w. to n. Frequent classes of people during the time of its continuance. flashes of lightning were visible all the evening, in “The early part of the day was hot and close, but the n. and N.E. horizon, and there were frequent there was nothing to indicate the approach of such a heavy showers during the night, especially about storm as afterwards visited us. About 2 o'clock 1 o'clock, when thunder was again heard distinctly. there were symptoms of a change in the sunny Unfortunately my rain-gauge was not in a proper atmosphere which we had in the morning: clouds condition to receive so much rain without overflow- began to gather, and the air felt heavy and oppresing, and therefore I cannot state accurately the sive, and between 2 and 3 o'clock, the rumbling of quantity of rain which fell; but estimating from so distant thunder was heard. This increased, and
BY THE REV. S. J. STONE, M.A.
Fas accompanied by-and-by with very vivid flashos getting out to make a track for the wheels, he told of lightning, but for a long time no rain fell. In me he sank up to his knecs. the meantine the atmosphere became darker and “ The above storm was not confined to Cambridgedarker, and it was evident that a storm of extra- shire, nor even to the adjoining counties. Before ordinary magnitude was at hand. Large drops of reaching that neighbourhood it had travelled over a rain began to fall soon after 4 o'clock, and in a short large part of England, from w. to E., dividing in one time a perfect deluge poured down upon the earth. part of its course into several branches, which took The hail-storm began at about a quarter before 5, different directions. Almost all the midland, as well at which time there was a tolerably brisk wind from as some of the southern counties, were visited by it the n.E. Whether we regard the size of the hails during some part of the day; though in very few stones, the violence with which they were driven instances its violence in other places was equal to against objects on the earth, or the destruction they what it was in Cambridge." hare caused, there is no parallel in this part of the Torld to the tempest which now raged for nearly half an hour. The extraordinary darkness of the atmosphere, with the clouds almost sweeping the Sonnets of the Sacred Year. house-tops, the incessant roar of the thunder and flash of the lightning, and the deafening noise of the falling bail, impressed one with a sense of awe and admiration which cannot be described.
TENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY. " The scene was positively terrific, and the fright “He beheld the city, and wept over it.”-St. Luke xix. 41. of many of tho inhabitants of the town was in no small degree increased by the crash of broken THE tears of Jesus! once again they flow; windows and the inundation of their houses. Again those words—upon whose “ brief vibraDuring the whole of this time it was impossible for the hail fell with such wonderful closeness, and there Embalms the Love that once from woe by woe tho eye to penetrate many yards through the storm; Hangs Passion infinite--whose lamentation was such a peculiar mistiness rising from the earth, that a complete barrier was opposed to the power of Won the lost world—are true, “Ho weeps;" but lo, vision. We are almost afraid to speak of the size of Darker this sorrow! then the seed of tears the hailstones, or rather blocks of ice, but we are Sprang to quick Harvest : now no life appears certainly not exaggerating in the least degree when From that deep tomb, o'er which He weeps, below. we say that very many of them were as large as ordinary walnuts; some, indeed, far exceeded this And yet, 0 Zion, grave of souls, more rife size; one that was picked up measured three and a These tears than those, with Resurrection power: half inches in circumference, and several have been More part have they in that impending hour described to us as being about as big as a pullet's Out of whose travail springs the endless Life : egg."
These Tears — the Bloody Sweat-the Streaming
Mr. Leonard Jenyns, then vicar of Swaffham
SideBulbeck, Cambridgeshire, quotes the reports in his 66 Observations
on Meteorology” (Van Voorst), So fell the good seed for the Harvest-tide. adding:-“The damage done by this storm in the * “Those two words, 'Jesus wept,' upon whose brief vibration hangs way of breakage of glass, and destruction of garden the whole passion of a world redeemed from pain through paiu.” (Mrs.
“Christian and field crops, was almost incalculable.
It was supposed that in the University and town alone it might be set, at the very lowest, at £25,000. What it amounted to in the surrounding parishes it was quite impossible to say. The storin seemed to have
Varicties. raged with most violence at Quy, in which parish one farmer alone was stated in the papers to have THE EIGHTY-ONE-Toy Gun.-The “Engineer” states that suffered to the extent of £2,000. At Bottisham and the first four of 81-ton guns, which are to form the armament Swaffham Bulbeck the storm was rather less violent, of the future ironclad Inflexible, will be proceeded with as soon and the damage less; but even here, when I returned
as the experimental one has been completed and proved. T): home a few days afterwards, in many places, the the breech end, will be 27ft., and the length of bore 21ft. . In
total length of the new gun, including the plug screwed in at cornfields, which had standing crops in them at the the first instance the calibre will be 14in., but ample provision time of the storm, looked as bare and beaten as they is made in the thickness of the steel tube to increase that figure ordinarily do after the corn and stubble have both to 10in. if deemed desirable. The rilling has not as yet been been cut and cleared away. At Peterborough, where decided on, but will be a matter for consideration as the guu
approaches completion. Neither the weight of projectile nor the I was at the time, the storm was heavy, but not of quontity of powder to be contained in the cartridge for the 81. such unusual character as to require special notice. ton gun has been positively fixed, but the first will probably
“It will give some idea of the immense quantity of range between 1,000lb. and 1, 20011.., while the second may be hailstones that fell during this storm, when I state estimated at about one-sixth of that amount. Assuming an that a friend of mine, who had gone into Cambridge muzzle for the 1,000-16. projectile a blow of 11,715 foot-tons, for
initial velocity of 1,300 feet per second, there will be at the from Swaffham Prior, in a four-wheel pony carriage, the 1,100-1b. projectile one of 12,886 foot-tons, and for the that morning, and who was kept there while the 1,200-1b. projectile the terrific foree of impact of 14,058 footstorm was raging, on his return liome in the evening, tons! It is also calculated that after travelling for a mile and three hours after the storm had abated, found the three-quarters the projectile from the 81-ton gun will strike a hailstones, lying still unmelted, in such heaps in the first starting, even assuming the former to weigh no more than
far harder blow than that from the original Woolwich Infant at road between Quy and Anglesea Abbey, that his 1,100 lb. But a comparison of the forces generated by this horse was unable to drag the carriage along. On monster, at such a range, with those of the 35-ton and 7-in.
guns, is still more striking in its contrast, the two latter com. enlistment. A soldier is now better fed, clothed, ledged, and puting only to 6,076 tons and 755 tons respectively. With educated than ever he was formerly ; his health is carefully this immense power the gun is expected to penetrate at least attended to, and provision is made for his amusement. The 19 or 20 inches of armour-plates and their backing at a distance average age of recruits is found to be less than it used to be, of 500 yards.
owing probably to the existing high rates of wages, which tempt INCH MEASURE.-A bronze halfpenny is exactly an inch
the full-grown labourers to seek employment in other channels
. broad, and therefore gives a very convenient measure.
In the North of Scotland there has been a great lack of success
Laid on an Ordnance map of an inch scale the halfpenny covers just 500
in recruiting, and nearly all the Highland regiments have thereacres. Now, also, the third of an oince is the postal unit, and
fore been kept below their full strength. Again, in the sea. it is well to remember that a penny is precisely that weight. - faring districts the lads become marines or men-of-war's men, Society of Arts Journal.
owing to preferences which are easily understood. Very little
is said about desertions, except that they have become frequent IRISH RAILWAYS. —All the Irish raiiways together do not for several years past, and are a considerable drain upon our much exceed 2,000 miles, yet there are fifty-six companies, each forces. High wages, in reality, seduce the soldier from his with an average length of forty-three miles. They are managed duty. Five feet five is the present infantry standard ; in no by not less than four hundred directors, and the solicitors, other army in Europe is it so high.-Land and Water. engineers, and officers are innumerable. The chief employment of the directors is to watch one another's machinations, no doubt
HEDERLEIN RAILWAY BREAK.-A train has been running an employment singularly suited to the genius of the country. betireen the Mansion House and Broad Street, London, fitted The fares are often “prohibitory; that is, considering the cir
with a break (the Heberlein) which is generally used in Ger. cumstances, for we doubt whether they are higher than English many, and possesses many important advantages. The brenk is and Scotch fares. A penny a mile may be prohibitory in Ireland, worked by the motive force of the train, and its power is consebut it is cheap in this country. It is computed that the addi- quently proportionate to the velocity of the moving mass which tional cost involved by the multitude and the machinations of it is designed to control. Running into Hampstead station at a the directors is between fifty and a hundred thousand a year ;
speed of forty miles an hour, the rear guard put on the front and more near the latter than the former, we should think.
rear breaks, and in twenty-four seconds brought the train to a
standstill in the station, a distance of 240 yards. There are LivingSTONE ON Missions.—Some may say, “Why go to few accidents on record in which the driver has not had at least the heathen abroad, so long as we have so very many heathen at a minute's notice of the danger, so that we may calculate that home?" It is only the large-hearted that go to either, and had such a break been in use some hundreds of lives might have the class distinguished by large-heartedness unquestionably do been saved, and destruction of property representing many much for our home population, and is the very class that do thousands of pounds avoided. most for the heathen abroad. The question supposed to be put tacitly' assumes that the heathen at home are neglected, and this LADAK.-Between Lahore and Yarkand, the country of Ladak is a manifestly false assumption. Every parish in England and
is the most important. As for the people of Ladak, they proScotland is a scene of active benevolence, and the great centres bably are of a mixed Tartar and Thibetan tyre, and they stead. of population are also the grand foci of active untiring Christian fastly adhere to the Buddhist faith, in the usages and dominant charity-and in America it is much the same. To read the priesthood of which some have traced a likeness to the worship accounts of the Christ-like feeding the hungry on Thanksgiving of Rome. Certainly something like the following scene might day, and other days, in New York, made the heart well up with have been witnessed in mediæval Europe :-" The Lamas are all gratitude ; and who could refrain from grateful thanks for the jolly-looking fellows, and not unlike, in their dress and general labours of the “ United States Christian Commission,” which appearance, the monks one sees in Roman Catholic countries, was really the most gigantic enterprise of systematic benevolence They own a great deal of the land, which they cultivate themthe world ever saw. No! no! our home heathen are not neg. selves, and many of the monasteries are said to be very wealthy. lected. On the contrary, it might be argued that far too much In all the monasteries the prayer wheels form a prominent benevolence is expended on our own narrow circle, and far too feature. Each turn of the wheel is equal to repeating a prayer, little on the great outside world. In London, for instance, I found but if turned in the wrong direction, I believe it represents an the artisan class in dogged enmity to all religion, and, like our imprecation. Half the population of Ladak seem to have coast tribes, feeling sore against all outside their own class. adopted the monastic life.' The game of polo is indigenous to And, besides these, a very large number of the population never Ladak :-“ As soon as everything was ready and the music began, do, under any circumstances, receive the gospel. The primitive the leader of the side which had the ball rode along at a gallop, plan seems to have recognised this as a fact of human nature, followed by all the others, and when he arrived near the centre and provided that much time should not be spent on them ; but of the ground, he threw up the ball and very cleverly struck it the Evangelists were sent on to those that would hear and with his club, sometimes succeeding at the first stroke in driving believe. The first offer was made to those who had the Old it to the goal. Usually the ball was intercepted, and a very Testament in their hands as the most likely to receive the recent animated scene then ensued, each side trying to urge the ball facts.of Christianity witnessed in Judea. Reasonable time for towards their own end of the ground.”—Dr. Henderson's "From the Message to be understood or rejected, led to the Evangelists | Lahore to Yarkand." passing on to the Gentiles.
RECOMMENDATION OF A TEACHER.–An English nobleman, PEAT IN IRELAND.-Mr. O'Hara (“Dublin Quarterly Jour- who had resided two years in Paris, took lessons in French from nal of Science,” vol. 4, p. 261) estimates the peat bogs of a celebrated professor of the language. He made very little Ireland at 1,576,000 acres, occupying the limestone plains, and progress. On going to say good-by to his tutor, he asked him 1,255,000 acres on the hills and mountains, showing a total of if he could do him any service in England. “Oh,” replied the 2,831,000 acres of turf and bog: If we take as an approximating teacher, "the only favour I have to ask is, that you do not fair estimate of the peat bogs in Great Britain 3,500,000 acres,
mention that you have been my pupil !” we find a total extent of peat in the British Isles equal to in Charity ORGANIZATION SOCIETY.—This Society is not in round numbers 6,000,000 acres; and if we accept an average opposition to other societies which are not connected with it, as thickness of 12ft. deep over this enormous area, and each acre has often been thought by some. It is an organisation by which as capable of supplying 12,000 tons of peat fuel, we may justly they can ascertain whether those persons they help are really in regard this as a powerful auxiliary to keep up the steam-pro
need of assistance or not. The report of the Society shows this ducing power of Great Britain, and to some extent help to stave result, which is an evidence of real and hard work. During off the day of the exhaustion of its coalfields.
the past year 14,891 cases have been investigated, of which a RECRUITS FOR THE ARMY.—The total number of recruits little under 5,000 have been dismissed as either unworthy or raised in 1873 was 17,194, being rather less than the supply for not fit for relief, upwards of 4,000 have been put in the way of 1872, but this is accounted for by the recent reduction of our relief by being referred to other agencies to relieve, and close forces to the extent of 5,000 men, so that fewer recruits were re- upon 6,000 lave been assisted by the Society itself. Of the quired, though larger numbers might, if needed, have been dismissed cases, 1,108 have been dismissed as not requiring obtained. The physiquo and stamina of the men who joined relief, and I think it is very reasonable to suppose that a large were satisfactory, and those whose bodily development and proportion of those cases would have got help from private general appearance were at first objected to, were mostly young individuals if it had not been for the Society, and that would lads who have since grown into strong and healthy men, in have done more harm than good. 941 have been dismissed as consequence of the better feeding provided for them in the army, not deserving, and 252 as giving false addresses. The Society and to the more healthy and active habits they pursue as has been the means of recon. mending 1,148 cases to the Poorsolliers, compared with their conditions of life previous to law Guardians.-Mr. ForsTET, M.P.
"BEHOLD IN TJIESE WAT LEISURE HOURS DEMAND, -AMUSEMENT AND TRUE KNUWLEDGE HAND IN HAND."- Cowper.
CHAPTER 1.-MR. DAVID WADDLE AT HOME.
MR. DAVID WADDLE'S SPECULATIONS. comfortable; the fire was in that state of perfectness
when the coals amalgamate into one red glow with
out a fierce flame; the brown japanned urn stood MF
R. DAVID WADDLE stood in his breakfast- gently hissing and puffing before the open expectant
parlour with his hands to his back, and his teapot, like a small locomotive, as it was, waiting to back to the fire, meditatively contemplating the toes take you away to breakfast-land; the buttered toast of his yellow wool-tipped slippers, the while slowly was safely garnered inside the fender, and a savoury turning them up and down after the manner of those smell of bacon-to-come pervaded the house. Altowhose minds are in perfect equipoise. The parlour, gether, it was the most comfortable place, and the though small, was unmistakably neat, clean, and most comfortable hour of the day for any one to inNo. 1181.- AUGUST 15, 1874
PRICE ONE PENNI.