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are spent, this is the general belief amongst a people And, we may add, What a false and degrading not deficient in good sense and intelligence, but system is that of the Vatican! Do they call this credulous of every fact related to them by their religion? priests, or read by them in their Catholic newspapers.
It is a singular fact that the Pope at this proWe naturally, going direct to them from Rome, are sent time-spite of what might naturally be supeagerly beset with questions regarding the health posed most oppressive anxieties and sorrows-the and condition of the cruelly suffering head of the determined efforts of Germany, Italy, and the elder Church, who has become to their imaginations as a Papal governments to subject the Church to the laws second crucified Saviour; and, but for the credit which of the State-has never for years been so well in health we have established in that one little village, our as now, never so merry or so freo. Hundreds of people, statements would not be accepted, for how should we both Catholics and Protestants, see him every weekwho are Protestants, know better than the priests ? almost daily-in his luxurious palace, full of joke and They believe us, however, and their simple hearts lively repartee, as is his wont. This cannot last long, are comforted; but they are only a mere few out of at his age; but at the time I write, he walks about the many thousands who are imposed upon by these his spacious gardens at a pace which tries the breath outrageous fabrications.
of the well-fed cardinals in attendance; visits his regards the extent to which this fraud is carried aviaries, is attended by his favourite black cat, and in Belgium, I give a letter from the Corriere Evan- knows no imprisonment which himself or his priests, gelico, written by Signor Carrelli, and dated Rome, the Jesuits, have not imposed upon him. And all the April 11th, 1874 :
while, through the distant places of Europe, the * You cannot imagine the trade which is made in priests are selling the pretended damp straw of his Belgium, and especially in Antwerp, of the damp dungeon, and the poor, ignorant, but devout peasants straw said to be taken from the prison in which the are breaking their hearts over the lying pictures Holy Father lies groaning. I, who have lived for which represent him behind his prison bars ! many years in that city, have not only seen the beguines with little bundles of this straw, but even people of the higher classes, who keep them in
TROJAN ANTIQUITIES. caskets as relics. What cries of horror against his gaolers ! what pity for the illustrious victim do those
BY THE REV. W. F. WILKINSON, M.A., RECTOR OF LUTTERWORTH, straws excite in the hearts of the believers If you THE exploration of the ruins of great Eastern venture to tell good is false, cities has been time with very that the Pope is free, and has his guards of honour, remarkable results. Most readers are aware of the you only excite in them an incredulous smile. The researches made by Mr. Layard on the sites of straw is there before their eyes, and that is an unde- Nineveh and Babylon, and of the important disconiable proof. One Sunday in Lent a preacher having veries which have rewarded his exertions. Monupainted in most vivid colours the maltreatment, the ments, works of art, inscriptions, articles of use and sufferings, the imprisonment of the head of the ornament, and other records of the past, have been Church, cried out, How is it possible to deny all brought to light, many specimens of which are in this when here is the straw on which lies in chains the British Museum. Not a few of these have supthe Holy Father?'
plied undoubted corroboration of the statements “At these words the whole congregation burst into made by ancient writers, and especially in Holy sobbing and weeping, and, rushing forward to the Scripture, with respect to the extent, grandeur, and priest, secured for themselves little bundles of the wealth of those cities, and the actions, and order of straw, which he sold at half a franc a bundle. Almost succession, of various eminent monarchs of wliose all the parish priests sell these, and it is said that half dominions they were the capitals. More recently, the money goes to the Vatican.
under the auspices of the committee of the Palestine "But this is not all. At Ghent they sell photographs, Exploration Fund, excavations in Jerusalem have in which is represented the Pope, in chains, looking revealed the foundations of Solomon's temple, and out from between strong iron bars from a little dismal confirmed the accounts given in the Book of Kings cell, a bersagliere standing guard over him with his concerning its materials, and the circumstances and musket. This photograph, the priests say, was taken mode of its construction. And within the last few from the life, therefore it cannot be false, and there months the complete discovery has been reported of is shown the Holy Father suffering in one of the the whole area, with massive remains, of the famous most horrid dungeons of Rome. These photographs temple of Artemis, or Diana, at Ephesus, one of the are sold to members of the Catholic Association at reputed seven wonders of the world, the actual site half a franc each, and to other people at one franc of which has long been matter of dispute, although and a half. The half of this money goes to St. the edifice was standing in its full glory so lately as Peter's. They sell thousands of copies. The one I the second century of the Christian era.
But now procured bears the number 45,343 of the ninth the archæologists and the whole literary world are series.
startled by the announcement of a discovery which, “On returning to Rome, I determined to prove for if real, will go far towards settling one of the most myself whether there was any truth in this. I went important, most interesting, and most fiercely debated therefore to the Vatican, and obtained admission questions of archæology and literature. Dr. Heinrich through a Swiss guard. I saw hundreds of Papal Schliemann, a German antiquarian, has just pubsoldiers, all armed, and soon ascertained that the lished a work in which he gives an account of explowhole pretended imprisonment was a farce and a rations carried on by him for three years in the gross fraud-à mere scheme for raising money. region called the Troad, on the north-west coast of Money, and always money!"
Asia Minor, and by which, he affirms, he was “Can one,” says the writer, " forbear exclaiming, enabled, in July, 1873, to ascertain the exact site of Oh, what knaves are the clericals ! ”
the celebrated city of Troy. He professes to have
found the ruins of the palace of its last monarch, and story to be gathered from the Homeric poems, which has extracted from them, and safely conveyed to are, by several centuries, older than any other docuAthens, a vast accumulation of articles—more than ments preserving traditions on the subject, we find a 20,000-consisting of gold, silver, and copper vessels series of events recorded of which the following may
, and ornaments, military implements, and objects in be accepted as a summary. terra-cotta and other material. It is
the topo- In the fifth generation, perhaps 200 years, previous graphical and relative position of these ruins, the to the date of the story of the Iliad, which is genenature and style of the buildings of which they are rally admitted to be about 1200 B.C., a city was built the remains, and the character and approximately in the north-west of Asia Minor, between the Hellesknown age of the articles found in them, that he pont (Straits of the Dardanelles) and the mountain challenges belief in the reality of the great discovery group of Ida, in the recesses of one of its northern to which he lays claim.
slopes, and called Dardania, from Dardanus, its No story recorded in verse or prose, mythological founder, who was evidently of Greek origin or or historical, with the exception of that which forms affinity. His descendant, Laomedon, in the generathe basis of Christianity, has exercised so widespread tion immediately preceding that of the story, built, and powerful an influence over the human intellect, or rather completed and fortified, another city and so extensively and deeply permeated the ancient farther to the north, and therefore nearer to the and modern literature of the western world, as the Hellespont, which received the name of Ilios (Ilium, story of the siege and capture of Troy. Its principal in Latin), from Ilus, the father of Laomedon, and events form the subject of the most ancient and was also, as well as the surrounding region, called grandest of epic poems--the Iliad of Homer. They Troia (Troy), from Tros, his grandfather. This city
— are the groundwork of the Greek epic next to the was stormed and sacked by a Grecian armament Iliad in rank and date, if not its contemporary, and under Herakles (Hercules) during the reign of by the same author--the Odyssey. They supply the Laomedon, but had recovered from the disaster, and materials for the construction of the majestic and had become the capital of a flourishing State under pathetic compositions of Æschylus, Sophocles, and his Priamos (Priam). Paris, called also Euripides, the greatest Greek tragedians, and, in Alexander, son of Priam, visiting Laconia, in Pelofact, the patriarchs of the dramatic art. The Æneid ponnesus, carried off Helen, the wife of Menelaus, of the Roman poet Virgil, the second epic poet of the king of that district, with much treasure. All the world, is, like the Odyssey, a sequel of the Iliad, petty kings or chiefs of Greece combined their forces having for its themo the adventures of the Trojan under Agamemnon, king of Mycenæ, in Peloponrefugees under their chieftain Æneas, a prince of the nesus, brother of Menelaus, and sailed in a fleet of royal house of Troy, and the reputed ancestor of the upwards of 1,000 ships, with an army of 100,000 founder of Rome. But notwithstanding this cele- men, to the coast of Troy, where, having defeated brity, and the almost universal reception of "the the Trojans who opposed their landing, they held the tale of Troy divine” as substantially a record of city in a state of siege for ten years. Priam was facts, not only by poets, but also by historians, aided by the troops of many adjacent countries in philosophers, geographers, and writers of every Asia Minor, led by their kings, some of whom were class, among the Greeks and Romans, it has become partly subject to him, others independent allies. He a question in modern times whether the expedition also received important assistance from Thracians known as the Trojan war was ever undertaken, and and Pelasgians, inhabitants of Europe, the latter whether the city of Troy ever existed. The doubts being a kindred race to the Hellenes or Greeks, a which have arisen on the subject were founded circumstance which corroborates the supposition of partly on the fact that no ruins or relics of any an original affinity between the Trojans and their credit for genuineness, such as might have been ex- invaders. Large detachments of the Greek forces pected to be found, had ever been discovered, were employed, until the last year of the siege, or although the locality of the war and siege had been blockade, in plundering-expeditions against the repeatedly searched. But the principal objections to countries of Asia Minor in alliance with Troy. But the historical character of the Trojan war are drawn in the tenth year they were concentrated before the from the improbabilities and inconsistencies which, it city. While in this position, a pestilence broke out is alleged, may be detected in the essential elements in the army; an
easonably to be and the main thread of the story, as well as in its accounted for by the accumulation of numbers, and numerous details. So convinced is Professor Max the marshy nature of the plain on the borders of Müller that the whole story is a myth, that he ven- which they were encamped, though referred by the tures to assert that, whatever ruins or relics may be poet, as we may readily believe it would be by themdiscovered in the region of the Troad, they cannot be selves, to supernatural influences. A quarrel aroso the ruins of the Homeric Troy, nor the relics of trea- between the commander-in-chief and Achilles, the sures possessed, or weapons wielded, by Homeric mightiest warrior of the host, about the cause of tho heroes. It becomes important, therefore, before pestilence, and, in connection with this, about a proceeding to discuss the material results of Dr. female captive, two very natural occasions of dissenSchliemann's investigations, that we should consider sion in such an age and in such an army. Achilles the grounds of belief and expectation which impelled declared he would take no further part in the war. him to undertake his researches, and inquire whether Agamemnon, however, immediately afterwards, under they suffice to render credible the conclusion that the an infatuation ascribed by Homer to the malignant remains, whether fixed or movable, which he has impulse of a deity, but a not improbable effect of discovered, we do not say must, but may, belong to pride and passion, marshalled his forces for an attack the Troy of the Iliad and Odyssey, of the Greek upon the city. After some days of hard fighting, dramatists and historians, and of the Æneid of with varied success, the Trojans so far prevailed Virgil.
against their besiegers as to drive them to their Confining ourselves to the accounts of Trojan his- | camp and ships, Hector, son of Priam, their leader,
netually setting one of the ships on fire. In this | Homer cannot have been distant more than two or emergency, Patroclus, a chieftain under Achilles, and three miles from the coast of the Hellespont, which zenderly beloved by that prince, obtained his permis- lay to the north, and along which the Grecian army sion to appear in his armour at the head of his was encamped, and the fleet drawn up, between two troops, that he might repulse the Trojans. He suc- headlands, represented by Homer (Il. xiv. 34) as ceeded; but they rallied, and Patroclus was slain by not far apart, enclosing a space inconveniently small Hector. This aroused the wrath of Achilles; he for their numbers, and by no means twelve miles again took the field, and, after making a great long, as stated by Gibbon. The River Scamander, slaughter of the Trojans, killed their great com- or Xanthus, flowing from Ida to the Hellespont, mander. With his death and funeral the story of passed to the westward of the city, through the plain the Iliad is concluded. We learn from the Odyssey which spread between it and the shore. Another that Achilles himself was afterwards slain in battle, smaller river, the Simois, held its course eastward of and that the city was at last taken by stratagem. the city, but not far from that of the Scamander, and Troy was burnt and demolished, and Helen recap- at one point near enough to communicate with it in tured and restored to her husband Menelaus. The a flood. Two springs (one a hot spring) rose near whole Grecian armament then quitted the scene of the city, and are called by Homer the springs, but their long campaign, without attempting to take pos- hardly in the sense of main sources, of the Scasession of the conquered country.
mander. The topography of the poem is not always Such is the outline of the story of Troy, contained consistent with itself; but on the whole, as Mr. in poems composed, according to the historian Hero- Gladstone has observed, " the number of the natural dotus, who flourished 150 B.C., about four hundred features portrayed, and the actual correspondence of years before his time, and therefore nearly 900 B.C. most of them, when taken individually, with those we The war is represented by the poet to have occurred now discern, establish the general authenticity of the several generations before his own age, and to have scene” (“* Juventus Mundi,” p. 473). We have the been previously the subject of narrative and song. testimony of the historian Xanthus, a native of Various poems, short fragments only of which have Lydia, a country in Asia Minor, who flourished 460 been preserved in later writers, succeeded the Iliad B.C., that a Trojan State survived the fall of Troy; for and Odyssey, some in continuation of them, others he gives an account of its destruction by a Thracian supplementary, all assuming a historic foundation for tribe. This is indirectly confirmed by Homer, who the chief events of the war. Herodotus, though represents Poseidon (Neptune) predicting that the sceptical about the presence of Helen in Troy, evi- posterity of Æneas, the chief of Dardania, should dently had no doubt as to the actual occurrence of reign over the Trojans after the race of Priam should the expedition and siege. And Thucydides, the most be extinct (Il. xx. 306). But we are not expressly accurate and critical of Greek historians, while simi- informed whether the chief town, or any town belonglarly discrediting some of the statements of the poet, ing to this State, occupied the site of the ancient city. nccepts his main facts as indisputable. “The reality The exact position of Troy was, however, supposed of the siege of Troy,” says Bishop Thirlwall, in his to be determinable in the time of Xerxes (477 B.c.), History of Greece, " has been questioned without who, according to Herodotus, visited the citadel of sufficient ground, and against some strong evidence. Priam (called by him and Homer, Pergamos), and According to the rules of sound criticism, very cogent sacrificed to the 'Trojan Athena (Minerva). Alexander arguments ought to be required to induce us to reject the Great also is related to have made a pilgrimage as a mere fiction a tradition so ancient, so universally to Ilium, and to have sacrificed to Athena in a temple received, so definite, and so interwoven with the existing there. He is also said to have been shown whole mass of the national recollections, as that of the suits, or pieces of armour which were alleged to be Trojan War." Mr. Gladstone, in his “ Juventus relics of the great war; though, as he was also shown Mundi,” gives eleven reasons for the belief that Homer the lyre of Paris, we cannot attach much credit to is historic with respect to his chief events and persons. their authenticity. And he ran a solemn course Professor Max Müller founds a principal objection to round a tumulus, supposed to be the tomb of Achilles, the truth of the story on the alleged fact that " if we as is a similar mound, probably the same, to this day. take away from the Iliad all the miraculous and im- Thus Lord Byron says :possible elements, the whole poem collapses and vanishes." But if the reader will recur to the sum
“I've stood upon Achilles' tomb,
And heard Troy doubted; tiine will doubt of Rome." mary above given, compiled exclusively from the Homeric
poems, of the story of the Iliad, and A town, doubtless on or near the site of the village the supplementary events recorded in the Odyssey, visited by Alexander, was built by Lysimachus, one he will observe that a very probable and consistent of his generals and successors, and called New Troy. narrative may be constructed without the necessity of It was peopled, as the whole region had been long introducing any supernatural element. The counsels before, by Greek colonists. But this town and its and deeds of deities are, indeed, interwoven through inhabitants were considered by the Romans repreout the poems with those of mortals; but a thread of sentatives of the original Trojan State; and when the ordinary and credible transactions can be easily dis- place had been destroyed by Fimbria, a lieutenant of entangled from the strands of mythology and miracle Cinna, it was rebuilt at the public expense, and the which
form with it the complex line of the Homeric people exempted from taxation. Julius Cæsar, after narrative. It appears, therefore, that the evidence his victory at Pharsalia, is reported by Lucan to preponderates in favour of the existence of the city of have visited the Troad, and to have searched for Troy, and the reality of its siege and demolition by a vestiges of the old walls, but could find none. “The Greek army, about twelve centuries before our era. very ruins," says the poet, “have perished.” We
The next preliminary question is the site of Troy. learn, however, from the historian Suetonius, that Numerous local indications are given in the Iliad, Cæsar, and infer from an ode of the poet Horace that some of which have been referred to The Troy of 1 Augustus. cherished a design of not only building a
city in the locality, but of making it the seat of em- | lady, he disinterred a large accumulation of objects in pire. The same design was certainly formed by gold, silver, and copper. The most remarkable of Constantine; and buildings were commenced on the these are the following:-A copper cauldron, sixteen plain of Troy, but abandoned in favour of Byzantium and a half inches in diameter, and five and a half (Constantinople). Strabo, the geographer, following inches in height; three vessels, apparently goblets, Demetrius, a native of Skepsis, a small town in the of solid gold, weighing seven, thirteen, and nineteen Troad, maintained that the place known as New ounces respectively; three silver vases, the largest Troy was not the site of the old city, but that it was eight inches in height and seven in diameter; tiro to be looked for at a much greater distance from the small silver vases of elaborate workmanship, and a
The French traveller Le Chevalier, in the year silver dish; with several blades or ingots of silver. 1786, found near the village Bunarbashi (Spring- Beside these utensils were found thirteen lance-heads head) two springs which, in his opinion, answered so of copper, with an average length of eight, and exactly to the two sources of the Seamander men- breadth of two inches; fourteen axe-heads, the tioned by Homer, that he had no hesitation in fixing largest weighing three pounds avoirdupoise; several the site of Troy on the heights called Bali Dagh, a large daggers, and a knife of the same material. In mile from the village, and about eight or nine miles | the largest silver vase was found a wonderful collecfrom the shore of the Hellespont. This place has tion of female ornaments in pure gold, among which been, since that time, generally shown and visited as were splendid head-dresses of chain-work, and a Old Troy.
Mr. Grote, however, in his History of head-band, four highly wrought ear-rings, with Greece, after a careful review of the evidence on fifty-six of inferior quality, six bracelets, and, as we both sides, gives a very decided opinion in favour of are assured, thousands of rings, studs, and other New Troy, so long considered as occupying the site, small objects, all of gold. Attached to the longest or part of the site, of the Homeric city.
chains of the head-dresses are gold pendants, one inch The ruins to be seen above ground at New Troy, and a quarter long, being figures of a shape apwhich are, of course, only those of the town or towns proaching the human, with owls' heads. Near this known by that name in historic times, are on a deposit of treasure was a helmet; and all the objects, plateau called Hissarlik (corresponding to our local more especially those in copper, had been affected by name Castle-ton), two miles from the sea. Dr. | the action of fire. Schliemann, having satisfied himself, by reading and Dr. Schliemann claims to have discovered, in these personal investigation, that in this locality, if any- undoubtedly very ancient remains, the wall and where, the remains of the ancient city would be northern gate, the famous Scæan gates, of Troy ; the found, commenced the work of excavation in 1871. palace of Priam, and its tower; weapons used by The part to which his examination was directed was Trojan warriors; and a part of the treasure, most that which, from its situation and configuration, likely the royal treasuro, evidently packed up for seemed to him most likely to be the citadel or acro- conveyance in flight, but, though escaping the search polis, the Pergamos of Homer. This was the north- of the plundering Greeks, lost to its possessor, and west angle of the hill of Hissarlik, rising about probably with its possessor, beneath the crumbling twenty-five feet above the rest of the elevation, and and burning ruins of the city. having an area of 325 yards by 235, or nearly sixteen A serious objection to the identity of this long
It was soon evident that the upper layer of buried city with the Homeric Troy arises from its the hill was composed of accumulated rubbish, the small extent. The circuit of its walls does not seem ruins, as was proved by the Greek coins and frag- to enclose a space much larger than Trafalgar Square. ments of Greek pottery found among them, of the Its dimensions are those of a mere fortress; and it is New Troy known to history. The foundations of a difficult to imagine that an area so limited could contemple were laid bare, which, there can be little doubt, tain a population capable of furnishing a force of was that of the Ilian Athena visited by Xerxes and even a thousand men-at-arms, or that it could give Alexander. Below these ruins, at the depth of six accommodation to the numerous contingents of allied feet, were found remains of houses evidently destroyed troops whom Homer represents as uniting with the by fire; and thirteen feet below this second stratum, Trojans in defence of their city, and issuing from its a great quantity of stone implements, such as are gates. Its diminutive size is also inconsistent, not generally considered indications of the remote and only with the general language of the poet, who calls barbarous period of human history known as the it "the great city of Priam,” “the wide-streeted “Stone Age.” But after penetrating to the depth of Troy," but with the details given by him of the ten feet inore, Dr. Schliemann came upon a vast number, character, and position of its buildings. He quantity of copper implements and weapons, of care describes it as possessing an acropolis, or upper cityful and fine workmanship, with pottery of the same Pergamos, in which were the vast palace of Priam, character. Continuing his explorations laterally, at with its corridors, and at least sixty-two bedchambers, this level, he found the remains of a wall six feet separate palaces of Hector and Paris, and a temple thick, and laid open a tower of solid stonework forty of Pallas Athene. And he implies repeatedly that a feet in thickness and twenty in height. From this a considerable portion of the city, and several streets, paved street was traced, leading to a double gateway, had to be traversed in passing from the citadel to the the two openings of which were about twenty feet walls. Dr. Schliemann fully recognises this difficulty, apart. At no great distance from the gateway, within and acknowledges his disappointment in finding that the citadel, he discovered the remains of a building what at first he believed to be only the Pergamos, or of very massive construction. Immediately adjoining acropolis, was the whole of the city, and that in fact this building, and under a thick crust of red ashes the fortified placo which he has discovered had no and calcined rubbish, he came upon a great copper acropolis at all. He accounts for the discrepancies object which turned out to be a shield; and, pur- between the Homeric descriptions and present ap; suing his research in the absence of the workmen, pearances by the excessive exaggeration and vivid and with the aid of his devoted wife, an Athenian and grand imagination of the poet. It may be ob