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of physical geography with rigard to truso subma- aron of the departed coasts of Brittany, Normandy, rivo forests, old lines of coast, and raised ioaches, to and other parts of the western borciers of Franco. which we have allu led. Theso remarkabio memo- From Cape Finisterre to St. Malo are scores of places rials aro, a link with some former physiography of where theso sunk forests are to be seen. These the British Islands. They throw considerablo light mysterious memorials enter largely into the traditions on the earlier terrestrial condition of our country, and and superstitious of the people. they call attention to important changes which are One of the old and historical forests which has surely and not slowly proceeding all around our thus been brought beneath the sea (the forest of coast to-day, and altering tho physiography of our Scicy), was commemorated so carly as the twelfth islands as it at present appears in our maps.
century by a troubadour of the period. The troubaThat the face of the globe which is pictured in our dour's lines have been translatců tlus:-ordinary atlases is gradually altering and merging itself into quite another and a different terraqueous “Not far from Avranches, on Brittany's shore, arrangement is but too well known to those who go Quokelonde Forest spread out of yore. down to the sea in ships, and do business in great waters. Too often have the accurate and elaborate
But that famous stretch of fertile land charts of one period proved useloss, and even dan- Is hidden now by the sea and the sand. gerous, for the navigators of the next. For general No more will its venison grace the dislı purposes, the ordinary atlases of to-day, which give
The ancient forest yields nought but fish." the idea that land and sea remain unalterably the same, are perhaps suflicient; but for the practical That a great forest should gradually disappear purposes of the mariner, the variations in coast-lines beneath the waves in the course of eight hundred and sea-depths which physical geography takes noto years is easily credible when we learn, among other of are all-important. Here are a few illlustrations. instances, that three whole parishes-St. Louis,
Shoals and rocks are found to bo gradually Maunay, and Lr Feuillette-have been submerged rising year by year above the waves, and extending by the sea since the thirteenth century. themselves until at length they form islands. Else- Again, beneath the waters in the Bay of Douar where the land is slowly sinking, and its wondel nenez, not far from the Channel Islands, are clearly shores are dipping down beneath the waves. Islands visible at low tide the remains of Druidical altars, are being removed farther from the adjoining main- portions of walls, and ruins of stone monuments. So land by the gradual widening of the strait between we might go on to illustrate the great changes in them, for the sea is encroaching as the land is sink- physical geography which have taken place on the ing: Mrs. Somerville long since pointed out how the coast of France within the historical period. Hebrides once formed part of the mainland of Scot- The English coast of the Channel, as well as the land.
French, lias its submerged forests and other memoMore remarkable than the separation of the rials which tell us that the land in this area has sunk Tebrides from the mainland of Scotland, and more from its former level. A glance at the accompanying within the observation of the historian, has been the map will show that the English and French coasts separation of the Channel Islands from the mainland are alike fringed with forests which pass down and of France. In this instance the phenomenon is so ! disappear beneath the sea-bed. connected with the submergence of a large tract of It should be well understood that these old sunk forest and other land as to form an excellent illus- forests which fringe the shores of Sussex, Hamptration of the important physical changes which are shire, Dorset, Devon, Cornwall, and other seaboard graduaily taking place around us, and suporseding counties, belong to an old and extensive land area the maps of our ancestors.
which is now submerged beneath the sea, and not to There is proof positive that in the sixth century any mere strip of coast. The case is thus stated by the district of Jersey was separated from the inain- one who has given many years to the question of land of franco by only a narrow rivulet. This the former physical geography of the valley of the rivulet was bridged by a single plank, which the English Channel. On this subject, Mr. R. A. Godwininhabitants wore bound to keep in repair for the Austen, F.R.S., says:-archdeacon of the mother church to pass over on liis It must not be assumed that the original position periodical visitation. This interesting fact in historical of these wooded tracts (now submerged) was close to physical geography has been made known to us by any coast-line or sea-level. For such á supposition the present Under-Prefect of Coutances, from re- there seems to be no ground whatever. Proximity searches in the monastic library of Mont Saint to the sea is generally unfavourable to the growth of Michel, published in his little book called “The timber. Yet in many instances the trees of theso Movements of the Sea." Yet to-day the distance submerged lands had attained a very great size. between Jersoy and France is fourteen miles! Such Again, the trees which have been identitied from is the breach which has been gradually widened and these submerged woods are the elm, cak, chestnut, occupied by the sea since the sixth century.
and hazel, none of which have their usual habitat This remarkable isolation of Jersey from the main along the seaboard." land of France has been accompanied with such a Lastly, some of these submerged forests of our progressive submergence year after year of the main coast not only pass down under the sea-bed, but land itself, that the coast of to-day actually stands actually reappear almost in mid-channel. from six to twelve miles farther back than that which Such, then, is some of the evidence that the land existed in the sixth century. To this extent, then, which has gradually been lost to Britain by the enhas the whole seaboard, with its ports, harbours, | croachments of the sea was no mere strip of coast. villages, and forests, been submerged and lost to the , On the contrary, it formed a large terrestrial inland French territory. The result is seen to-day in vast These submerged forests, and similar memotracts of'submarine forests which now occupy the rials, enable us to-day to estimato the extent of that
SUBMERGED FORESTS OF TAE OLD LAND AREA, RISING UP AT THE COAST-LINE OF TO-DAY. The River-courses are prolonged from the Present to the Old Coast-line. The Figures show the Depths in Fathoms of the now Submerged Area.
former land, and to produce a picture of the physical which is now submerged. Thus, too, physical geogeography of early Britain.
graphy teaches us that under such circumstances the The English Channel of to-day, then, was once a present coast is the old coast cut farther back by the dry, thickly-wooded inland valley, diversified with action of the sea and the weather. mountain, ravine, hill, and plain. This great inland The most remarkable and famous of these ancient valley was then the home and pasture-ground of coast-lines of the British isles is shown in the accomhuge land animals-mammoths and gigantic oxen panying map. Startling as it may appear, a glance and deer-which roamed at vill from Ireland to the will tell us that it once formed the western seaboard continent eastward. It was irrigated with fresh-water of the continent of Europe. It was first brought to rivers, which travelled far westward before they the notice of geographers, and appreciated in all its reached the distant Atlantic coast-line of the period. significance, by Sir Henry De la Beche, more than
Let us now turn from the English Channel and its forty years since, in a map which forms the basis of former physical geography to the German Ocean.
It takes us back to the time when the Here, too, some romantic but well-ascertained facts European mainland, instead of terminating, as it reveal to us a glimpse of Britain in the continental does to-day, with the coasts of Norway and Franco, period of her history.
stretched far westward in one unbroken area, beyond The German Ocean, or North Sea, like the English the present coast of Ireland. These were the flourishChannel, was once an inland plain or valley raised ing days of the forests of oak, chestnut, alder, and far above the sea-level. The sea has but recently yew which are now submerged in the German Ocean invaded this depressed plain, submerged its forests, and the English Channel. and superseded its river-courses. The buried trees The map shows the British Isles and the adjacent of its sunk forests are still standing rooted in their sea-beds at that stage in the continental period of own vegetable soil, although beneath the waves. our country's physiography when the whole area was
Cromer Forest, which dips into the waters from raised at least 600 feet above the sea level, At this the coast of Norfolk, is the most famous of the sub. elevation, and even higher, the land must have stood merged forests of the German Ocean. This ancient for a considerable time. At length it gradually woodland has been traced at low tide for more than descended into the sea, and so became separated forty miles. At certain seasons, and especially after from the continent. The evidence of this descent is great storms, the stumps of oak, alder, yew, and afforded by the present state of the sea bottom in Scotch fir are seen standing upright in the rater. the area representer by the submerged forests and The condition of the wood and of the fir-cones (some by the old shores and sea-margins now found in deep of the latter obviously bitten by squirrels) tells us water, composed of beach-shingle and shells. Moro that the sinking of the land hero occurred at no remarkable still, it is shown by the old river-beds of distant period in the physical history of our country. the period, some of which are traceable to-day from
The remains of land animals, too, as well as of the their present mouths along the bottom of the sea to forests they inhabited, are discovered in the bed of their old mouths on the former coast-line. the German Ocean. In his “ Physical Geography of These old rivers are shown in the map as traversNorfolk," Mr. Woodward tells us that in less than ing the wooded plains and valleys which are now fifteen years the fishermen of the village of Happes- submerged by the salt waters of the English Channel burgh dredged up from their oyster-beds as many as and the Gernian Ocean. They show the former protwo thousand teeth of mammoths. Bones and tusks longation of the rivers of to-day. The Rhine, the of mammoths have also been fished up from these IIumber, the Severn, and the other rivers of this watery depths. Here is a singular instance.
area, are thus seen carrying their waters to the far“In 1837 a fisherman, whilst trawling in mid- distant coast-line. Physical geography is indebted channel between the two shoals, the Varn and the to Mr. Godwin-Austen for tracing these rivers to Ridge (covered at low tide with one hundred and their mouths in the ancient outlying sea. Mr. twenty feet of water), suddenly encountered a heavy Austen calls special attention to the river in the mass, which proved to consist of enormous bones; English Channel, in the bed of which Captain White the net broke, but a fore-leg was secured; it proved has recently discovered the shell of the fresh-water to be that of a mammoth."" Such occurrences, says mussel (Unio pictorum) at the old embouchment Professor Owen, recall to mind the adventures of the of the river (close to the submerged coast-line) in fisherman narrated in the “ Arabian Nights' Enter- from 300 to 600 feet of water. Such is the knowtainments ;” but the fancy of the romancer falls far ledge which is being gradually gained of the subshort of this hauling up in British seas of elephants merged land which lies around our island. more stupendous than those of Africa or Ceylon. The accompanying map, in which is pictured the
Let us now turn from these submerged forests, and former union of Britain and Ireland with the mainthe mammoths which inhabited them, to consider land of Europe, is referred to the time of the those old coast-lines of tho British Isles, which the mammoth, or fleece-clad elephant, a creature which, mariner of to-day finds in deep water far in advance from the abundance of its remains discovered to-day of the present seaboard. These old coast-lines, no in the area represented, is looked upon as the most less than the submerged forests, enable us to restore characteristic of the fauna of the poriod. the picture of Britain in the continental period.
A larger chart of the present beds of the British In Keith Johnston's "Physical Atlas of Natural seas, and the ancient coast-line is supplied in the Phenomena” (especially in the elaborate map of the cheap and beautiful German map of the British Isles, British Isles which forms the frontispiece) some of drawn by Dr. Peterman, and published by Dr. these old and submarine coast-lines are delineated. Stieler in his Hand Atlas, the maps of which may be They are seen ranging at successive distances from had separately. the present shores, with which, as might be expected, they run, for the most part, parallel. Thus they
See also a paper by Mr. Boyd Dawkins, Y.R.S., in Ilardwicke's figure tho former contour and extent of the land
Popular Science Review” for October 1871.
NOTES ON CASHMERE.
BY MAJOR-GENERAL EDWARD LAKE, R.E., C.S.I.
tutod, was a creation of the British Goverument. State has acquired some importance, and, under tho At the time of the first Sikh war, in 1845-46, it orders of the Government of India, an English formed part of the Punjab; the hilly and mountainous embassy under Mr. Douglas Forsyth, C.B., has made portions being held by Rajah Goolab Sing, then a its way to his capital at Yarkand, to reach which ten feudatory of the Punjab, and afterwards the first great mountain ridges have been passed, all at conking of the newly-created principality, while the siderable altitudes. Thus the Karakoram Pass has valley of Cashmere was held in farm by Nawab an elevation averaging 17,000 or 18,000 feet above Emam-ood-deen, a Mohammedan in the service of the sea, and here, for five or six days, travellers have the Sikh Government. The sovereign of the Punjab to transport everything thoy need, neither fuel being at that time was Maharajah Dhuleep Sing, but as procurable, nor fodder for baggage animals. The he was a minor, there was a scramble for power most important of the possessions of the Maharajah amongst many rival claimants. After a fearful of Jummoo in this direction is the fertile valley of period of anarchy, during which one prime minister Ladakh, at an elevation of 12,000 feet above the sea. after another was killed, and Maharajah Dhuleep The people here are of tho Tibetan race, and profess Sing (now a Christian prince living in England) the Buddhist faith. Leh, the capital,' is now the saw his uncle butchered before his own eyes, the entrepót of a considerable trade, in the interests of Sikh soldiers, like the Prætorian guards of old, which an English official is now stationed there. became masters of the situation. One use they The British representative for some time was Mr. made of their power was to invade British territory, Robert Shaw, the first Englishman to visit Yarkand, fully confident that they would drive the English and whose book, entitled “High Tartary, Yarkand, beyond the sea. They displayed the greatest and Kashgar," supplies much interesting information gallantry in four hardly-contested battles at Moodkee, regarding those regions. Ferozshahr, Aleewal, and Sobraon, at one of which, Another well-defined territorial subdivision of the Ferozshahr, British power seemed for a time to tremble Jummoo principality are the highlands bordering on
а in the balance. It pleased God, however, to allow the plains of the Punjab, and situated between the the British to triumph, and the Sikhs were obliged | Raveo and Jhelum rivers. Some passing allusion to sue for terms. _We have reason to think that at may be made to this tract, not only because it conthat time Lord Hardinge, the Governor-General of tains Jummoo, the capital of the newly-formed kingIndia, would have been disposed to annex the dom, but also because its past history throws some Punjab, if he could have occupied the country in light upon the history of the present reigning family. proper force; but the European regiments then at When the Mohammedans made themselves masters his disposal had suffered very severely in the four of Hindostan, partly from political and partly from battles which had been fought, so Lord Hardinge other considerations, they spared the Rajpoot chiefs, contented himself by demanding the cession of the who, emigrating very long ago from Rajpootana, had Sikh territory east of the Sutledge and the Becas carved out for themselves principalities in the highrivers, as well as the payment of a million and a half lands of the Punjab. They formed two great consterling to pay for the expenses of the war, which federacies, eleven east of the Ravee, of which the the Sikhs themselves had provoked by their un- Rajah of Kangra was the head, and eleven west of justifiable invasion of British territory. The Lahore the Ravee, among whom the first rank was always troasury was empty, and as there seemed no likeli- accorded to the Rajah of Jummoo. Like their hood of the war indemnity being paid, the Governor- brethren in Rajpootana, these Hill Rajpoots were a General hinted that instead of the money he would fine, handsome, chivalrous, and soldier-like race, but find it necessary to take over Cashmere and the unfortunately they were always engaged in border whole of the hill territory of the Punjab. It is un- warfare one with the other. When, therefore, Mahanecessary to enter into all the negotiations which rajah Runjeet Sing rose to power, and determined to followed; the result, however, was that Rajah bring these highlands under his sway, he attacked Goolab Sing, who had begun life some years before the chiefs one after the other; and instead of their as a horseman in the service of the Maharajah presenting a united front against him, each looked Runjeet Sing, became, in consideration of the pay- quietly on while his neighbour was being despoiled. ment of a million sterling, the first king of the newly- One of the first to fall was the Rajah of Jummoo, formed principality of Jummoo and Cashmere. whose lineal descendant is now a pensioner resident
This principality consists of three main territorial in British territory. But it so happened that while divisions, containing altogether a population of these conquests were being made, Maharajah-Runabout a million and a half. There is first the jeet Sing's prime minister, in whom he placed the mountainous region in the extreme north, on the most implicit trust, and who became almost as borders of those independent States which intervene powerful as himself, was Dhiyan Sing, an elder between British territory and the countries occupied brother of Goolab Sing. They were Hill Rajpoots, by the Russians on one hand, and those tributary belonging to a collateral branch of the Rajah of to the Chinese on the other. One of these indepen. Jummoo's family, and they, with a third brother, dent States, usually spoken of as Eastern Turkistan, Soochet Sing, managed to obtain, either in farm or has recently been formed by shaking off the Chinese on condition of service, the greater part of the hill yoke, and is now governed by Atalik Ghazi, a region west of the Raree. Further, these three Cobanımdan chirf, who has ton by the girori the brothers, as rol as Heera Sing, the son of tho