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mob kept abreast with the King for some time, sumed. “As for the King, the laws of the land

| staring at his face as if in wonder, till the Bishop will clearly instruct you for that; therefore, because had him turned away. There is a tradition that, it concerns my own particular, I only give you a when the procession came to the end of the Park, touch of it. For the people: and truly I desire near the present passage from Spring Gardens, the their liberty and freedom as much as anybody whonKing pointed to a tree, and said that tree had been soever; but I must tell you that their liberty and planted by his brother Henry. Arrived at last at freedom consists in having of government those laws the stairs leading into Whitehall, he was taken, which their life and their goods may be most their through the galleries of the palace, to the bed- own. It is not having share in government, sirs; chamber he had usually occupied while residing that is nothing pertaining to them. A subject and there; and here he had some further time allowed

a sovereign are clean different things; and, therehim for rest and devotion with Juxon alone. Having fore, until they do that I mean, that you put the sent Herbert for some bread and wine, he ate a people in that liberty, as I say-certainly they will mouthful of the bread and drank a small glass of never enjoy themselves.” In conclusion he said he claret. Here Herbert broke down so completely would have liked to have a little more time, so as to that he felt he could not accompany the King to the have put what he meant to say “in a little more scaffold, and Juxon had to take from him the white order and a little better digested,” and gave the satin

сар he had brought by the King's orders to be paper containing the heads of his speech to Juxon. put on at the fatal moment. At last, a little after As he had said nothing specially about religion, twelve o'clock, Hacker's signal was heard outside, Juxon reminded him of the omission. “I thank and Juxon and Herbert went on their knees, affec- you very heartily, my lord,” said Charles, “ for that tionately kissing the King's hands. Juxon being I had almost forgotten it. In troth, sirs, my con

, old and feeble, the King helped him to rise, and then, science in religion, I think it very well known to the commanding the door to be opened, followed Hacker. world ; and therefore I declare before you all that I With soldiers for his guard, he was conveyed, along die a Christian, according to the profession of the some of the galleries of the old palace, now no longer Church of England as I found it left me by my father; extant, to the new banqueting-hall, which Inigo and this honest man (the Bishop) I think will witJones had built, and which still exists. Besides the ness it.” There were some more words, addressed soldiers, many men and romen had crowded into the particularly to Hacker and the other officers; and once hall, from whom, as his Majesty passed on, there more, seeing a gentleman go too near the axe, he was heard a general murmur of coinmiseration and called out, " Take heed of the axe; pray, take heed prayer, the soldiers themselves not objecting, but of the axe." Then, taking the white satin cap from appearing grave and respectful.

Juxon, he put it on, and with the assistance of Juxon Through a passage broken in the wall of the ban- and the chiof executioner, pushed his hair all within queting-hall, or more probably through one of the it. Some final sentences of pious import then passed windows dismantled for the purpose, Charles emerged between the King and Juxon, and the King, laving on the scaffold, in the open street, fronting the site taken off his cloak and George, and given the latter of the present Horse Guards.

The scatfold was to Juxon, with the word “Remember,” knelt down, hung with black, and carpeted with black, the block and put his neck on the block. After a second or and the axe in the middle; a number of persons two he stretched out his hands, and the axe descended, already stood upon it, among whom were several men sovering the head from the body at one blow. There with black masks concealing their faces; in the was a vast shudder through the mob, and then a street in front, all round the scaffold, were companies universal groan.* of foot and horse ; and beyond these, as far as the eye could reach, towards Charing Cross on the one side and Westminster Abbey on the other, was a closely-packed multitude of spectators. The King,

MUSICAL DISCORDS. walking on the scaffold, looked earnestly at the block, and said something to Hacker as if he thought it W give insertion to the following letters, but were too low; after which, taking out a small piece cation on the subject, as the writer of the article



must decline to publish any other communiof paper, on which he had jotted some notes, he

Proceeded to address those standing near him. What cannot reply to criticism, being removed from scenes he said may have taken about ten minutes or a

of musical discord to enjoy the Eternal harmonies. quarter of an hour to deliver, and appears, from the The writer, the Rev. R. Demaus, the accomplished shorthand report of it which has been preserved, to and lamented principal of the Whiteland's Training have been rather incoherent. “Now, sirs," he said College, had an experience in musical tuition which at one point, “I must show you both how you are

entitled him to be lieard. out of the way, and I will put you in the way. First, you are out of the way; for certainly all the

"I have read with much pleasure the article by way you ever have had yet, as I could find by

R. D.' with the above title in the · Leisure Hour' anything, is in the way of conquest. Certainly this for April., I fear, liowever, that the writer is not is an ill way ; for conquest, sirs, in my opinion, is

aware of the extent to which the Tonic Sol-fa system nlever just, except there be a good just cause, either is carried, or he would not have finished his article for matter of wrong, or just title ; and then, if you by referring to a third system, which teaches to sing go beyond it, the first quarrel that you have to it, from the staff notation, but with a morable Do. that makes it unjust at the end that was just at

"The Tonic Sol-fa system taught by Mr. Curwen first.” A little farther on, when he had begun a

not only teaches its pupils to sing from the Tonic sentonce, “For the King indeed I will not," a gentle- Sol-fa letter notation, but also from the ordinary staff man chanced to touch the axe. “Hurt not the axe," notation, still using a movable Do. This has always he interrupted; that may hurt me," and then re

* From Masson's "Life of John Milton,” vol. iii. (Macmillan).

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been done from the commencement, and is being examination prove the soundness of their knowledge done now; so that the third system which ‘R. D.' and their power to apply it to the staff notation. approves, and thinks to be the right one, is what is “I have several times had pupils in adult classes being done by all Sol-faists who are desirous, and are who have come to me quite ignorant of music, rho persevering enough, to read music written in the staff after a time have learnt to sing correctly from the notation as well as the Tonic Sol-fa letter notation. staff notation without more than a few hints from me.

"The attention of elementary pupils is kept to the · In ladies' schools I have, and have had, pupils study of music, and not musical signs; while more of nine years old who can sing a psalm tune or a advanced pupils may have the inclination, as well as simple song correctly from this notation, and others the musical ability, to look into the intricacies of the of twelve years old who can write a tune from staff notation. But as every boy who learns to play memory, a chant from dictation, and translate from a few simple tunes on his tin whistle does not con- one notation to another, which requires a knowledge tinue his study and practice so as to become as of time, modulation, key signatures, etc. They are expert as a Lazarus or a Harper, neither does every taught entirely on the Tonic Sol-fa system; and the person who learns to sing simple music continue to i experience of other teachers will be similar. study and practise until he can find his way through is Mr. Curwen is doing more than any man living all the intricacies of an oratorio.

to facilitate the instruction of vocal music in schools ** The Tonic Sol-fa system is equal to the most diffi- and congregations, and it is natural that those who cult, as well as to the easiest music, whether written have profited largely by his labours should be anxious in the letter notation or the staff notation.

that the public should have a correct idea of the "I may add that I was one of the first to learn principles of his system. The movable Do system singing on Mr. Hullah's system in 18-10. I taught is in itself no new thing, but far older than its his system as well as I could until 1818.

opponent; it was in general use in England when " In 1848 I became acquainted with the Tonic almost every gentleman could take his part in a glee Sol-fa system, and from that time to the present I at sight. I have seen an old black-letter Psalter have been teaching it, both to adults and children." with the Sol-fa syllables under the notes of each

chant, ut, formerly used instead of Do, being always Another correspondent writes :

the keynote." “Will you allow me, as a teacher of some years' A third correspondent says :experience, to correct some mistakes in the explanation “I have for the last two years been learning of the Tonic Sol-fa system in the article on · Musical Hullah's system, and can confirm the truth of Discords'? First, a pupil is not taught to observe the ‘R. D.'s' commentary. As you may guess, I am mental effect of the intervals of the scale, it is the not among the few who have succeeded by that position of the note in the scale, its relation to the key system, though not for want of perseverance. Prenote, which determines its mental effect. This fact is vious to reading the article on · Musical Discords,' I too often ignored in books of musical instruction, but had almost made up my mind to try the Tonic Sol-fa, it is a very important one, and when recognised helps but I see that the learners of that system fail in just to secure accurate intonation, and children especially the same place as those of Hullah's do; namely, are much interested in the study.

when we try music with several sharps or flats we "Secondly, Tonic Sol-faists do not evade the difficulty cannot sing off at sight like music in the natural of key relationship, but maintain that as the intervals key." of every key are alike, it is wise to use the same syllables for these intervals, and they thus become so intimately associated in the mind as never to be for- Sonnets of the Sacred Dear. gotten. After a time the pupil is encouraged to

BY THE REV. S. J. STONE, 1. A. remember the pitch of the standard C on the third space of the treble clef, and from that note to carry

THE FOURTI SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY. down the voice to any keynote required.

“I reckon that thic sufferings of this present time are not “Thirdly, the Tonic Sol-fa notation is not like an

worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed interlinear translation, for any one who can sing a

in us.”-Rom. viii. 18. given interval at sight, and who understands modulation, chromatic tones, and the minor scale, may THE dull day lowers, the winds are harsh and surely claim to be a sight-singer, "an independent

shrill musician,' no matter what notation he may use. What time the weary Sower plies amain This knowledge once acquired can easily be applied The labour to the season due : in pain to any notation; but experience shows that the attempt to teach the elements of music and a difli- Of profit far deferred, of toil, of chill, cult notation at the same time often proves a failure,

He doth his slow and silent task fulfil, because unless a pupil has a strong determination And sows in patient faith the precious grain. to conquer any difficulty, he will tire of the tedions And th' autumn winds grow stormier, or the rain

, process to be gone through before his ear is satisfied

With melancholy tears falls sad and still. with anything like melody. The success of Mr. Curwen's system is not merely the result of his nota- But all the work is ended, late or soon, tion; no other movable Do system has the same Then the man winter falls in white calm death. carefully-graduated exercises or the clear explana- Then, change-beneath the springtide's morning tions of musical truths. The attention is very early breath directed to the simple rules of harmony, so that And summer's sun, and last the harvest moon– every lesson is a valuable intellectual exercise. The large number of Tonic Sol-fa students who have Then the glad Reaper cries beside bis wain, gained prizes and certificates in the Society of Arts' | “Far more exceeding is my glorious gain!”


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PORTSMOUTH SOLDIERS' INSTITUTE. — The old “Fountain heavy blow inflicted by a very sharp instrument." The hair, hotel at Portsmouth, for nearly 300 years the great resort of which was thick at the back, looked nearly black ; but, when naval officers, the scene of "Peter Simple's ” adventures, has a portion of it was afterwards cleaned and dried, the colour was now been purchased for a "Soldiers' Institute” through the found to be a beautiful dark brown, -that of the beard a realder exertions of Miss Robinson, who will personally superintend it. brown. The body was not examined below the neck; and, the Of late years the "Fountain " has been a den of iniquity, only head having been replaced, the coffin was soldered up again and equalled perhaps by the “Bluo Posts,” burnt down a short the vault closed.--Nasson's Life of Milton, vol. ii., p. 729. time since. Our troops are tempted by more than a thousand

EMIGRANTS FROM EAST ANGLIA.—A correspondent of the gin-shops and public-houses, with dancing-saloons and other worse haunts in this garrison, and have no respectable place of the first batch of emigrants this spring, in consequence of the

“Standard " newspaper witnessed at Liverpool the departure of resort. The purchase and transformation of the “Fountain will cost £6,000, of which £4,500 is already subscribed. It

strike and lock-out in the Eastern counties. What is loss to will not be difficult to complete this sum, and we only hope England will be gain to “Greater Britain.” The impression that enough in.addition will be at the disposal of the trustees given of these exiles is not unfavourable. If the English and committee to enable the new club to be made comfortable

labourers prosper and send money to carry off their neighbours and attractive.

and kinsfolk, as the Irish have done, the movement will be a

serions one as to "the labour question.". "They had had a long DECRETALS OF ISIDORE. -A correspondent calls attention to journey, they said ; they minded it chiefly for the children's a slip in the article on Plagiarism in the April part, where it sake. They were not very sorry to leave the neighbourhood of is said that the pretended decretals of the early popes were

the famous Heath-not they, for it was no place to a man if he forged by Isidore of Seville (p. 215). “It is true indeed that was locked out and could not work. They were always willing those false decretals have been ascribed to the celebrated Bishop to give a good day's

work for a fair day's wages, to keep a house of Seville ; but it is now, I believe, generally admitted that over one's head. They agreed that no man who is willing to they are due to another Isidore, commonly called Isidore work need starve in any country, but they hoped on the cleared Mercator, who lived in the ninth century, about 200 years land in Canada to be able to get a bit of meat as well as a bit later than the former Isidore. Let your readers consult 'Cave's of bread. They made no complaint except of being locked ont Historia Literarin,' vol. i., p. 525, where that learned writer of work, and they went willingly enough to seek their living discusses the subject with his wonted ability. Or, if they are in a land where they knew they would be welcomed, being in. not accustomed to read Latin, let them turn to Neander's formed that there was land to be cleared in Canada. The Church History,' vol. vi., p. 2, Bohn's Edition, where they principal spokesman said he could handle an axe, and he would will find that while there was a Spanish recension of Eccle. as soon be felling as ploughing or harvesting. He did not siastical Laws known by the venerated name of Isidore of expect too much ; all he looked for was a fair living and money Seville (who died A.D. 636), another appeared under the same enough to keep the family. He did not think the hardships of name in the ninth century, which contained a complete series the voyage would hurt them much, and anything was better of the decretals of the Roman bishops from Clement downwards than doing nothing at home. He and his family had come -most of them pieces entirely unknown before, but some of because his wife's brother had made up his mind to come, and them interpolated at an early period with many alterations and they thought they had better be off together ; so he had sold off inserted clauses. So, too, Mosheim writes Among these his bits of sticks for what he could get, and he would not want fraudulent documents in support of the Romish power, the so- bread for a week while he was looking a bont him in Ontario." called Decretal Epistles of the pontiffs of the early centuries Iceland's MILLENNIAL JUBILEE.— It is a thousand years hold perhaps the first rank. They were produced by the ingenuity of an obscure man who falsely assumed the name of Ingolfur Arnarson, with his family and retainers, led the way

since Iceland was first peopled by emigrants from Norway. Isidor, Bishop of Seville. (Ch. His., Cent. ix., part ii., | in the new colonisation. Others of the sea-kings and earls who chap. ii). Further testimonies are, I suppose, unnecessary.”- chafed under the rule of Harald, the first monarch, took refuge J. J. C.

in the remote island of the north. The Icelanders retained the COFFIN OF CHARLES I. AT WINDSOR.-In March 1813 some associations and language of their native country, as did the workmen, employed in making a passage from under the choir Pilgrim fathers the faith and traditions of old England when of the Royal Chapel at Windsor to a mausoleum erected by they settled in America. The political relations of Iceland to George ui in the "toinVhouse,” accidentally broke into the the old country have been long unsettled, the islanders having rault containing the bodies of Charles I, Henry viii, and no representatives in the Danish Rigsdag, or parliament. A Queen Jane Seymour. The fact having been reported to the new charter has been granted by the King of Denmark, giring Prince Regent, a careful examination was ordered. It was

a Constitution with much of “home rule or local government made April 1, 1813, in the presence of the Prince Regent to the Icelanders. The Danish correspondent of the “Times" himself, the Duke of Cumberland, Count Munster, the Dean of says that this charter, dated January 5, 1874, is a very liberal Windsor, Sir Henry Halford (Physician to the King and the one, being in most of its articles closely moulded upon the Prince Regent), and Mr. B. C. Stevenson. The coffin of Charles Danish Constitution of 1849, one of the freest in Europe. In all I was examined with great minuteness, and corresponded in matters concerning the island particularly and not belonging to every particular with the account given by Herbert. When imperial legislature, Iceland will have its own legislation and the Ďlack velvet pall had been removed, the coffin was found to administration. The national representation is the Althing, be of plain lead, with the leaden scroll encircling it bearing consisting of thirty-six members, thirty elected by popular the inscription, “King Charles, 1648,” in large legible cha suffrage on a very liberal franchise adapted to the wants of the racters. Á square opening was then cut in the upper lid, so country, and six nominated by the King; the Althing is one that the contents might be clearly seen. An internal wooden chamber, but for discussion and partly for voting purposes, coffin was found to be very much decayed, and the body was separates into two, somewhat in the same manner as the Nor. found to be carefully wrapped up in cerecloth, into the folds of wegian Storthing. A minister for Iceland, nominated by the which there had been poured abundantly some unctuous sub- King and responsible to the Althing, is at the head of the Adstance mixed with resin. With considerable difficulty the ministration ; but the highest local authority is vested in the cerecloth was removed from the face, and then, despite the dis governor residing in Reykjavig, and for whose acts the minister colouring and the decay of some parts, the features of Charles is responsible. The independence of the tribunals, the froedom I, as represented in coins and busts, and especially in Vandyke's of the individual, liberty of faith, of the press, of public meetportraits of him, could be distinctly recognised. There was ing, etc., the inviolability of property, the self-government of the oval face, with the peaked beard. When, by farther the municipalities, and the equality of all citizens before the removal of the cerecloth, they had disengaged the entire head, law, are fully and to the same extent guaranteed as in the they found it to be loose from the body. On taking it out, Danish charter. The new Constitution is to be the law of the they saw that “the muscles of the neck had evidently re- land on and after the 1st of August next. It is hoped that the tracted themselves considerably, and the fourth cervical vertebra Crown Prince of Denmark may be present at the inauguration of was found to be cut through its substance transversely, leaving the new charter, and give éclai to the rojoicings which gracefully the surfaces of the divided portions perfectly smooth and even connect the historical commemoration with new political privi. -an appearance which could have been producerl only by a leges.

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