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stanzas, four of which may be given from a literal | is like nothing on this earth. It is the music of version of the original, by Mr. J. T. Naake, of the another world; and I am utterly at a loss even to British Museum library, to whose courtesy the guess how it is produced.” Lights having been writer of this paper is indebted for a ready response brought, there appeared in the distance a large band to his queries.

of soldiers, each with a trumpet or horn, varying in

length from a few inches to ten, fifteen, and even "God save the Czar!

twenty feet, by which the magic minstrelsy had The glorious ! Long life

been made.
Grant him on earth!

We give the anthem as now commonly sung.
To the subduer of the proud,
The defender of the weak,
The comforter of all,
Send down every blessing!

God save the no- ble Czar! Long may he live, in porr'r, in “The peaceful warriors,

d d Lovers of truth,

God save!
Their virtuous lives,
Without hypocrisy
Devoted to heroic deeds,
Remember, Thou !

hap - pi-ness, in peace, to reign! Dread of his en - e- mies,
“On, Providence !
Thy blessing

Send down on us !
The desire of good,
Moderation in happiness,
Patience in adversity
Grant on earth!

Faith's sure defender, God save the Czar, God gave the Czar!

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year 1852.

“ Be our Defender,
Our faithful Companion,

Lead us on!
Oh, Thou the most glorious,
Divine Life,

Our own National Anthem is of much older date
Known to the heart,

than the preceding. Yet it does not go farther back Shine to the heart !"

than the year 1745, at least as a regular composition

formally submitted to the public. It was then sung for The poem, quite of recent date, was composed by the first time in the two leading metropolitan theatres, Vassili Andrejevich Zhukovsky, born in 1783, edu- harmonised for Drury Lane by Dr. Arne, and for cated in the public school at Tula and in the Covent Garden by Dr. Hawkins. Words and tune university of Moscow, which he quitted in 1803, and appeared in the “Gentleman's Magazine" for where he afterwards held an appointment under the October in the year named. The following is an Government. He edited for a short time the “ Euro- exact copy of the imprint. It will be perceived that pean Herald,” translated “Don Quixote” into the the air has since been improved in melody, and is Sclavonic language, published an excellent collection now usually given in a different key. of Russian poetry, in five volumes, and died in the Zhukovsky's ode was set to music in 1833 by

A SONG FOR Two VOICES.
A. Th. Lvov, and became at once a national song.
The air, a pleasing and striking one, was speedily
heard in England, and continued for a time highly

God save great GEORGE our King, Long live our no- ble King, popular. But it was, of course, introduced with an arrangement to different words, when vocal performance was in view, “God the Omnipotent, King who ordaineth.” The strains are the most effective God save great GEORGE our King, Long live our no - ble King, as given by a Russian horn band with a full complement of performers. In that remarkable kind of music each performer sounds but one note, yet all successively fall in properly with such marvellous God save the King.

- to rious, Hap-py and exactness as to convey the impression of there being only a single mighty instrument in play. Prince Potemkin, on one occasion, without revealing his God save the King. Send him vic .to . ri - OuB, Hap-py and purpose, took M. Baillot, an eminent French composer, into a long gallery of the Kremlin at Moscow, intentionally involved in darkness. Though nothing was to be seen, yet soon the tonos of melody and glo- ri - ous, Long to reign over 18, God save the King. harmony were heard. At the close of the performance, upon being asked what he thought of it, the foreigner replied, “All that I know is, that it

glo - ri-0118, Long to reign o. ver us, God save the King.

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“O Lord our God arise,

poses, an improvement which was ultimately highly Scatter his enemies,

prized by the civilians. Hence the commemorative And make them fall;

distich, which certainly savours more of Ireland than Confound their politics,

of Scotland :-
Frustrate their knavish tricks,
On him our hopes we fix,

Had you seen these roails before they were made,
O save us all.

You would lift up both hands and bless General Wade." “Thy choicest gifts in store

Another stanza, intended to serve a temporary purOn George be pleased to pour,

pose, was composed on the occasion of George ini Long may he reign ;

being shot at by the maniac Hatfield, in Drury May he defend our laws,

Lane Theatre, on the 15th of May, 1800 :--
And ever give us canse,
To say with heart and voice,

"From every latent foe,
God save the King!"

From the assassin's blow,

God save the King ! The song was received with great delight by both

O'er him Thine arm extend, the crowded audiences, not so much on the ground

For Britain's sake defend of its own merit, but as an expression of patriotism

Our father, prince, and friend ! and loyalty peculiarly appropriate to the circum

God save the King !" stances of the nation at the period. It was immediately re-echoed in the streets, and soon became an This was written by Sheridan while the performance established favourite both in military circles and in of the evening proceeded. It was sung at the close, festire gatherings of the people, as an act of homage and most vociferously encorod by the audience. to the sovereign, and a proper tribute of respect to We now come to consider the original authorship the constitution. Previously, for more than half a of the politico-religious hymn. This is one of the century, Purcell's duet and chorus, “To arms,” and vexed questions of literature, as much so

as that the air, “ Britons striko home,” by the same com- which the Letters of Junius involve, and will proposer, the words of both taken from Dryden’s altera- bably never be thoroughly elucidated, but a few jottion of Bondica, were the national songs, always tings may be put down in relation to it. received with acclamations in times of war. Though

According to a pretentious volume written by Mr. still in use on such occasions, yot “God save the Clark, and published in the year 1822, entitled, “ An King" quickly gained the pre-eminence, and has Account of the National Anthem," it started into retained it, being equally adapted for days of peace. being in the reign of James I, when Dr. Bull pro

, At the period referred to, known for some time duced the music. He was organist to the king, and afterwards as "the Forty-five," the country was in a certainly left behind him the notes in manuscript of ferment from end to end, owing to the landing of the a piece called "God save the King;” but this is Pretender in Scotland, and the early success which known to have been a kind of voluntary for the attended the arms of his adherents. They had taken organ, with twenty-six different basses, having no possession of Edinburgh, had defeated an English feature whatever in common with the anthem. Ben force at Preston Pans, and were on the advance Jonson is supposed by Mr. Clark to have written in southward, expecting to be joined by sympathisers in substance the words, and confessedly this is given sufficient numbers to justify an attempt to snatch the simply as a likely guess. So much for the Bull and crown from the House of Hanover and transfer it to Ben Jonson theory. the House of Stuart. England was astir with war- A claim for the unfortunate poet and musician, like preparations, and London with defensive mea- Henry Carey, who died by his own hand in 1743,

The regiments of trained bands were doing with only a halfpenny in his pocket, was set up by duty by turn day and night to keep the peace of the his son, and pertinaciously maintained, with tho city, the gates of which were rigorously closed through view of obtaining a pension from the Government; the hours of darkness. Battalions of foot and squad- but nothing could be alleged by way of proof beyond rons of horse, with bombardiers, gunners, and trains a loose report concerning one of Handel's assistants of artillery, were moving northward in hot haste having stated that the father had brought him the towards Yorkshire, the head-quarters of Marshal words and music in order to have the bass improved. Wade. Hence the introduction of the song was The elder Carey published a collection of his poems pertinent, and the enthusiastic welcome it received shortly before his death, but the loyal strain puts in natural. "An additional stanza speedily appeared, no appearance among them. He produced some alluding more directly to passing events :

pleasant pieces, and may be noted as the inventor of

the well-known phrase, Namby. Pamby, which has Lord, grant that Marshal Wade May, by Thy mighty aid,

stood its ground to the present day in the criticism of

style and manners. Victory bring!

It is quite certain that the original author of the May he sedition hush,

melody was unknown when it was introduced to the And like a torrent rush,

thoatres, while both the words and music of the Rebellious Scots to crush ! God save the King !"

song, subject to a few alterations, were generally

regarded as having been for some time in existence. This supplemental strain was soon set aside, but Dr. Arne, under whose auspices the piece appeared the name of the commander did not so speedily at Drury Lane, expressly stated, in reply to a chalsink into oblivion. Upon the suppression of the lenge upon the point, that ho had not the least knowrebellion, the soldiers stationed in the Highlands ledge, nor could he guess at all, who was either the were employed under his direction to open more author or the composer, but there was a received practicable routes through them for military pur- opinion that it was written and composed for the

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Catholic chapel of James 11, and as his religious | terms and sentiments, as loyalty has expressed itself faith was not that of the nation, there might be a in a similar manner, and must almost of necessity do political reason for the concealment of names in the so when occasion for its vocal manifestation arises.

Dr. Burney is also reported to have said that Such forms of speech have been in use in relation to “the earliest copy of the words we are acquainted princes and potentates from time immemorial, and with begins, ‘God save great James our King.' are on record with reference to those of the ancient the same effect is the testimony of Benjamin Victor, oriental monarchies. In the days of Nebuchadnezzar, made in a communication to Garrick, then at the “Oh king, live for ever!” was the usual preface to outset of his dramatic career, written the same month an address. Hushai reiterated the formulary to in which the song appeared in print. “The stage,” Absalom, “God save the king, God save the king;' he remarks," at both houses is the most pious, as and upon Solomon being anointed to the succession well as the most loyal place in the three kingdoms. by Zadok the priest and Abiathar the prophet, the Twenty men appear at the end of every play ; and trumpet sounded, “and all the people said, God save one stepping forward before the rest, with uplifted King Solomon !" hands and eyes, begins singing to an old anthem As a general conclusion, it seems warrantable to tune the following words :

state that the National Anthem goes back as a com

position to an age prior to that when it ras first O Lord our God arise,

formally submitted to public notice; that it bore the Confound the enemies

name of a Stuart sovereign before that of the HanoOf George our King.

verian king; and was pressed into the service of the Send him victorious,

later dynasty for political purposes when the adheHappy and glorious,

rents of thë older were on the point of invading Long to reign over us,

England with a view to its re-establishment. Among God save the King!

the names conjecturally mentioned as composers of Which are the very words and music of an old the music, Purcell's is the most likely, who was one anthem that was sung at St. James's Chapel for of the organists of the royal chapel in the reign of King James the Second, when the Prince of Orange James II, and at the same time organist of Westminwas landed, to deliver us from popery and slavery; ster Abbey. The words are of home growth, but which God Almighty, in his goodness, was pleased belong to different periods. They are derived from Not to grant.” Verses inscribed on drinking-glasses various sources, as songs prepared for coronation preserved by descendants of the Pretender's adhe- processions, royal progresses, and festive entertainrents in Scotland further certify to the Jacobite use ments, while such sentences as “scatter our enemies," of the strain :

" confound their devices," with the prayer for “a “God save the King, I pray,

long and happy reign over us," occur in the offices God save the King, I pray,

of the Anglican liturgy. God save the King!

Our old ballad poetry is rife with brief loyal outSend him victorious,

bursts, wholly unconnected with the subject of the Happy and glorious,

strain, as if introduced from usago, answering no Soon to reign over us,

purpose but to eke out a rhyme or lengthen the God save the King !

song. A famous example from the Scottish border

once figured ludicrously in nonconformist psalmody. “God bless the Prince of Wales,

It happened in the days of yore at Leicester, when The true-born Prince of Wales,

the town had only one dissenting chapel, a PresbyteSent us by Thee;

rian place of worship called invariably the Great Grant us one favour more,

Meeting. Hymn-books, being then rare, were disThe King for to restore,

pensed with. The usage was for written copies of As Thou hast done before

the hymns required at each service to be placed in The Familie."

order on the clerk's desk, one above the other, for

him to give out by two lines at a time. One memorThe correspondence is close between the first stanza able Sunday morning, some juvenile conspirators of the English poem and a French versicle in use against his peace succeeded in placing an inscribed about the time when the relations between the scroll of their own on the top of the orthodox docuStuarts and the court of Versailles were the most in- ments. So the unsuspecting official, beginning his timate. With the following lines, sung to the music work as audibly as usual, announced the lines, – of Lulli, who died in the year 1687, the nuns of the convent of St. Cyr are said to have groeted the en

“God prosper long our noble King, trance of the king, Louis xiv, into the chapel :

Our lives and safetyes all." “Grand Dieu, sauvez le Roi !

Quickly the minister whispered, leaning over the Grand Dieu, vengez le Roi !

pulpit, “ John, John, you must be wrong"..." Oh, Vive le Roi !

no, was the reply, “it is so; it's all right," and Que toujours glorieux,

began with a sonorous oice a tune appropriate to a Louis victorieux,

common metre. Then came the next two lines, Voye ses enemis,

“A woeful hunting once there did
Toujours soumis !

In Chevy Chase befall."
Grand Dieu, sauvez le Roi !
Grand Dieu, rengez le Roi !

Stop! stop!” was now energetically exclaimed

from the pulpit, “hand it to me; take the next," Vive le Roi !"

fully alive to the fact that some unlucky mischance But no direct derivation of the English stanza from had occurred, or mischievous wit must have been at the French need be inforred from their resembling work intentiozally to confound his subordinate.

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VICTORIA HARBOUR, HONG KONG.

-PIRATES.

One day, whilst looking through his telescope at a rocky island to windward of us, distant about five or six miles, he suddenly shouted out, “ Back the mainyard! back the mainyard !” and told the steersman to put the helm hard aport. His orders were immediately obeyed, and the ship swung round to the wind with all her sails aback. The commotion caused

by this brought all the passengers on deck, and the CHAPTER III.—PERILS OF THE SEA-SHIPWRECKED MARINERS captain turned to me and said, "Just take a look

through my glass at that island and tell me what you OW that we had sailed into the North Pacific, the see.” It seemed to be a barren, precipitous island,

, ward, and she bowled along at nine knots per hour needle-shaped pinnacles on its northern shore. On under the north-east trade winds, sighting every day or its southern half there was a deep cavern, with the two some of the innumerable isles that form the groups surf breaking in white foam at its entrance. The of Polynesia and the Indian Archipelago. Ever vary- northern half looked least desolate, and had someing in outline, they formed a continuous island panothing like vegetation on its flank, in the midst of rama for days and weeks together. Sometimes they which there appeared to be a solitary tree. were low coral isles, fringed with dangerous reefs, were no habitations to be seen, or signs of life, save whose palm-trees were invisible at a few miles' the sea-birds which hovered about its perpendicular distance, and sometimes they were peaked, pre- cliffs. The only prominent object," I said, “is cipitous, rocky islets, towering above the sea for a palm-tree on the north part of the island.” The hundreds—even thousands — of feet.

an captain took another look, “I take your palm-tree anxious time for the captain whilst sailing through to be a signal of distress.". " And so do I," said these rocks, reefs, and shoals, subject to devious cur- Petersen, the mate, "and that there are probably rents, and although he had full contidence in his crew, some shipwrecked people on the island." As this he was always on the look-out, and constantly studying seemed probable, our skipper determined to beat up his charts. Whenever he had a chance, he would to the island, and, when we got as close to it as it take his ship outside the usual track, so as to avoid was prudent to go, he despatched the mate, with two the intricate channels and to get plenty of sea room. sailors and two of my sappers and myself, in the

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quarter-boat to land, and ordered us to make for the and that they were arranging amongst themselves cleft in the centre of the rocks. When we got to lest some might attack the ship, and rob them of shore, we found the island was of volcanic origin, their gold, and murder those who resisted-for these with giant columns of basalt resembling those at pirates are sanguinary, desperate men.

Our captain Fingal's Cave; and as we passed the mouth of the also took measures for our safety, distributed arms, cavern which had been seen so far away, we heard and had his four guns loaded with ball. He directed the surf breaking against its walls with the noise of me to tell my men that we were in the vicinity of the thunder. Not a ledge could be seen upon which the Canton River estuary, which is frequented by the least footing could be obtained, so we rowed under most bloodthirsty pirates on the coast, and that they the lee to the gap between the two hills, and there, were daring enough to attack ships as large as ours, as the captain had conjectured, there was a small bit and to rob and murder whenever they had the of pebbly beach, where we could haul up the boat. chance. “Therefore," said he, “get your arms and Leaving the two sailors in charge of the boat, the ammunition ready, and I shall leave the command of others dispersed themselves in the direction of the your men to you, and with my men will load and signal post, and reached it with less difficulty than fire our four big guns should there be occasion." was expected. It was quite evident that some ship- This was an unexpected change in the peaceful wrecked people had erected it, for it was a ship's state of affairs which had hitherto prevailed throughspar, with a sailor's blue woollen shirt fastened to the out the voyage, and I could not help thinking of the top; but although we shouted and fired pistols to anomalous condition of a people who receive their attract attention, there was no response, and we countrymen, returning from abroad, with fire and were about to leave the island, when I accidentally sword instead of with the open hand of welcome. I discovered in a little thicket the skeletons of two mustered my men, of course, and when they were human beings. I called my companions to the spot, put through their facings on the main-deck the and, after we had vainiy endeavoured to make out Chinese could not contain their joy, and kept "chin! who they were, and to find some record of their sad chinning!” the soldiers with the utmost hilarity, story, we dug a grave, covered them over with earth some of them saying, that “tief man no can catchee and stones, and then cut down the signal-post, lest it sip; spose he come, Inkilee solya (English soldier) should attract some other ship ont of its course. It man aīl same soot him dead!" was impossible to tell to what country these unfortu- Towards night the number of junks increased, and nate men had belonged. Not impossibly they had their lights sparkled in all directions over the waves. been part of the crew of a Manilla trader, for the The Jupiter also had her lights hoisted, a white ore shirt appeared be of Spanish manufacture.

at the foretop and two in the mizen-chains. It was No land was now sighted until we saw the most quite dark after sunset as the moon did not rise northern of the Philippine Islands, a long chain until late, and the lights of the fishing-boats grawhich stretches between Luzon and Formosa, the two dually disappeared as they steered towards the greatest islands in these parts. There are several shore. The mate was in the bows with his watch, passages between them. We ran through the keeping a sharp look-out lost the ship might run Balintang Passage, which has a channel eighteen down some of the junks. Suddenly he called out, miles wide, and passed fairly, into the dreaded China “ Bear away! a large junk on the lee bow without Sea one evening, just as the last rays of the setting lights!" His order was obeyed, and the captain sun were gilding the mountain tops. We landsmen came on deck with his night-glass. “That is a susnow began to calculate at what hour we should get picious-looking craft,” he said to me; “have your to shore, but the captain shook his head and told us men ready, and see that my hands reeve out the that the worst part of the way had yet to come; in guns.” Then he took up his speaking-trumpet, and saying which he proved indeed to be right, for on called to the junk people in Canton jargon, “No the following day we encountered and had to beat can do! Spose you come, my ship sink you!" up against the south-west monsoon, and three days No answer was given, but the junk bore up to afterwards were surprised by a furious typhoon, windward, and fired a shotted gun across our bows, which threw tho vessel almost upon her beam ends, carrying away the martingale. The light from the and washed away boats and everything that was gun revealed the formidable appearance of the craft, loose or movable. We got safely through this peril, which could not have been less than two hundred however, and after a short period of calm, a favour- tons, with probably twenty nine-pounder guns on able breeze sprang up once more, and the ship re- board, and a hundred men. The villains set up an sumed her course for Hong Kong under a cloud of unearthly yell, which at once showed their intention canvas.

of boarding the ship. Not a moment was lost in Again the decks, were crowded by our Chinese returning fire with our two windward guns, and both passengers, on the look-out to catch the first glimpse hit the junk on the deck amidship, where most of the of their native land, and of the boats of their pirates stood, and no doubt did great execution. countrymen, which we call junks. The first we saw They replied with eight or nine shots, but they were were fishing-boats, and, though far out of sight of all too low to do much harm to the Jupiter, and she land, appeared to be frail structures, with their stood so high out of the water that the pirates could bamboo masts and spars dipping into the trough of not tell how many people were on board. the sea as if they would

Women and “ Let her come nearer,” I shouted to the captain, children were on board, some of them attending to so as to come within rifle range, and run out all the nets, and appeared quite unconcerned as we your guns to windward.” This was done, and I got passed. Many were sighted during the day, and my twenty men close under the balwarks ready to some larger ones, which I took to be trading junks, fire a volley. but when these appeared the Chinese became Down dropped the pirate, thinking he was sure to anxious and even excited. Fan A-wye told me they take a ship with only two guns. A number of jingals, were afraid that some of these were pirate junks, I or fire-lock pieces, were discharged from her, but

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