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teers and camel-drivers, who are waiting for the The people of the Lejah built their houses as the cover of the night to proceed to Damascus with their feudal lords built their castles: they could fight outprecious loads of wheat. Hearing that we have seen side the walls, retreat to their courts, and finally no Arabs on the way, the caravan files off imme- retire within the stone keep, and sleep soundly diately. The people of Burâk also gather sullenly behind the stone doors and shutters. Thus the round, but neither help nor hinder us. When I houses, though peculiar, are exactly suited to the renew my acquaintance with the sheikh, he gives me circumstances of the country and the necessities of to understand that their water is entirely exhausted, the people. and though we are willing to pay for it at any price, A few of the houses are in a sufficiently perfect we can only obtain about two pints, which has been state of proservation to enable one to get a good treasured up all day in a dirty skin, after having general idea of the habitations of Bashan. The been carried seven or eight miles on the back of a walls of the houses are from three to five feet thick, donkey. The tea manufactured from this fluid is of and from eight to twelve feet high, built of squared a hue that would delight the eyes of a Persian, but basalt stonos well fitted together. Stone plank-like its taste is strongly suggestive of leather broth, and slabs, three or four yards long and about half a yard as no amount of sugar will neutralise the flavour of broad, are laid across from wall to wall, and rest on raw hide, we swallow down the bitter beverage like a projecting cornice which runs round the room. In medicine.

some of the houses are very massive semicircular Our attempts to sleep in Burâk prove even a arches, on which the roofs rest. The doors and greater failure than our attempts to make tea, for windows, which are generally small, are of black though the colonists of the place are not numerous, stone. Some of the doors, however, even of private they have brought a very abundant and healthy houses, are nearly six feet high. The doors are genesupply of black and white fleas with them, which rally folding, and they are hung by means of pivots, seem to live and thrive among the ruins of the town, which project from the doors into holes in the lintels rendering sleep all but impossible. The first man I and thresholds. They are sometimes ornamented see in looking from my tent in the morning is a with panels and knobs and flowers, but thoso in soldier whom I once found in the north of Syria Burâk are mostly plain, well-dressed solid slabs, robbing some peasants of truffles that they had spent from six to ten inches thick. A few of the houses the day in digging. The peasants appealed to me, had second stories, but owing to the accumulation of and I forced the soldier in a somewhat high-handed débris the lower stories of some of the houses are inanner to return the stolen property; so I have almost concealed. As in all the villages of the doubts on what footing I am to meet this bandit; Hauran, the houses seem to stand on a mound of but as soon as I issue from the tent he comes up and black earth, while in reality they are built on the clains me as an old friend. We are at once re- foundations of houses of a more remote antiquity. I ininded that we are in the Lejah--the refuge-the descended in one place a depth of sixteen or eighteen region to which Absalom fled after the murder of his feet to see some pottery lately discovered, and I brother, and the place where this ruffian is safe, found the walls at that depth formed of enormous after having stabbed a shepherd to the heart for undressed and unsquared stones, unlike the stones of defending his sheep. This rock-girt land has been the superstructure, which are smaller in size, and in all ages the home of the enemy of man, and there have been better prepared for the walls. are few men in the whole district whose hands have Burâk must have been a town of considerable im. not been defiled by some foul deed. And never was portance in comparatively peaceful times. It was land more suited to its inhabitants. Black discharges built upon the rugged rampart that surrounds the from the bowels of the earth “gloom the land” with Lejah with its “munition of rocks," and was thus a scene that might become the landscape of Dante's easily defended. As far as

we penetrated the Inferno, and amid these scenes and landscapes lurk dreadful lava bed at Burâk, we found few signs of to-day assassins of every hue, and communities red cultivation, though there is pasturage for goats ; from the perpetration of wholesale massacre. Nor is but there are vast arable plains that sweep up

like the right hand likely to forget its dangerous cunning a sea to the rock-girt coast on which Burâk stands. among these congenial scenes, for on my first visit A few Druze families who now occupy Burâk culhere that tall son of the sheikh, then a barefooted tivate a patch of the plain, within musket range lad, boasted that a few days before lie had killed their houses, and are amply rewarded. They plough, four Arabs by his own hand, and the boast was con- and sow, and reap, with primed muskets slung from tirmed by others with circumstances of time and their shoulders ; but if they were protected from the place.

raids of the Arabs, thousands of men would here find Leaving exact measurements and architectural a remunerative field for their labour. Even in comdetails to the scientific party who have undertaken paratively peaceful times a good harvest may be the exploration of these trans-Jordanic regions, I gathered unto the threshing-floors among the rocks, cannot help at once expressing disappointment with where the villagers can defend themselves. the actual ruins, especially after the exaggerated The position of Burâk, on the edge of an immense accounts of them which we have read. The style of fertile plain, must have rendered it an important architecture is peculiar, but not wonderful. There town. But it had other advantages. It was the is little wood, but much stone, in the region, and as nearest port to Damascus, on the coast of the Lejah, security is the great end in view in building a house being the most northern town of that region. It also in the Hauran, the people find stone much more lay on tho nearest route to Bathaniyeh, or the Druze suitable than wood. It is curious, no doubt, to see mountain, and was thus an emporium of exports and stone roofs, and stone doors and windows, on a imports. From these abiding causes of prosperity, house, but it cannot be considered wonderful that we should naturally suppose that Burâk, like the people made their houses of the material which Damascus, would be too tempting a prey to the was most abundant and most suitable to their wants. destroyer to have many ancient buildings remain


ing; but as Burik seems to have fallen early under Egyptian, las rendered this village uninhabitable, the destroying blight of Islam, and never to have except after rainy years. When Burckhardt and recovered, the ruins are of considerable antiquity. Porter visited this place they found it entirely unThere can be little doubt that most of the houses inhabited. There are now in the village six or which are still standing were built in early Chris- seven families who have come from Alepp), under tian times, and when Christianity was trium- the leadership of Abu Khattar, their sheikh. For phant, for vo find on all the best houses crosses the first few years after their arrival they were comand other Christian emblems, which are evidently paratively happy, as they had only the Arabs to of the same date as the buildings themselves; and contend against. If the Arabs came in small some of these crosses and Christian emblems are to bands they fought them, and a fight is always be seen on lintels of doors, which have been so popular; but if they came in large numbers they buried

up that they are now lower than the surface gave them black mail, known in Arabic by the name of the streets. The Greek of the inscriptions appears brotherhood.” The government has now found them to be that of the period between the second and fifth out, and a good deal of their time is spent in concenturies of our era. The Cufic inscriptions were cealing their property and their numbers from the evidently scratched on the stones in situ in the official tax-gatherers, who are, as a rule, only legalised walls, and do not, I believe, mark the date of any brigands. From force of habit they attempted to building in Burak. All the coins and medals I conceal their numbers from us, but we shall not be found in Burâk were those of Constantine and his far wrong in estimating them at sixty souls. immediate successors.

Leaving the village, we wind down, over the ropeThere is reason to conjecture that Burák is the like lip of the Lojah, into the margin of the plain. ancient Constantia, whose bishop, Solemus, was Last year, four days later in the year, when I visited present at the Council of Chalecdon, in the fifth Burâk, the whole plain was covered with a little century (A.D. 151). Hierocles places the episcopal lilac flower which made the air heavy with its rich city Constantia among the cities of Arabia, and by perfume. Searcely a blade of it is to bo seen this the side of Phaena, the modern Musmeih; and Mr. year. The difference may be accounted for by last Waddington* remarks that inasmuch as the name spring coming after a wet winter, and this spring Flavius is found on all the inscriptions of Buråk, it succeeding a dry winter. Swarms of Greek parcontiris the supposition that the town was founded tridges (Caccabis saxatilis) are running over the rocks or embellished by Constantine. Whatever may have about us, and as we do not wish to abandon our servant, been the ancient namo of the town, thero is no who is delayed in tho village settling for the teapotful doubt that the ruins which we now see are on the of dirty water that we got last night, we occupy the top of ruins older still, and in the walls of the most time during our halt in knocking over a few parancient-looking structures we see bits of lintels and tridges for dinner. We abstain, however, from fragments of ornaments rifled from more ancient killing more than we need. The process of bagging structures. Towards the outskirts of the town thero partridges in Syria is very different from the saine are rude houses, sometimes built over caves, and operation in England. The partridge here is a against the stones of these houses no tool has ever larger and stronger bird than the common parbeen lifted up; but as these houses are composed of tridge (Perdic cinerea) at home, and as game laws material in its primitive state, it would be equally are hero unknown, the birds look sharply after bold to predicato either their great antiquity or partridge preservation themselves. An old cock, with otherwise. That the town is of great antiquity, good eye and voice, is generally stationed on however, does not admit of a doubt, since its most prominent rock, and when danger approaches he modern structures date from the time of the Roman gives a peculiar cry of warning, and then slips down occupation of England. Nor will it be doubted that off the stone, and runs from the danger, and all the beneath that raised mound are buried the remains partridges in the neighbourhood follow the sentinel's of one of the "threescore cities” that once existed in example. They run about as fast as a common dog. Bashan, and which still exist under changed circum- and the sportsman must go at the speed of a grava stances, sometimes under different names.

hound to overtake them. The usual and most suieThe present name or Burak signifies tanks or cessful method is to walk slowly towards the parreservoirs, a name which did not suggest to us that tridge till it disappears behind the rocks, then rush our poor horses would have to pass the night with-, with all your might to the spot where you last sau out water, and that we ourselves would have to put it, and continue running till the bird rises. This it up with a few cupfuls of greasy fluid that no dog does with a tremendous screech and whirr, and you with any self-respect would drink. Names in this must fire quickly or the bird is gone like a rocket. The country are generally significant, and south-east of natives conceal themselves about wells and springs, the town aro extensive aqueducts leading to a large and slaughter the poor birds when they come to tank or reservoir in the suburbs. The aqueducts drink, and they sometimes employ a decoy partridge are of course broken down and neglected ; and the in a cage to call its free friends to their doom. reservoir was filled up with stones by Ibrahim Pasha, Those who, like us, are constantly travelling through the Egyptian (of whom more anon), as a war mea- the wilds of Syria without the luxurious imprimenta sure, when he sought in vain to bend the Druzes to of a dragoman, find these partridges, which are his will. This barbarian custom of destroying the equally distributed over the country, a great source water-supplies of the enemy hus been practised in or comfort and economy, especially as without them this land since the days of Abraham (Gen. xxvi. we should have to buy a whole sheep, and slaughter 15). Tho Philistines of war stop up the vells, and it, every time we wished to indulge in the luxury of tho innorent and the guilty suffer together. And a meat dinner. The cook plucks the partridges as this act of inpotent wrath, on the part of the great we go along, and on our arrival at a village at night

they are placed in a pot with rice and water, and a “Inscriptions Grey's et Latines," page 370,

stew is soon prepared, which is very palatable after


a vide of thirty or forty miles. We have procured | distillers and brewors do for the publicans and their our supply for the day, and gallop back to the village supporters. Supply comfortable rooms, and givo to extricate our servant out of financial difficulties. the management to capallo tenants, and there will

The statement that the Druzes receive no return be no lack of support from the public. for their hospitality sounds patriarchal in books, but Mr. Corbett's experience in Glasgow with cheap is not at all in accord with the facts of our experience. dining-shops is much to the point. IIe says that When they expect to receive a revolver, or a tele- what is wanted is a sufficient sum, say a quarter of scope, or a pocket-compass, they do not perunit a million, for the erection of the necessary buildmoney to be paid, lest they should not also get the ings. Let these be comfortable, bright, and warm ; valuable instrument. And they are also very generous let the refreshments sold bo of the best; and plenty to travellers with consular recommendations, or with of people will go to them. The buildings shonki bo consular intluence, but they are thereby building up placed each in the hands of a manager, who should a debt of obligations which they will take good lease them from the company, and have the managecare shall be cancelled by the consul. The Druzes, ment entirely in his own liams. A great profit is however, are the most generous, and most hospitable, not to be expected, and Mr. Corbott advised those and most gentlemanly of all the inhabitants of the only to subscribe who would be content for awhile land, and I hope I shall not bo detracting from their with a dividend of four per cent. Tho Earl of virtues when I say that we shall be ablo to pay in Shaftesbury, in addressing the meeting when the full for everything wo receive in the IIauran.

company was formed, said what was wanted was fairly to start the working man, and then leave him to fight his own battle. Let the company place itself in the same relation to its managers that the brewer

did to the publican, and then leave the control of COFFEE-HOUSES FOR THE PEOPLE.

affairs in their hands, only stipulating that the café

be conducted on strictly temperance principles. A

COMPANY has been formed under the name

of The People's Cafó Company,” for establishing clubs or refreshment-houses similar to Dr. Barnard's “ Edinburgh Castle” in the cast of London, and Mr. Corbett's dining-rooms in Glasgow.

Sonnets of the Sacred gear. Cheap and comfortablo places of resort are sadly needed in all our large towns. For lack of them, multitudes are driven to public-houses and drinking- THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY. bars. Juch drunkenness is due, in the beginning, at least, not to a desire for intoxicating liquors, but

"And the servant said, Lord, it is done as Thou last comto the difficulty of getting less hurtful drinks, and mandel, and yit there is rooin."-St. Luke xiv. 22. the scarcity of places to sit down for rest or refresh

CHE ment. There are now some good cafes at the rest Till feast is readly and the Lord is there, end of London, but far too expensive for the great

And long and far IIis free and gracious call mass of people. Thousands who now give twopence liath bidden the many to His banquet-hall; for a glass of ale cannot afford fourpence for a cup But, lo, their hearts are sold to other care, of tea or coffee. Attempts have been already made And none have come for whom IIo did propare. by the working classes to establish for themselves Pride, business, pleasure, hold in common thrall such places. Of one of those, called the Porteullis Club, in Regent Street, Westminster, the Rev. F. E.

Far from Ilis grace the foolish hearts of all. Lloyd Jones, Ordinary of Newgate, has thus written And now Ilis voice is sounding otherwhere. in thu - Times" :-"The Portcullis Club is a work. Yet there is room! though poor, and halt, and bline! ing man's club in the strictest senso of the word. Have ta’en the place of Pharisee and priest, The ground upon which it stands has been purchased, and beyond hope their happy portion find the materials of wh it is built have been paid for, and the labour has been found, by the working men

Together sitting at the glorious feast, themselves, many of them working until twelve Still sounds lis call, and still He waits within, o'clock at night. Not only so; they have been their | Till every alien soul is gathered in. ofn architects. The whole of the plans and elevations have been beautifully drawn by one of the members. The building, which is very handsome, comprises a large hall, which they let for lectures, musical entertainments, etc.; a committee-room; a

Varieties. large rcom for reading, writing, transacting business, playing chess, etc., and all matters which require Thought and silence; another large room for con- PULLMAN'S Cars, --- The Pullman cars are now well-known to versation, etc.; a billiard-room, and a refreshment- travellers on the Midland Riway, as they have long been har upon strictly temperance principles. The lecture familiar to all tourists in the United States. The first impres

sions of an Englishman are forcibly given in the report of the room has already been engaged for sums which will

“Daily News” correspondent, wino witnessed the first start of pay for some of the annual expenses, and the refreshi- the luxurious carriages on the Midland line. “Entering the ment-bar is let for a certain sum, which will pay for train from one end you were introduced to the parlour car, il other annual expenses, to a person who engages to

luxurious contrivance for short lines and day-travel only: It supply members with the best at the lowest prices."

was a tastefully anı richly decorated saloon, over fifty feet long, The People's Cafe Company want to do for the holstered, and furnished. Instead of the distv; contined leather

light, warm, well ventilated, and exquisitely carpetek, 11ptemperate and orderly population what the great seats to which we are acustomel, there wire arrudinal along Fletcher's memory is in Shropshire, near Iron Bridge, which at Fresh air continually enters through fine wire gauze, which, that place crosses the Severn. Walton's Madeley Manor is near however, excludes dust. The manifold conveniences offered to Madeley Station, on the London and North Western Railway, the fortunate inhabitant of the Pullman car we do not pretend two miles north of Whitmore, 1.6., between Stafford and Crewe. to detail, but the list includes water, soap, towel, mirrors, and Nooton Bridge, another station on the same line, and nearer brushes ; sofas, chairs, footstools ; time tables, telegraph forms, Stafford, is where Walton's old house stands, a short distance playing cards ; boot-blacking, clothes-brushing, and a conductor from the “up” line of rails for Stafford. and waiter sworn to attention and courtesy. Between New York and Philadelphia business men make the car their hotel. They "turn in ” hours before the train starts, and sleep on at the


each side and close to the windows isolated crimson-cushioned wave in a most graceful manner. The bore is thus formed. A easy.chairs (eighteen in all), in which, by means of a pivot, you great tidal wave coming in from the Atlantic is narrowed by might swing yourself round to converse with your neighbour, the funnel-shaped estuary of the Severn ; it is then pushed foror, by means of one of the thousand ingenious contrivances with ward by the weight of the ocean behind ; mixed sea and river which the whole train abounded, you might tilt yourself back waters then assume the form of a wave, which, beginning below to the proper angle of enjoyment. This disposition of seats Newnham, increases its height as the banks narrow, and ulti. left the centre free for passing to and fro, and allowed room, if mately subsides abovo Gloucester. A bore also runs up the one had been so minded, for easy promenading. Walking out Solway and the Humber, where it is called the "eagre towards the next saloon you paused to inspect various snug “hygre." I understand from Mr. Miller, the lessee of the little saloons of the private box order, in which a small family salmon fisheries at Chepstow, that the bore first takes its ware. party might make themselves very happy for a few days. Then like shape at the narrowing of the channel between Beachley, you came to the drawing-room sleeping-car, another long, well- near Chepstow, and a point south to Aust. At this point there appointed saloon, with fixed seats at the windows like short is a ridge, or rather long slope of rocks, over which there is a sofas, two and two, and facing each other. Between them a six feet fall, of a sloping shape, at spring rides. There is another firm convenient table could be planted, and upon one of them great slope in the sands between Gatcombo and Awre, on the we were able, while the train ran at over fifty miles an hour, to north bank of the river, and here again the bore heightens itself, write without difficulty. The tables removed, the seats lowered and the farther it goes up the river from this point, the higher to moet each other became an admirable bedstead, while some it becomes as the channel becomes narrower. On one occasion beautifully ornamented and finished panels overhead, that only has Mr. Miller seen the bore run up the Wye; the wave appeared to be merely part of the sloping roof of the saloon, were was then from twelve to eighteen inches high only: Mr. Miller unfastened, and in moment converted into equally comfort informs me that old Mr. Jones, of Chepstow, has told him orer able upper berths. By-and-by the saloon was restored to its and over again that the highest tide he ever knew in the W'ye normal drawing-room aspect, the tables were again put up, was from forty-five to forty-seven feet. He has never known it waiters entered with snow-white cloths, pantries and ante- to rise fifty feet.- Frank Buckland. rooms were brought into operation, and there appearel a dining-hall as complete in its requirements as the drawing- FEMALE ARTIFICIAL DEFORMITY.—Poor little things, I pass room and sleeping-room had been in theirs. In America, to hundreds every day, trying to hide their littleness by the nasty these apartments are added hotel cars, possessing a regular mass of false hair-or what does duty for it ; and by the ugly kitchen and buffet, with appliances for supplying according to and useless hat which is stuck upon it, making the head look need either a public dinner or private banquet. The workman- ridiculonsly large and heavy; and by the high heels on which ship, especially the cabinet work, of these cars is beyond praise. they totter forward, having forgotten, or never learned, the It is American, as are the wood (finely-grained walnut) and simple art of walking. ---Canon Kingsley. metals, the designs and inventions. By aid of the latter, and a free use of indiarubber, rattling and rumbling are reduced to a MADELEY. - A correspondent at Stafford ("W.J.") corrrects a minimum ; the windows and doors are framed so as to adınit of statement in the memoir of Izaak Walton, ante, p. 152, as to no lateral motion ; and the floors are double, with intervening Madeley Manor. The Dadeley associated with Rev. Mr. space filled with shavings, to muffle the sound of wheels.

A CURE for Loss or TEMPER.-- When M. de Persigny was other end while it is shunted to a side line. They are awakened

French Minister of the Interior, he received a visit one day to order, make their toilet, leave their portmanteaus behind

from a friend, who, on sending up his name, was shown into them, and go off to business, returning at night to sleep their

the great man's sanctum. A warm discussion arose between way home to New York.

them. Suddenly an usher entered, and handed the minister a

note. On opening it he at once changed his tone of voice, and BORE ON THE SEVERN.-A most remarkable natural pheno assumed a quiet and urbane manner. Puzzled as to the conmenon was ebserved on the morning of Friday, March 20. A tents of the note, and by the marked etfeet it had snedenly gigantic tidal wave called the “ Bore” made its expected ap- produced upon the minister, his friend cast a furtive glance at pearance, accompanied by an unusually high tide, in the Severn. it, when, to his astonishment, he perceived that it was simply Anxious to see if the salmon fisheries would be affected by it, I, a plain sheet of paper without a scratch upon it! Moro in company with Messrs. Cadlo and Bennett, of Westbury-on- puzzled than ever, the gentleman, after a few minutes, took Severn, members of the Board of Salmon Conservators, and the his leave, and proceeded to interrogate the usher, to whom he Rev. the Vicar of the parislı, waited the arrival of the Bure at was well known, for he himself had been Minister of the In. Denny Rocks, five miles below Gloucester. At 9.20 A.M. some terior. “You have,” said he, “just handed to the minister a boys perched high in a tree shouted out the warning, "Flood 0! note, folded up, which had a most extraordinary effect upon Flood o!" and then to a minute of her time up came the Bore, him. Now it was a plain sheet of paper with nothing written sweeping with a magnificent curve round a bend in the river.

What did it mean ?" "Sir," replied the usher, Hurrying towards us with fearful force and velocity, rushed a here is the explanation, which I must beg you to keep secret, dense wall of water, curling over with foam at its summit, and for I do not wish to compromise myself. My master is very extending right across from bank to bank. As the wave ap- warm, and very liable to lose his temper. As he himself is proached nearer and nearer, the “voice of many waters,” accom- aware of his weakness, he has ordered me, each time that his panied by a strange and sudden blast of cold wind, was truly voice is raised sufficiently to be audible in the anteroom, withawe-inspiring In an instant the bore swept past us with a out delay to place a sheet of paper in an envelope, and take it mighty rush and the whirl of a thousand Derbys passing the to him. That reminds him that his temper is getting the grand stand. Two angry precipices of water, the escorts on better of him, and he at once calms himself. Just now I heard either side of this terrible wave, swept with terrific weight and his voice rising, and immediately carried out my instructions." power along the banks, throwing high up into the air, and well above the pollard trees, a sheet of water mixed with mud and UNITED STATES' UNCULTIVATED LAND.--In a recent report sticks. We all cheered the bore as she passed, so grandly were made to the House of Representatives by the Committee on Nature's race-horses running their course. In a few inoments Public Lands it is stated that there are yet 1,200,000,000 acres after the bore had passed, the river, which had been rather low of public lands in the country that are unsurveyed. Out of the before, was “full up” from bank to bank, and having previ- vast area of the public lands of the United States, however, ously taken marks, I ascertained that the sudden rise of the after deducting swamp lands, deserts, mountains, and railway water was between eleven and twelve feet. An old man told me and other grants, it is estimated that the whole amount of that this was as good a head as he had seen for forty years. | arable lands available for settlement cannot now exceed 350 to The tide following the bore rose with great rapidity, and flooded 400 millions of acres. Last year nearly four millions of acres the fields and roads far and near. It was most interesting to were taken up by homestead settlers, and the estimate of the see a barge plunge up like a rearing horse to take the bore, while Committee is that before a century elapses all the arable lands some frightened ducks swam out into the river and topped the of the country will be absorbed.


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curable, nor did they possess tools fit for the pur


A gale of almost equal violence to that which AY after day passed by, and Harry and his ship wrecked their ship was blowing, when Jacob, who

wrecked companions began to despair of escap- had been on watch at the hill, rushed into the camp ing from the island. If Jack Headland had lived with the intelligence that a sail was visible in the there so many years without seeing a ship, it was offing. Most of the party hurried up to have a look possible that they might have to continue an equal at her. The general opinion was that she had made length of time, unless they could build a vessel in out the island, and was endeavouring to give it a which to make their escape; but no wood was pro- | wide berth.

No. 1173.—JUNE 20, 187



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