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and young trees. I have seen clearings in the small fraction of the amount actually present. The American woods covered with tall young trees in interments in a limited space around the supposed less than thirty years. But the Indian tradition town must have amounted to several hundreds, would preserve the memory of the place; and if, as though it is not improbable that the Hochelagans, the narrative of the Jesuits informs us, the point of like some other Canadian tribes, periodically disview to which Maisonneuve and his French colonists | interred their dead, and removed their bones to a

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Fig. 16.-FRAGMENT OF EARTHEN VESSEL, HOCHELAGA (NATURAL SIZE). Showing points of the human finger,

of 1642 were conducted by the Indians who pro- common

tribal ossuary.

Lastly, making every fessed to be survivors of the Hochelagans, was the allowance for the nature of the soil, the condition of front of the escarpment of Mount Royal, the same the skeletons would seem to require an interment of with that occupied by Cartier, their Indian informants would have at their very feet the old residence of their fathers, and their remarks as to its soil and exposure would be naturally called forth by the view before them. The story of the Jesuit fathers is that the two aged Indians who accompanied Maisonneuve to the mountain top after the ceremony of founding the new town, said that they were descendants of the original inhabitants; that their tribe had at one time inhabited all the surrounding country even to the south of the river, possessing many populous villages; that the Hurans, who at that time were hostile to them, had expelled them; that some of them had taken refuge among the Abenaquis, others among the Iroquois, others among the Hurons themselves. They were now associated with a band of Algonquins from the Ottawa. Their grandfathers had cultivated their corn in the very spot at their feet, but they had been driven to become migratory hunters.

The only other probable explanation of the remains would be that they belong to the more recent settlement of the Indians above referred to when invited by the French to return. This, however, was a very temporary occupation, not sufficient to give so large an amount of remains. Further, at a time when the Indians were in constant association with the French, and when missionaries were labouring among them, it is probable that their place of residence would afford some indication of intercourse

Fig. 17.—EAKTHEN POT (REDUCED). (Site of Hochelaga.) with Europeans, and would be nearer to the French fort. With reference to the extent of the remains, at least three centuries. For all these reasons, I can I may state that my own private collection contains entertain little doubt that the site referred to is fragments belonging to from 150 to 200 distinct actually that of the Hochelaga of Cartier. earthen vessels, and these are of course only a very The only objects indicating intercourse with Euro

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clay, where they may some day serve to convince | limits, were skeletons which have been buried in enthusiastic believers in the antiquity of man that shallow graves in a crouching position and lying on our species existed in Canada at the time of the their sides, and over each skeleton could usually be marine Post-pliocene. At length attention was detected the ashes and burned soil of the funeral directed to the subject, and a somewhat rich harvest feast. The soil being dry, all vestiges of hair and

of the skins in which the bodies had probably been wrapped had perished, and the bones had lost their animal matter, had become porous and brittle, and were stained of a rusty colour like the sand in which they lay.

With regard to the evidence that the site referred to is actually that of the town described by Cartier, I may mention the following additional points. A map or plan of Hochelaga, purporting to have been taken on the spot or from memory, is given in Ramusio's Italian version of Cartier's Voyages (1560). It shows that the village was situated at the base of Mount Royal, on a terrace between two small streams. It enables us to understand the dimensions assigned to the houses in the narrative, which evidently refer not to individual dwellings, but to common edifices inhabited by several families, each having its separate room. It gives as the diameter of the circular enclosure or fort about one hundred and twenty yards, and for each side of the square

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Fig. 14.—MODE OF SUSPENDING EARTHEN POTS. Outside of angle of

mouth of vessel.

corre

was obtained of relics, which are now preserved in public and private collections.

It will be interesting here to note what actually remained to indicate the site. The wooden walls described by Cartier and the bark houses were no doubt burned at the time of the final capture of the town, which was probably taken by a sudden surprise and assault, and its inhabitants butchered, with the exception of those who could escape by flight, while all portable articles of value would be taken away; and this would especially apply to the implements and trinkets left by the French, the report of whose vast value and rarity may perhaps have Fig. 15.- MODE OF SUSPENDING EARTHEN POTS. Inside of angle of stimulated the attack.

mouth, with head for suspension. In a dry sandy soil and in an extreme climate, wooden structures rapidly decay, and such parts of in the centre about thirty yards. This the buildings as the fire may have spared would soon sponds with the space occupied by the remains be mingled with the soil. No trace of them was seen above referred to. It is to be understood, however, in the modern excavations except a few marks of the that the fort or city, which was quite similar to spots where posts or stakes may have been sunk in those occupied by most of the agricultural American the earth. When the sod was removed, the position tribes, was intended merely to accommodate the of a dwelling was marked merely by its hearth, a whole population in times of danger or in the shallow excavation filled with ashes and calcined severity of winter, and to contain their winter stones, and having the soil for some little distance supplies of provisions, but that in summer the around reddened by heat. Around and in these people would be much scattered in temporary cabins hearths might be found fragments of earthenware or wigwams in the fields, or along the rivers and pots and of tobacco pipes, broken stone implements streams. and chips of flint, bones of wild animals, charred Further, according to the description of the old grains of corn, stones of the wild plum, and other navigator, the town was four or five miles distant remains of vegetable food, and occasional bone from the place where Cartier landed, and nearer the bodkins and other implements. In depressed places, mountain than the river, and the oak-forest and and on the borders of the small brooks and creeks the cornfields which surrounded it must have been which traversed or bounded the town, were ac- on the terrace of Post-pliocene sand now occupied cumulations of kitchen-midden stuff, in some places by the upper streets of the modern city, and about two or three feet in thickness, and of a black one hundred feet above the river. If the village was colour. This was full of fragments of pottery and destroyed by fire before 1603, the date of Champbones, and occasionally yielded interesting speci- lain's visit, no trace of it might remain in 1642, mens of stone and bone implements. Around the when the present city was founded, and the ground outskirts of the town, and in some cases within its it occupied would probably be overgrown with shrubs

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and young trees. I have seen clearings in the small fraction of the amount actually present. The American woods covered with tall young trees in interments in a limited space around the supposed less than thirty years. But the Indian tradition town must have amounted to several hundreds, would preserve the memory of the place; and if, as though it is not improbable that the Hochelagans, the narrative of the Jesuits informs us, the point of like some other Canadian tribes, periodically disview to which Maisonneuve and his French colonists | interred their dead, and removed their bones to a

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Fig. 16.-FRAGMENT OF EARTHEN VESSEL, HOCHELAGA (NATURAL SIZE). Showing points of the human finger,

of 1642 were conducted by the Indians who pro- common tribal ossuary. Lastly, making every fessed to be survivors of the Hochelagans, was the allowance for the nature of the soil, the condition of front of the escarpment of Mount Royal, the same the skeletons would seem to require an interment of with that occupied by Cartier, their Indian informants would have at their very feet the old residence of their fathers, and their remarks as to its soil and exposure would be naturally called forth by the view before them. The story of the Jesuit fathers is that the two aged Indians who accompanied Maisonneuve to the mountain top after the ceremony of founding the new town, said that they were descendants of the original inhabitants; that their tribe had at one time inhabited all the surrounding country even to the south of the river, possessing many populous villages; that the Hurons, who at that time were hostile to them, had expelled them; that some of them had taken refuge among the Abenaquis, others among the Iroquois, others among the Hurons themselves. They were now associated with a band of Algonquins from the Ottawa. Their grandfathers had cultivated their corn in the very spot at their feet, but they had been driven to become migratory hunters.

The only other probable explanation of the remains would be that they belong to the more recent settlement of the Indians above referred to when invited by the French to return. This, however, was a very temporary occupation, not sufficient to give so large an amount of remains. Further, at a time when the Indians were in constant association with the French, and when missionaries were labouring among them, it is probable that their place of residence would afford some indication of intercourse

Fig. 17.-EAKTHEN POT (REDUCED). (Site of Hochelaga.) with Europeans, and would be nearer to the French fort. With reference to the extent of the remains, at least three centuries. For all these reasons, I can I may state that my own private collection contains entertain little doubt that the site referred to is fragments belonging to from 150 to 200 distinct actually that of the Hochelaga of Cartier. earthen vessels, and these are of course only a very The only objects indicating intercourse with Euro

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POT.

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peans which I have yet found, are an iron nail as the earliest settlers in the plain of Shinar must without the head, and with the point rounded so as have done. The European settlers in Eastern Ameto form a sort of bodkin, a piece of iron shaped into rica have adopted houses of wood as their usual habi. a rude knife or chisel, a small piece of sheet brass tations. about half an inch long by a quarter wide, and appa- Neither antiquity, therefore, nor culture are marked rently cut roughly from a larger piece. These were,

by any particular material I think, mixed among the débris from one of the

for building. But the makitchens.

terial used will make a vast I quote here from a notice published in 1861, when

difference with reference to the details were fresh in my memory, a few addi

the remains left. A nation, tional facts bearing on the above points.

** In a

however rude or ancient, limited area, not exceeding two imperial acres, twenty

that has been able to use skeletons have been disinterred within twelve months,

caverns for habitation or to and the workmen state that many parts of the

build of stone, will leave ground excavated in former years were even more

some permanent, nay, inrich in such remains. Hundreds of old fireplaces,

destructible evidences of its and indications of at least ten or twelve huts or

presence preserved in cavelodges, have also been found, and in a few instances Fig. 18.—IINAD FRON ANOTHER earth, or rising from the these occur over the burial-places, as if one genera

surface of the ground. A tion had built its huts over the graves of another.

nation that has built of clay Where habitations have stood, the ground is in some will leave merely mounds. The nations that built habiplaces, to the depth of three feet, a black mass satu- tations of clay in the alluvial plain of Mesopotamia, rated with carbonaceous matter, and full of bones of or the valley of the Mississippi, were not necessarily wild animals, charcoal, pottery, and remains of im- less civilised than those who built with stone in Peru plements of stone or bone. Further, in such places or Egypt. The New England villager who lives in a the black soil is laminated, as if deposited in succes- neat wooden house and worships in a wooden church, sive layers on the more depressed parts of the surface. is not necessarily less civilised than the people who The length of time during which the site was occu- built magnificent stone edifices in Yucatan, though if pied is also indicated by the very different states of the New England village were deserted, no trace of preservation of the bones and bone implements; it, except in a little broken pottery, or a few hearth some of those in the deeper parts of the deposit being and chimney stones, might remain in a century or apparently much older than those nearer the surface. two. Nations living by river-sides, and whose only Similar testimony is afforded by the great quantity remains are a few indestructible flint implements, and various patterns of the pottery, as well as by the may have been, and probably were, more highly abundance of the remains of animals used as food civilised than those whose débris preserved in caves throughout the area above mentioned. All these

furnishes far more numerous indications point to a long residence of the aborigines

and curious antiques. Our on this spot, while the almost entire absence of arti

Hochelagans

were woodcles of European manufacture in the undisturbed

builders. Bark peeled from portions of the ground, implies a date coeval with

trees in wide sheets, and supthe discovery of the country. The few objects of

ported on poles, forms the this kind found in circumstances which prevented

cheapest and most comfortthe supposition of mere superficial intermixture, are

able abode for dwellers in just sufficient to show that the village existed until

the forest, and the people of the appearance of Europeans on the stage." On

Hochelaga had houses of this the whole, the situation and the remains found not

kind with several rooms, and only establish the strongest probability that this is

an upper story to be used as the veritable site, but serve to vindicate Cartier's

a granary. They were, posnarration from the doubts cast upon it by subsequent

sibly, more comfortable and explorers, who visited the country after Hochelaga

suited to the habits of their had disappeared.

builders than the huts of mud Since the days when Cain went forth as the first

and rough stone occupied by emigrant and built a city, defence and shelter have

thousands of the peasants of ranked among the primary wants of man. The Fig. 19.-HEAD IN POTTERT. modern Europe. Their habimeans by which they are secured depend partly on

tations belonged to a type the state of civilisation which may have been reached which seems to have been nearly universal among and partly on the materials at hand, but chiefly on the more settled populations of America, and which the latter. In rocky regions, caverns and over- Morgan has shown to be connected with peculiar hanging ledges afford the most convenient shelter, customs of patriarchal communism akin to those of and stones afford the materials of cyclopean walls for which traces remain in the tribes and gentes of early defence. On treeless alluvial plains the nomad makes Europe and Asia. Cartier's plan of a Hochelagan his tent of skin, and when he becomes settled has house as given below (Fig 20), shows a series of rooms recourse to earthen walls or sun-dried brick. In surrounding a central hall, in which was a fireplace. forest countries wood or bark forms the most con- Now we know from the customs of the Iroquois and venient material, whether for savage or civilised Hurons, as described by Champlain and other early nations. The American tribe of the Moquis, in the French explorers, that each room was occupied by a rocky table-lands of New Mexico, build stone struc- family, while all the families in the house had the tures as massive as any ordinarily constructed by cooking-place in common, and cultivated their corucivilised man. The modern inhabitants of the plain fields and went on hunting expeditions in common. of the Euphrates use brick and sun-dried clay exactly In such a community, according to the ancient

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F. COMMON FIRE.

American idea of “women's rights," all the women | adopted, the necessity was avoided of digging deep were related—the husbands might be, probably of holes for the palisades, or of building a rampart of necessity were, of different tribes. In some of the earth about them, and the only danger to which such Indian nations, indeed, communal houses of even a structure was exposed, that of fire, was much greater size and with several fires were used. The obviated by the inclined position of the palisades. stone “Pueblos” of the Moquis are of this character. Still a wall of this kind would perish in no very great

number of years, even if it escaped destruction by fire, and if not renewed would soon leave no trace behind.

Vessels for collecting provisions and cooking food R R R

are primary requirements of man in every stage of

civilisation or barbarism. Here again the material H

is not characteristic of particular stages so much as of opportunities, and may be perishable or the re

verse. In Central America the Spaniards found R

R
F

some nations not very far advanced in civilisation
whose ordinary utensils were of gold. On the other
hand, many tribes had merely earthen vessels, and

some were destitute of these and used baskets or bark Pig. 20. —PLAN OP HOCHELAGAN HOUSE FOR FIVE FAMILIES. (after vessels only. The latter were especially characteristic Cartier.) R. ROOMS, HALL.

of nomadic tribes and of parties making long expedi

tions. People without beasts of burden or conveyances The winter houses of the Greenlanders are on the of any kind other than canoes, could not safely or same plan, which Nilsson has shown is that also of conveniently transport with them heavy and fragile the "gallery graves" and gallery houses of Sweden. vessels. To them, therefore, the potter's art was

” Further, as Morgan has proved, the so-called palaces unsuited; but so soon as such tribes became settled of Mexico, Yucatan, and Peru, were merely large they would adopt earthenware as the most cheap and communistic edifices, each occupied by a whole tribe, convenient vessels. A tribe, therefore, of roving whose members lived in common, and were related habits, or living in a region where it was necessary by a bond of consanguinity dependent on descent to make periodical migrations, might be destitute of through the female line.* It seems not impossible pottery, though they might have vessels of wood, that the tradition of the Tower of Babel includes basket-work, or bark, more neatly and artificially the construction of a huge communistic building on constructed than the clay pots of more settled tribes. this plan, intended to bind together the early tribes Still, the latter would leave a monument of their art of men in a communistic league, and investigations in the débris of their pottery which would be wholly should be made as to the probability of similar wanting in the case of the former. Further, tho arrangements among the cave-dwellers and other pottery of primitive tribes is of a sort which speedily primitive inhabitants of Europe. At this day there becomes disintegrated in a wet soil or ground up by remain Pueblos of this kind on the table-lands of attrition, so that river-side tribes might leave no siga New Mexico, where they are inhabited by the Moqui of it, when it might be met with abundantly in the tribes; and ruined edifices of the same type, known old residences of cavern and upland tribes. to have been occupied by the ancestors of these people The Hochelagans were potters, and, as we know to at the time of the Spanish conquest, are from 300 to have been the case with other tribes, this art was 400 feet in length, with four to seven stories of stone probably practised by the women, and the vessels, rooms rising in successive terraces, and one of these formed by hand without the aid of a wheel, were is said to have been capable of lodging 600 families. imperfectly baked in a rude oven or fireplace conWhen we come to consider the domestic institutions of these people, and to compare them with those of prehistoric Europe, we shall have occasion to return to this subject.

Instead of a rampart of earth, perhaps with palisades on top like those of the forts of the Iroquois and the Mound-builders, the Hochelagans had a wall framed of wood, a gigantic public work to be executed by a tribe destitute of metallic tools. If we understand rightly Cartier's description, the rampart of the town consisted of a central support of vertical palisades, with an outer row inclined inwards and resting on this, and a similar inclined row supporting it within. It must have been made, not of planks or boards, but of unhewed logs, each about twenty feet in length, cut with stone hatchets and carried on men's shoulders. By the plan of construction

Fig. 21.- EARTHEN POT FOUND ON THE UPPER OTTAWA, AND NOW IN

THE MUSEUM OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF MONTREAL It seems in every way probable that tribes whose families combined

(REDUCED). to erect such structures as the Swiss lake habitations, retained the primitive tribal communism). Their houses as restored, for example in the papers of Mr. Walker ("Leisure flour," Nov. 1873), resemble the long structed for the purpose. Their process for preparhouses" of the Iroquois, and Sir John Lubbock has figured in his " Prehistoric Times” what he regards as a clay model of a lake hamlet, which ing the clay was that which seems to have been in the essential features of its plan is similar to the houses of Hochelaga.

practised anciently all over the world, and is still

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