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equally to his own case, though he did not say so. wrecked might possibly be one and the same person, He had omitted on the previous evening mentioning and if so, from Jack's account he was undoubtedly a his meeting with Gaffin. He now did so, remarking: villain capable of any crime.

“I understood that he was the leader of the party Having seen May enter Halliburt's cottage, he carrying off the young fisherman, but he assured me rode to the Texford Arms and put up his horse, rethat he knew nothing of the matter, and was several solving to wait in the neighbourhood till she should miles distant when it occurred."

again come out; he would then have time to get “I almost wish that he had been of the party, if back and mount his horse, which he told the ostler such is the case, for if he remains here, I fear that to keep saddled, and to follow her. our May will be exposed to danger," said Miss Jane. He in the meantime took a few turns on the pier,

Surely no one would venture to injure a young and got into conversation with two or three of the lady living with you," observed Headland.

old seafaring men who were standing about; the Miss Jane then told him of the annoyance to which younger were at sea in their boats, or had gone May had been subjected from Gaffin's son.

home after the night's fishing. He made inquiries Headland naturally felt indignant.

about the man he had just met. They all repeated Strong measures must be taken to get this man the same story; their opinion was that he had been Gaffin and his son out of the way,” he remarked. a pirate, or something of that sort, on the Spanish As soon as Harry returns we will see what can be | Main, or in other distant seas, and having for a done; in the meantime I will ride down to the cot- wonder escaped, he had returned home to follow a tage and ascertain that your young friend has reached more peaceful and less dangerous calling, thouglı it in safety, and will wait to escort her back.” still in reality unreformed and quite ready to break

He soon caught sight of her at about half-way to the laws of his country. From the description they Adam's cottage.

At the same moment a person re- gave of his wife, Headland thought that she must sembling the man who had spoken to him on the have been an Oriental, and this strengthened his previous night appeared, and seemed about to address idea that he was the man of whom Jack had spoken. May, who quickened her pace, when catching sight Had he inquired about the Halliburts he might have of Headland, he apparently thought better of it and learned the particulars of May's early history, but advanced to meet him.

he still remained under the impression that she was Good-day, Captain Headland," said the man, a ward of the Miss Pembertons, and had merely looking up at him with cool assurance; “your friend come down to visit the dame, as she would any other Mr. Harry Castleton will have a long chase after the of the villagers suffering from sickness or sorrow. lugger--a wild-goose chase I suspect it will prove. Notwithstanding Gatlin's assertion that he knew I have been inquiring into the truth of the story you nothing about Jacob being carried off, the men wereheard, and I find that it was spread by a wretched certain that though he might not have been present, old mad woman whom the people about here take to it had been done at his instigation, as his crew were be a witch. The sooner she is ducked in the sea known to be ready to engage in any daring underand proved to be an ordinary mortal who has lost taking he might suggest. They, however, feared her senses, the better. It is disagreeable for a man that there was very little prospect of the lugger in my position to have his character belied in this being captured. way.

“ That mate of his would sooner run her under We certainly heard a story from a mad woman, water or blow her up than let a king's officer come but she spoke in a way which led us to suppose she on board, and it will be better for poor Jacob if the described an actual occurrence,” said Headland. cutter does not come up with her," observed one “From what you say, I conclude you are Mr. of them. Gaffin, who addressed me last night.”

Headland borrowed a glass and swept the horizon The same, at your service, Captain Headland. I several times, but no craft like the cutter appeared. have no further questions to ask, however, since you At length he went back to the spot whence he could can give me no account of my old shipmate; I am watch Adam's door for May's appearance. She came sorry to hear of his death. Good-day to you, sir,” out at last, and he hurried to the inn to get his horse. and Gaffin moved on, taking the direction of the He soon again caught sight of her, and followed her mill.

at a distance till she reached Downside. If Gaffin This last interview left a still more unfavourable was, as he supposed it possible, watching her, that impression on Headland's mind of Mr. Miles Gaffin. person took good care to keep out of his sight. After He did not like the expression of the man's counte- waiting for a few minutes Headland rode up to the nance, or the impudent swagger of his manner, while cottage. He thought it would be prudent to let Miss it was evident by the way he talked that he was a Jane know of his having again seen Gaffin, and he person of some education. Headland tried to recollect took an opportunity, while May was out of the room, whether he had before seen him, or whether his old to tell her. She thanked him warmly. protector had ever mentioned his name.

“We must keep a careful watch over the safety of As he rode on slowly, keeping May in sight, he our young friend,” she observed; "and while that suddenly recollected the description Jack Headland dreadful man remains at the mill, must not allo ir had given him of the mate of the ship on board her to go out alone. I hear that Sir Ralph's steward which he had been placed by his supposed father has given him warning to quit it at the end of his when a child. “Can that man in any way be con present lease. He will be unable to find another nected with my history ?” he thought. He cer- place of similar character suitable to his purposes. tainly must have known poor Jack Headland; he When May came in, Headland had the opportunity had some motive, possibly, in speaking of him.” of conversing with her, and no longer felt surprised

The more he thought, the more puzzled he became. that she should so completely have won Harry's The only conclusion he arrived at was that Gaffin affections. Though he thought her inferior in some and the mate of the vessel in which he had been respects to Julia, he acknowledged to himself that.

It was


she was one of the most charming girls he had seen, Headland, may I ask if you have been in this part and was as much struck with her modesty and of the country before ?" simplicity as with her sprightliness and beauty. “No," answered Headland, “I have been very

"It is a pity Sir Ralph could not be induced to little in England at all. I was born abroad, and see her," he thought, and he resolved to advise Julia have been at sea the greater part of my life.” to try and get her father to call at Downside, if Of course, of course, I ought to have thought of possible, before he was aware of Harry's attachment, that,” said Mr. Groocock to himself; then he added, so that he might be perfectly unprejudiced.

"I beg your pardon, captain, but you remind me of Headland naturally wished to be back at Texford, some one I know in former years, that made me ask though unwilling to go without being able to take the question without thinking; you are much any news of Harry. At last, as evening was ap- younger than he would have been by this time.” proaching, he rode once more to a point in the Headland would willingly have inquired of whom village where he could obtain an uninterrupted view the steward spoke, but the old man at once abruptly of the sea, but the cutter was still not in sight. changed the conversation, and they shortly afterAccordingly, wishing the Miss Pembertons and May wards reached the gates of Texford. farewell, he set off on his way to the park. He The evening passed by much as the previous one could conscientiously assure Lady Castleton that had done, though Lady Castleton and Julia had she need not be at all anxious about her son, as become still more anxious at not seeing Harry. there was nothing surprising in the cutter not Julia thought of poor May, who would, she knew, having returned. Sir Ralph seemed vexed at not feel still more anxious, and she resolved, if possible, seeing him, but made no other remark.

to go over to Downside the next day to see her and Captain Headland felt conscious that though Julia show her sympathy. was anxious to be with him, her mother took every means in her power to prevent their meeting alone without showing too clearly that she was doing so. Julia found an opportunity, and told him her father

OPENING PARLIAMENT. was aware of their love, but had said that he would


"HE scene was a very odd one upon which the reserve any expression of his intentions till he had lieges gazed when the two Houses assembled seen Harry. With this Headland was compelled to for the first time in the reign of Henry VI. be content.

deemed advisable that the people should see their The baronet was perfectly polite, if not cordial to sovereign by his appearing in the meeting of the him, during the evening, and next morning he Estates, though little more than three years of age. asked him if he would again ride over to Hurlston. Accordingly, “ the queen, his moder,” brought him Algernon apologised for not accompanying him on up to Windsor, and in a chair, on the back of a the plea of illness. Headland could not help sus- fayre courser," he was taken to Westminster. Mulpecting that he was sent to be kept out of Julia's titudes flocked to look upon the only scion of the way; and but for her sake and Harry's, he would at renowned hero of Agincourt, little imagining that once have left Texford.

forty years later, when a drivelling idiot, he would He spent the day by first going to the village, and be conducted through the city, with both feet tied then calling at Downside, after which he took a long together, under the belly of the horse! “It was a ride over the downs to the south, whence he could strange spectacle,” says Speed, “and the first time see the cutter should she return. Again he was it was ever seen in England, an infant sitting in his doomed to disappointment. On his way back he mother's lap, on the throne, and before he could tell met Mr. Groocock, and begging the steward to what English meant, to occupy the place of sovereign accompany him mentioned what he had heard about direction in open Parliament.” The Chancellor's Gaffin.

speech was quite as odd as the circumstances under "The man is a mystery to me, Captain Headland. which it was delivered. Beaufort, Bishop of WinI believe him to be all you have heard. But he has chester, afterwards Cardinal, who held the office, possession of the mill, and until his lease is up the expatiated upon the importance of good counsellors law will not allow us to turn him out. The law, you to the king, doubtless believing himself to be one of see, captain, assists rogues as well as honest men, the best examples of the class. He illustrated their provided they keep within it, and there is no evidence qualities by observing that" an elephant had three

“ we can bring to prove that he is what people say he properties; the one, in that he wanted a gall; the is. If smuggled goods were found in his mill they second, for that he was inflexible, and could not would be seized, or if his vessel was taken with con- bow; the third, in that he was of a most sound and traband aboard she would be captured and there perfect memory; all which properties he wished would be an end of her, and if it is true that his might be in all counsellors.” Lord Coke drew from people have carried off the fisherman's son they will this source his “ Character of a Member of Parliabe punished, but the law cannot touch him or his ment,” which Dean Swift burlesqued in the squib vessel for that, and so you see he will laugh at us as entitled, “The Elephant, or the Parliament Man, he has done for these years past. But the master written many years since, and taken from Coke's he serves will play him a scurvy trick in the end, as Institutes." he does all his willing slaves, I have no manner of

E'er bribes convince you who to choose, doubt. In the meantime, if he keeps his wits awake

The precepts of Lord Coke peruse. as he has hitherto done, he may do all sorts of things

Observe an elephant, says he, with impunity."

And like him let your member be. To the truth of these remarks Headland agreed.

First, take a man that's free from Gaul, As they rode on Mr. Groocock kept frequently

For elephants have none at all ; looking up at him.

In flocks or parties he must keep, "If it's not an impertinent question, Captain

For elephants live just like sheep;



Stubborn in honour he must be,

the Speaker, said, “Sir, I am the proprietor of the For clephants ne'er bend the knee.

borough of Ludgershall; I am the population of Last, let his memory be sound,

Ludgershall; I am the member for Ludgershall; In which your elephant's profound ;

and in each capacity I vote for the disfranchisement That old examples from the wise,

of Ludgershall." May prompt him in his Noos and Ayes.

The successor of the great queen, James I, rode on Thus the Lord Coke has gravely writ,

horseback to meet his first parliament. That unIn all the forms of lawyer's wit:

kingly monarch went along leeringly regarding the And then with Latin and all that,

spectators at the windows, who laughed at him in Shows the comparison is pat.

return, for he sat as awkwardly in the saddle as he

walked, or rather shuffled about upon his legs. Siam, for elephauts so famed,

Unlike his predecessor, whose speech was short, Is not with England to be named :

pointed, and pertinent, he inflicted a terribly long Their elephants by men are sold ;

address upon his audience, abounding with the Ours sell themselves and take the gold."

tedious learning and pedantic arts with which he

was familiar. It occupies nineteen octavo pages of Happily, corruption has long ceased with us to be close print! He began with “My lords of the Higher an engine of government, nor is there an assembly House, and you knights and burgesses of the Lower." in the world more thoroughly imbued with the spirit But at a little later date, having summoned Lords of manly independence than the Imperial Parliament and Commons to attend him at Whitehall, he came of these islands.

out with an oration which runs through twenty-seven It was in right royal fashion that the Lady Elizabeth pages of print: and this was followed two days proceeded to meet the magnates of the land for the afterwards by a second harangue, not quite so long, third time on Monday, the 2nd of April, 1571. She explanatory of the first. Discipline of this kind was left Whitehall about eleven o'clock. At the head of likely to prepare those upon whom it was infficted to the procession appeared her guard of honour, followed amuse themselves with any odd incident that might by knights, bannerets, and esquires. Then trooped occur in the course of their legislative labours, howalong spiritual and temporal peers, judges and ever trivial in itself. Under the date of Thursday, justices, succeeded by the Great Seal of England, May the 31st, the third month of the session, the and the other officers of state, bearing the emblems entry occurs in the Commons' Journal,

“ A jackdaw of their station and authority. Next came the queen, flew in at the window.” The sable bird was called wearing a mantle furred with ermines, a collar richly omen to the Bill" under discussion, which was set with jewels, and a wreath or coronet of gold, seated shortly afterwards thrown out.

Some two years in her coach, the first instance of the kind on record. later the entry appears, “A strange spanyell, of It was drawn by two palfreys covered with crimson mouse colour, came into the House of Commons.' velvet, richly embroidered and embossed. The In harmony with precedent, but after a long lapse of Master of the Horse, a flock of ladies in waiting, time, a dog boldly entered St. Stephen's while Lord with a shoal of heralds, pursuivants, and trumpeters, North was speaking. Not content with taking a place completed the spectacle. When seated on the throne in the assembly, the animal began to bark loudly. in the Upper House, the knights, citizens, and “Sir," said the Prime Minister, appealing to tho burgesses were summoned from the Lower, who made Speaker, “I am interrupted by a new member.” their appearance as best they could in the scant Still the dog went on with his yelp, and the minister space allotted to them.

Thus spoke the Queen's with his joke, remarking, "Sir, the new member has Highness :

no right to speak twice in the same debate." “My right loving Lords, and you our right faith- The misguided and unhappy Charles I set out on ful and obedient subjects, we, in the name of one occasion to meet the representatives of the nation, God, for his service, and the safety of this state, in a manner which no sovereign ever did before, or are now here assembled, for his glory I hope ; and has done since. It was the memorable Long ParliaI pray that it may be to your comfort, and the ment, assembled on Tuesday, the 3rd of November, common quiet of our, yours, and all ours for ever." 1640. Preparation for the commencement of the

The Chancellor then stated the cause of meeting, session began in the Commons at nine o'clock in the and directed the Commons, “standing on a heap morning, by calling over the names of the members together below,” to retire to their own place, and returned, swearing in those present, and choosing a elect a Speaker. Their choice fell upon one of the Speaker. Towards high noon the king left Whitemembers for Ludgershall, in Wiltshire.

hall, and, not caring to encounter the gaze of the The opening of Parliament is the same now as populace, proceeded by water to Westminster Stairs, it was three centuries ago.

There is the sove- were the chief officers of the crown were in attenreign present either in person or by commission. dance to receive him. Thence he walked to the There are the Lords in stately robes, but occupying Abbey, and heard a sermon by the Bishop of Bristol. one of the most splendid apartments in the world, Immediately afterwards he met the Lords and Comwith historical frescoes on the wall, and the softest mons, approved the Speaker presented by the latter, of cushions on the seats. There are the Commons, and dismissed them to their deliberations. Many “standing on a heap," elbowing and jostling one were present upon that occasion destined speedily to another as aforetime. But no Ludgershall-never undergo strange vicissitudes and bitter experiences. otherwise than an insignificant hamlet, with the lord | There was King Charles, doomed to die upon the of the manor hard by-now returns two representa- scaffold by a fragment of the very parliament he was tives, to influence by voice or vote the government of opening; Juxon, Bishop of London, the Lord Treathe country and the destinies of the empire. During surer, whose sad office it was to attend his master in the discussions on the first Reform Bill, a high- the last extremity; Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, spirited gentleman suddenly rose, and addressing who had to lay his head upon the block on Tower Hill; Finch, the Lord Keeper, who saved himself Such instances, amounting altogether to from from merited chastisement by a hasty flight to forty to fifty, illustrate the hereditary influence of Holland; Windehank, Secretary of State, who ab- the gentry in largely determining the representation sconded to France ; Pym, the parliamentary chieftain in their respective localities, notwithstanding the and the best debater of his time, whose decease was more popular character of the constituencies, and celebrated at Oxford with feasting and bonfires; the establishment of secret voting. Falkland, who fell in the ranks of the Royalists at the Opening parliament, when the sovereign appears battle of Newbury, often known to murmur ab- in person, is a very brilliant spectacle to those who stractedly to himself and to his friends, “ Peace, are privileged with an interior view, and an attracpeace!” Hampden who received his death-wound tive one on a bright day to outsiders. But the sunin the service of the parliament on Chalgrove field; | shine cannot be commanded, nor is any

human and Cromwell, then little known, but soon to be lord ceremonial, however gorgeous, exempt from the paramount over England, Ireland, and Scotland. possibility of a mishap. On one occasion, a misad

On this occasion the sovereign had the flower of Fenture occurred, of which William iv was the the English gentry before him, while the Commoners victim, when the observed of all observers, who of humbler grade were mostly men of property, comported himself with great coolness and good character, and discretion. A very considerable sense under somewhat difficult and trying circummajority of both classes were sincere and earnest stances. It was the 4th of February, 1836.. The religionists. A fortnight after the commencement of day was unusually gloomy. The apartment fitted the session a day of fasting was observed. Speaker up to be temporarily used as the House of Lords, and members assembled in St. Margaret's, West- after St. Stephen's had been destroyed by fire, admitted minster, a kind of national church for parliamentary only a scanty supply of light, and the king's sight use on particular occasions, hence repeatedly re- was imperfect. He was soon, therefore, brought to paired at the expense of the nation. Three days a pause while attempting to give vocal expression to later they received the Holy Communion, and con- the royal speech, yet manfully, and with the utmost tributed to the usual collection £78 16s. 20. Scrupu- good-humour, struggled to get through the task. lous care was taken to maintain the general integrity It was hard work, and of no uso to bring the docuof the body above suspicion. In the first year of its ment as close as possible to his eyes. At last he existence, Alderman Hooke, member for Bristol, was came to a standstill, completely puzzled to make deprived of his seat for being concerned in a com- out the next word, and said, appealing for aid to Lord mercial monopoly. Five others were similarly sent Melbourne, who stood on his right hand, "Eh! back to their homes under a cloud for like greed. A what is it?" After floundering on a little longer, member for Knaresborough, guilty of abusing his wax tapers were brought from the library, upon privilege, by granting protections from arrest to which, in the most perfectly unembarrassed manner, those who were not his menial servants, of course he addressed the assembly as follows: "My lords for a monetary consideration, was ignominiously and gentlemen,-I have hitherto not been able, from expelled. Upon his knees at the bar, in charge of want of light, to read this speech in the way its imthe serjeant-at-arms, the jobber listened to his doom: portance deserves; but as lights are now brought me, “ Resolved. That the House holds Mr. Henry Ben- I will read it again from the commencement, and son unfit and incapable ever to sit in Parliament, or in a way which, I trust, will command your attento be a member of this House hereafter. That the tion." Speaker shall issue his warrant for a new writ to be With an unfaltering voice ho read through the directed to the sheriff of Yorkshire for electing state paper, and was distinctly audible to his hearers another burgess to serve

in his stead : Exit from the beginning to the end. The next year he Benson.

Though upwards of two hundred and thirty years have elapsed since the opening of this famous parliament, yet many of its original members have been represented by direct lineal descendants at every THE NEW WORLD AND THE OLD: subsequent ceremonial of the kind, not unfrequently

AMERICAN ILLUSTRATIONS OF EUROPEAN ANTIQUITIES. returned by the same places for which their ancestors were elected. few examples may be given from

the muster-roll of the new House of Commons.

Sat for

site of Hochelaga, and it met with no obstacles Ashton (Assheton) Ralph,


in doing so save the natural inequalities of the Biddulph, Michael .

Lichfield. Edwards, Richard


ground. Less than three hundred years, and the Knightley, Richard.


clearing of the young forest which must have covered Lloyd, Walter.

Cardiganshire. the site, and the ploughing of the fields, had sufficed Noel, Hon. Baptist .


to remove all traces except those which might reOnslow, Sir R.


main beneath the greensward. Thus, its very NEW PARLIAMENT, 1874.

place unknown, the old city reposed until the bones Sits for

of its sleeping inhabitants were disturbed by the Assheton, Ralph


excavations of streets and foundations of houses. Biddulph, Michael

Herefordshire. For some time this work proceeded without any Edwards, Richard


attention being givon to the antiquities uncovered. Knightley, Sir R..

s Northamptonshire. In levelling

the ground large quantities of sand were Lloyd, Sir T..

Cardigan. Noel, 'Hon. Gerard :


removed to be used in making mortar, and the workOnslow, Denzil


men merely reburied the bones in the underlying


was no more.



clay, where they may some day serve to convince | limits, were skeletons which have been buried in enthusiastic believers in the antiquity of man that shallow graves in a crouching position and lying on our species existed in Canada at the time of the their sides, and over each skeleton could usually be marine Post-pliocene. At length attention was detected the ashes and burned soil of the funeral directed to the subject, and a somewhat rich harvest feast. The soil being dry, all vestiges of hair and

of the skins in which the bodies had probably been wrapped had perished, and the bones had lost their animal matter, had become porous and brittle, and were stained of a rusty colour like the sand in which they lay.

With regard to the evidence that the site referred to is actually that of the town described by Cartier, I may mention the following additional points. A map or plan of Hochelaga, purporting to have been taken on the spot or from memory, is given in Ramusio's Italian version of Cartier's Voyages (1560). It shows that the village was situated at the base of Mount Royal, on a terrace between two small streams. It enables us to understand the dimensions assigned to the houses in the narrative, which evidently refer not to individual dwellings, but to common edifices inhabited by several families, each having its separate room. It gives as the diameter of the circular enclosure or fort about one hundred and twenty yards, and for each side of the square


Fig. 14.–MODE OF SUSPENDING EARTHEN POTS. Outside of angle of

mouth of vessel.

was obtained of relics—which are now preserved in public and private collections.

It will be interesting here to note what actually remained to indicate the site. The wooden walls described by Cartier and the bark houses were no doubt burned at the time of the final capture of the town, which was probably taken by a sudden surprise and assault, and its inhabitants butchered, with the exception of those who could escape by flight, while all portable articles of value would be taken away; and this would especially apply to the implements and trinkets left by the French, the report of whose vast value and rarity may perhaps have

Fig. 15.- MODE OF SUSPENDING EARTHEN POTS. Inside of angle of stimulated the attack.

mouth, with head for suspension. In a dry sandy soil and in an extreme climate, wooden structures rapidly decay, and such parts of in the centre about thirty yards. This correthe buildings as the fire may have spared would soon sponds with the space occupied by the remains be mingled with the soil. No trace of them was seen above referred to. It is to be understood, however, in the modern excavations except a few marks of the that the fort or city, which was quite similar to spots where posts or stakes may have been sunk in those occupied by most of the agricultural American the earth. When the sod was removed, the position tribes, was intended merely to accommodate the of a dwelling was marked merely by its hearth, a whole population in times of danger or in the shallow excavation filled with ashes and calcined severity of winter, and to contain their winter stones, and having the soil for some little distance supplies of provisions, but that in summer the around reddened by heat. Around and in these people would be much scattered in temporary cabins hearths might be found fragments of earthenware or wigwams in the fields, or along the rivers and pots and of tobacco pipes, broken stone implements streams. and chips of flint, bones of wild animals, charred Further, according to the description of the old grains of corn, stones of the wild plum, and other navigator, the town was four or five miles distant remains of vegetable food, and occasional bone from the place where Cartier landed, and nearer the bodkins and other implements. In depressed places, mountain than the river, and the oak-forest and and on the borders of the small brooks and creeks the cornfields which surrounded it must have been which traversed or bounded the town, were ac- on the terrace of Post-pliocene sand now occupied cumulations of kitchen-midden stuff, in some places by the upper streets of the modern city, and about two or three feet in thickness, and of a black one hundred feet above the river. If the village was colour. This was full of fragments of pottery and destroyed by fire before 1603, the date of Champbones, and occasionally yielded interesting speci- lain's visit, no trace of it might remain in 1642, mens of stone and bone implements. Around the when the present city was founded, and the ground outskirts of the town, and in some cases within its it occupied would probably be overgrown with shrubs

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