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MATTHEW MORRISON: AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY.

CHAPTER XVII.--THIE MANSE AT INVERUVEN.

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HIAD not been long at Inveruven before I waited | And no wonder, for the minister had had to change

on the parish clergyman. It was only a becoming his coat and put on his wig—there was a red Kilattention from a probationer of the kirk residing marnock cowl lying on the study floor when we within his bounds. He received me very cordially. adjourned there—and his wife had evidently been He was an elderly man, lusty and heavy in body, comforting herself with her nightcap also, and had which unfitted him to be so active as his very scat- tied on her front of false curls in a hurry and withtered flock required of him; but he was a worthy out the looking-glass, for it was all ajeo (crooked). individual, and had their welfare sincerely at heart. She had put on her best cap, too, which agreed ill I preached for him occasionally, greatly to the delight with her greasy stuff gown and black bombazette of my pupils in the front gallery. I soon became apron, which, as usual, were speckled over with ends very intimate with Mr. Macbriar, and often made the of grey worsted thread. manse a halting-place in our walks, in which he But the chief absurdity was that they were seated would sometimes join. He liked society, and there in state, in opposite armchairs, by the side of an was not much of it at Ballanclutha, except among empty black fireplace—for of course there had been the great lairds. He was a married man, but had no time to light a fire-making believe as if they no family. His wife was an inoffensivo, good sort of had been spending the evening there, and trying to woman, but she was no companion to him. Not that look at their ease in spite of the cold formal room she had been inferior to him in social position, for and their red faces and panting chests. Poor Mrs. she was come of good blood and had received gentle Macbriar had evidently a pair of old bauchles (wornnurture; but, as the proverb says, "you cannot out shoes) on her feet, which she was endeavouring make a silken purse out of a sow's ear,” and the nur- to hide under her chair—at least I judged so from ture was thrown away on poor Mrs. Macbriar. the uneasy constrained posture in which she sat. A

They were disgracefully slatternly in their ways at pair of newly-lighted candles in the best candlesticks the manse. The minister was constantly grumbling were on the table, and they burned so dimly that about the defective accommodation there-and it had neither the minister nor his wife recognised me till I the usual inconveniences of old houses—but yet they spoke, though coming from the darkness without made little use of what they had, sitting habitually into the lighted room, what I have described was in a small dingy den which the minister called his quite visible to me. study, and which was so littered with Mrs. Mac- “Dear me! what's the matter with you both!” I briar's belongings, as well as his, that it was not easy could not help exclaiming, so struck was I with their to find a chair free to sit upon. Such a confusion of ludicrous appearance, sitting like a couple of playbooks, old newspapers, stockings—Mrs. Macbriar actors in the seldom-used room. was always mending stockings-and woman's gear, I “Hoots! it's just Mr. Morrison,” said Mrs. never saw before or since in one place. They were Macbriar, in lier usual manner-and up she bounced l; very prejink and ceremonious, however, when they and then, sure enough, I saw the bauchlos, and did received company; so that none but those who got not wonder that she had hidden her feet. far ben like me had any idea of the manner in "My dear sir, my dear sir," exclaimed the minister, which they lived when alone.

evidently much relieved, “is it really you? Why, It makes me laugh yet to think of the flurry into when your knock came to the door we thought it which an unexpected visit from me threw them one was some of the Spittal folk come unexpectedly upon night. I had never called at so late an hour; and us, as they did once before. If we had known who

knock came to the door they thought some it really was we should not have troubled ourselves. friends from a distance had arrived; and they were Jenny, take away the candles, and bring another greatly consternated, for they were sitting at their toddy tumbler to the study. Mrs. Macbriar and I supper in the den, and there was no fire lighted in were just taking a bit of supper there, Mr. Morrison, any other rcom.

and I was sitting in my duffle gown at my ease ; I had taken a fancy, the night being dry and come your ways ben and join us. frosty, to saunter down to the manse, to which there And puffing and blowing, honest man-for he was was a short cut through one of the plantations. very heavy, and had been hurried beyond his ordinary It must have been as far on in the year as the -he led the way to his study, glad to get a companion beginning of November. I thought I was never to over his toddy-in which he was always moderate, get admittance into the manse, and at last would however. And truly the study, with its guttering, have gone away, but that I distinctly heard through unsnuffed candles, dirty table-cloth, and general the closed door such a murmur of voices and hurry- hashiness, was a striking contrast to the prejink ing of feet as to cause a fear that something was company room into which I had scared them. I had wrong in the family. When the door was at length a hearty laugh to myself over this scene on my way opened, the servant-lass who appeared was so scant home. It was singular that a man possessed of good of breath that she could scarcely answer my question abilities and considerable shrewdness, and even if all was well and the minister to be seen.

humour, should not have dreaded exposing himself The minister and Mrs. Macbriar, she said, were in to ridicule by such slovenly habits; but few men the dining-room; and she showed me in there, where are sensible of their own foibles. As he intimated, the pair were sitting almost as breathless as the servant. I they were upon familiar terms with me-I was within

when my

the pale of the kirk—and there is a kind of free- see that neither the laird nor Mrs. Gordon have masonry among ministers.

much goodwill to the burden. And indeed it is Mr. Macbriar sometimes dined at Inveruven, but whispered that her living in the family has been not oftener than the laird could decently help; and more than once a cause of difference between them. Mrs. Gordon could seldom be troubled with Mrs. They cannot free themselves of her, however,and Macbriar's company. I believe it was chiefly on between

you
and

me, Mr. Morrison, there's rather a account of this that Miss Tulloch went so much to cross grain in the young woman herself. But I must the manse. That young woman in a quiet, secret warn you to make no allusion to the relationshipkind of way, was always putting herself in opposi- the family don't like it spoken of; and “the least tion to Mrs. Gordon-at least so it seemed to me said the soonest mended,' Mr. Morrison, you unwhen I had been long enough in the family to derstand.” observe things—liking the people she disliked, and This communication put me on my guard, and I expressing opinions contrary to what she held. was careful to say nothing about Miss Tulloch, espeThere was evidently a smouldering heart-burning cially to the children, that reported to their parents between them, though it never broke out into actual might create suspicions that I had got an inkling of flame.

this painful family story. The children did not

like Miss Tulloch's position in the family was for long her, though she tried to in gratiate herself win them, a puzzle to me. She had no particular charge that I and little Missy would struggle to get down if she could see, except that she made the tea, and both took her up on her knee. I had a prejudice against Mr. and Mrs. Gordon would occasionally send her myself, I must confess, though I was sorry for messages by her to the upper servants. She could her after learning her story. But she was certainly be no lady's companion, for Mrs. Gordon would not sly and designing, much given to tale-bearing, and have kept about her a person she so evidently dis- she had an unhappy knack of fomenting quarrels liked. She never appeared when there was com- among the children and servants. pany; and this, in addition to some other slights put It was as clear as daylight to me that her presence upon her, excited my wonder, for she had early taken in the house was distasteful to both Mr. and Mrs. an opportunity of informing me that she was a near Gordon, and that they were displeased with her unrelation of the laird's. But at last Mr. Macbriar derhand ways of proclaiming her relationship to gave me some information which made it all plain. them. I dare say no visitor even of a few days left

She was a full niece of Mr. Gordon's, though the the house without learning in some way from Miss family never openly acknowledged the relationship. Tulloch how nearly connected she was to the laird. Mr. Gordon's only sister had been somewhat spoiled If she did not see the ladies, she could see their and headstrong; moreover, she showed herself not maids. I do not understand what was her object in over-nice for a young lady of family, for she made a this, for such conduct seemed against her own inrunaway match with her father's own ploughman- terests; I can only attribute it to an unusually vain there was a home-farm at Inveruven. The man, disposition and to great imprudence of character. no doubt, thought he was making his fortune; but I learned this from Mrs. Anderson, who did not the discovery of his daughter's folly threw the old know how to act in the matter, being afraid of inlaird into a perfect frenzy, and he disowned her from juring Miss Tulloch by mentioning it to Mrs. Gordon, that commanding that her name should never and yet wishing to put a stop to the gossip in the be mentioned in his presence. A sum of money, servants' hall: she thought I might be able to advise however, was given to them on condition of their her. I could only recommend her to hint a caution leaving the country immediately, and the ill-matched to the young lady herself, which coming from an old pair went to America, and it was said that the fellow family servant in Mrs. Anderson's position, I felt used her miserably ill.

could scarcely be resented—for I was most unwilling Years afterwards, when the old laird, whose re- to be mixed up with the tittle-tattle of the housesentment had never abated, was gathered to his hold. I wondered that the laird did not board his fathers, she made her way back to Scotland-a niece somewhere at a distance from his family; but 'widow, with one lassie bairn. From that time to of course he had his reasons for not doing so. It her death she never ceased persecuting the present would have cost him money for one thing, and great laird, her brother, with begging letters. He was folks as well as their inferiors have often not much afraid she would come to Inveruyen, and he supplied of it to spare. her with money, but he would never see her. She Some people, among whom was the minister, conwas a thorn in his side for years, being never out of sidered her well favoured. She had indeed a bouncing, difficulties—her experience of poverty having failed buxom figure, and a florid complexion; but I could to teach her good management. At her earnest see no beauty in her. I often contrasted her in my entreaty, when on her deathbed, he was prevailed mind with Jeanie Carruthers, for though Jeanie's upon to visit her; and he was then so moved by the face was not one to arrest the eye, its gentleness and change in her appearance—when he had last seen composure and modesty made it beautiful to me. her she was a gay, dashing young lady, and he a Miss Tulloch, I jealouse, took after her mother in schoolboy—that he was induced to promise he would her looks-maybe in her disposition also, for she was befriend hier daughter, Miss Tulloch. She was at fond of romping and men's company.

She even that time a young woman of eighteen, and not threw herself in my way when she could, and at last altogether uneducated, though not capable of earn- almost drove me from visiting the manse by waying her bread by teaching or anything of that kind. | laying me there. I had once to convoy her homo He did not know how to dispose of her; so his heart from it. We met Mrs. Gordon unexpectedly in the being opened at the time, as I have said, he brought plantation, and she looked so strangely at us as we her home after the funeral to his

came cleeking on-the young woman had taken my " And there she has been ever since,” added Mr. arın on protext of weariness, though she looked at Macbriar, " though it does not need a sharp eye to all times like one who could do a hard day's work

young wife.

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that I was sure something was in her thoughts, and it without difficulty. Now here the cause of failure I was vexed at it. And doubtless she told the laird was want of appreciation of what may be called what she had seen-indeed, I had afterwards good" key-relationship;" for the intervals in the key of reason to know that she did.

four flats were precisely the same as in the natural I eschewed Miss Tulloch as much as I could with key without any flats, only the singer, perplexed by manners after this; but it was not easy to do, for she the apparent complication of the flats, failed to pertras a forward young person, thinking of herself ceive this. always as the laird's niece, never as John Tulloch Now these are the two main difficulties that have the ploughman's daughter, and she was very slow at to be overcome by those who are learning to sing; the uptake. If I had not been conscious that there and the efforts of musicians have, in every age, been was nothing about me to please a woman's eye, I directed to the discovery of the best system for teachmight really have fancied that she had a notion of ing singers to appreciate the pitch of notes and their me. To be sure I was almost the only unmarried man relationship to the key-note. It is precisely on their in the position of a gentleman that came in her way. merits in this respect that the rival systems found

Postage was so dear in those days that my mother their claims to public recognition. Mr. Hullah and I could not interchange letters as often as we employs in his system what is called the fixed do, wished. I sometimes got a letter from Mr. Meggat, that is to say, he calls the note on the fourth space whose friendship was not diminished by time or dis- of the treble staff do, whatever may be the key of tance, and also from dear old Adam ; but Archie's the piece of music in which it occurs. If the music were always to his mother, who gave me the gist of be written in the natural key without any sharps or them in hers—reserving the letters for my home- flats, then this do is the key-note; if the music be in coming

the key of one sharp, then do is the fourth of the I wearied for the holidays to arrive. The family scale ; if in the key of one flat, it is the fifth of the invariably spent the Christmas season with Mrs. scale, and so on; but on Hullah's system it is always Gordon's relations in England; and at that time I called do, and it is sung always to one pitch. Thus was to have the play.

beginners learn to associate the note with one definite sound, and though it is not very general to find persons with such a nice musical ear that they can with

perfect exactness retain this pitch in their memory MUSICAL DISCORDS.

and sing it when required, yet most persons taught USIC professes to teach how to resolve all dis- on this system should be able to hit the pitch within

cords except, unfortunately, those which will very narrow limits, and thus avoid the danger of occasionally spring up between the zealous upholders starting a tune utterly out of its true pitch. of rival systems of musical instruction. Those who So far Mr. Hullah has succeeded in overcoming the take an interest in the popular cultivation of music first difficulty; how does he cope with the second, much are aware that for some time a fierce controversy has the more important of the two ? He takes his classes raged regarding the comparative merits of the fixed most carefully through all the intervals of the natural or the morable do; the question has even been intro- scale ; they are practised in singing thirds, fourths, duced into parliament, and cabinet ministers bave fifths, etc., beating time, singing in two and three risen in their place to expound to the House their parts; and, so long as the music remains in the views on sol-fa. The question may be considered, natural key, everything goes on well, and the singers therefore, as one of general interest, and without make very satisfactory progress. But music cannot entering too minutely into technical details, we shall always remain in one key; sharps and flats come to endeavour to present the reader with a brief view of be introduced; the teacher explains carefully why the controversy which has been convulsing the musical they are introduced, and practises the pupils in the world.

new scales. He encourages them with the assurance There are, as beginners know from experience, that there is no difficulty, but the pupils manifest mainly two difficulties to be encountered in the study unmistakable signs of timidity; the classes gradually of vocal music—the knowledge of musical pitch and thin; the volume of sound diminishes in proportion the knowledge of the relationship of notes to the as the sharps and flats multiply; the enthusiasm dies key. These will be made clear by an illustration. away, and scholars give up the hope of becoming

At a Sunday-school or prayer-meeting some one musicians. So far as the writer's experience goes, this undertakes to raise the hymn-tune. All goes on has been the history of classes taught on the fixed tolerably well for the first line, but in the second do system : the brilliant prospect of progress with line, where some high note occurs, it is found that which they began is not realised; those who persethe tune has been begun so high that the note is vere and succeed are comparatively few; and the quite beyond the reach of the voice ; or, vice versa, failure arises from its want of power to teach the the tune has been begun so low that, after a few bars ready appreciation of key-relationship. have been groaned out, every one stops, and the The advocates of the Tonic Sol-fa system adopt singer, sadly disconcerted, has to begin again. Now a very different process. They protest that the this misadventure arose from ignorance of pitch; musical staff itself is a delusion and a snare: It with a better knowledge of pitch the unfortunate consists of five lines +

drawn at equal vocalist would have been spared the chagrin and con- intervals, suggesting therefore to the fusion of a failure.

scholar that the distances between them in music are Or, again, take this illustration: a singer is pre- also equal. This, however, is a mistake; the interval sented with a piece of vocal music written in a key with between 1 and 2 seems the same as between 2 and three sharps or four flats, and, after a few attempts 3; but when sung, the interval in the one case to sing it, breaks down and abandons the effort; yet is a tone and a half, in the other two tones. In when the same tune is presented in the key of C, commencing, therefore, they discard the staff without any sharps or flats, the singer gets through and teach from that they call the Modulator,

a

DO of which the accompanying repre-pound or amalgam, to a certain extent, of the two
TE sents a part. On this the intervals systems which have just been discussed. It retains,
LA in the scale are pictorially represented with Mr. Hullah, the staff and the universal musical
SOL

in their proper proportions; and in notation; it adopts with the Sol-faists the movable
FA singing these intervals, the pupil is Do; but instead of cutting the knot by translating
MI taught to observe the mental effect of the music for the learners into the natural key, it
RE each of them; that from do to LA, for compels the learners to do this for themselves. To

DO example, is plaintive; from do to TE, illustrate the difference between the three systems, piercing; from do to sol, bold; and so on. Thus suppose that a piece of music is placed before. the intervals come to be sung with more confidence a class commencing with the following bar:and certainty than on the other system, the ear

On Mr. Hullah's system this. being assisted, as it were, by the intellect. In

will be sol-faed, soL, SI, MI, MI, printing their music, also, they discard the usual but the children who attempt to sing it will be perstaff

, and indicate the notes by their initial letters ; plexed by the intervals, which are not the same as. time, rests

, etc., being also expressed in a peculiar they are accustomed to sing between those notes. manner, the great object being to make music On the Sol-fa system the passage would be written visible, so to speak, as well as audible. Proceeding thus: M:8|D:D; and it would thus be at once still further in their attempt to simplify the learning apparent that it was part of the common chord that of music, they eliminate the difficulty of key- was required to be sung without the children being relationship altogether, so far as the scholars are in any way taught key-relationship in any other concerned, by translating the music in all cases into than the natural key. The advocates of the third the key of po. Thus they teach but one scale; and system compel the singers themselves to translate the though they cannot get rid altogether of sharps and passage ; to perceive that in the key of three flats, flats in the shape of accidentals and modulating SOL occupies the same relation to the key-note that notes, which they represent with great ingenuity to mi does in the key of do, and therefore to call it mi; the eye on their modulator, yet they claim to have and in the same way by their own appreciation of removed from the path of the learner that perplexity key-relationship to translate any music into that which the sight of music in a key with several

key with several natural key with which they are familiar. This we sharps or flats is generally found to occasion. To believe to be the only true and sound method of the Sol-faist all keys are equally easy, because, in learning music. Progress may not be made so fact, he knows no key but one, the music from which rapidly as in the Sol-fa system, but the progress

is he sings being always printed for him in the natural real, not merely flimsy, and those who do make key. Thus they say they have got rid of the progress are independent musicians, and not mere difficulty which arises from failure to appreciate key- helpless children led in the go-cart of Sol-fa. We relationship; the other difficulty, that of pitch, they are happy to know that everywhere this system is ignore as of no importance ; pitch, they say, can finding favour, and if England is to become famous, always be obtained from a tuning-fork, or a pitch- as some continental countries are, for the universal pipe, or a violin, or from any instrument, except cultivation of vocal music in its schools

, the first and
a
perhaps a piano, for which they generally express most important step towards such a desirable result
an extraordinary and unreasonable contempt. must be the adoption of the only sound method of

Of the great practical success of this system there musical instruction—that which has not as yet even
can be no doubt, but when it is carefully considered a name among us, and which we are obliged to
the success loses most of its value. The truth is, that describe therefore as “the movable do system with
in the very point in which it professes to be strongest, the old notation."
it has not overcome the difficulty, but only evaded
it. In fact, the Sol-fa system is like the system of
interlinear translation, with which students at univer-
sities are not unfamiliar, in which Sophocles or

RICE: THE FOOD-CORN OF THE EAST.
Æschylus is printed in the original Greek with the
corresponding English in smaller type below, by ROM time immemorial the principal diet of one-
the help of which the student is able to secure the
approbation of his tutor for his fluent translation of two-thirds of the inhabitants are so dependent on
some difficult passage, when, in truth, he was not their rice-crops, that with the failure of these, suffer-
reading the original at all, but only the English ing is inevitable. At a time when all the energies
version of it. In exactly the same manner the Sol-

and intellect of rulers are stirred to meet a famine fa student evades the difficulty of key-relationship; involving the lives of not hundreds, but millions of he seems to be singing a difficult passage, when in people, we begin to comprehend the importance of reality he is only singing the translation of it pre- the rice-crop. For the second time in ten years pared for his convenience by his teacher. The famine afflicts the people of India; where, indeed,

. teacher, indeed, is supposed to be taught to grapple famines have been so frequent as to be almost pewith and overcome the difficulty, but the learners riodical. are simply helped over it; and without in the least Owing to the failure of the rice-crops in 1865 one wishing to disparage the zeal and energy of Mr. million and a half of the people perished from Curwen and the other Sol-faists, we doubt whether hunger. In 1868-9 a similar fate was barely the number that really learn to sing, in any true averted ; and in 1770, so terrible was a famine that sense of the word, on this system is greater than 10,000,000 are said to have perished. From Mohamthat of those who learn on that system of Mr. Hullah medan writers we learn that before British rule in which they so persistently denounce.

India these rice-famines were by no means infreThere is, howover, a system which does fairly quent. In a land where plenty and fertility are proattempt to grapple with the difficulty. It is a com- verbial, how, we are led to ask, can such contin

R. D.

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gencies arise? This is, however, a question for | been overgrown. In the district between Charleston political economists: to the general reader a glance and Georgetown alone, of the 30,000 acres of riceat the history and culture of rice, its annual con- fields formerly under cultivation only 14,401 were sumption, and the present condition of the poorer planted in 1866, and of these upwards of 1,000 acres Hindoos, will be more interesting.

have since been abandoned. Though cultivated in most of the tropical and In 1866 the distress of the South was aggravated many of the temperate countries of the globe, we by a general failure of all the crops through drought. seldom hear of rice-famines except in India, and Had the poorer classes depended wholly on rice, as there most frequently in the north-eastern provinces. do such vast numbers of Hindoos, the suffering and And for two reasons. Nowhere else do the inha- privations must have been far more severe. Indian bitants subsist so entirely on rice, and nowhere else corn, as a bread-food, is more relied on by the do they depend so much upon the rains for a suc- negroes than rice, which, indeed, has always been cessful crop. The Chinese bestow immense care upon produced in America more for exportation than for its culture. In Ceylon, also, in its palmiest days an home consumption. elaborate system of artificial irrigation was adopted. For want of labour and capital other rice-lands

In America, whence we have had our best rice, and have recently been abandoned; and the impoverished where there is no lack of rain, the growers never condition of South Carolina is seen in the fact that trust to the clouds alone. Rice possesses the merit | last year 268,528 acres of land were forfeited to the of growing where other grains will not, but then | Government in consequence of the inability of the it requires much care.

owners to pay their taxes. This, however, does not . As Carolina rice stands first in marketable value, the refer to rice-lands alone. An increased levy this rice-lands of America shall be first described. The year will increase the amount of forfeited lands, principal ones lie along the banks of the rivers of which will by degrees be settled by a new populaGeorgia and South Carolina, just above reach of the tion. Not for many years can South Carolina salt or brackish waters, but below the risk of unsea- recover the effects of the desolating war. sonable floods. In the rich alluvial swamps of that A good crop of rice in America averaged from forty district the grain has its two essential conditions, to sixty bushels an acre, and has been known to warmth and moisture. The fields are protected by amount to even eighty or ninety bushels. Owing to inembankments from dykes by which water is let in efficient culture the South Carolina rice has lately through flood-gates. The seed is sown in rows, not produced only twenty-two to thirty bushels per acre. thrown in, but carefully planted in the bottom of The demand now exceeds the supply, prices have trenches, which are about a foot and a half apart. doubled, and exportations are comparatively small; Immediately after depositing the seed the water is lately, indeed, they have been nothing to speak of. let in, and the field remains flooded for several days, of the rice consumed in England at the present while the grain swells and begins to germinate. In time only five per cent. is Carolina; and a glance a few weeks the delicate green leaves are three or at the trade reports will show that while the Oriental four inches high, when the fields are again flooded, rices are imported at from 108. to 208. per cwt., and allowed to remain under water between two and Carolina sells at from 30s. to 408. three weeks. This is in April, when nature is making The consumption of rice in England has greatly her most vigorous strides, and the second flooding increased since the tax upon it was reduced in 1842, kills the less aquatic vegetation which has sprung up and still more since 1860, when the tax was abolished in abundance in the trenches. After the spring altogether. But proportionately as we have had less flooding has subsided, the crop is carefully watched froin America of late years, we have imported more and weeded for several months. In July the fields from the East. It is estimated that an average of are flooded for the third time, and remain under | 5,000,000 tons are annually raised in Bengal alonewater till the grain is matured. The rice-harvest in more, as will be seen, than at any time in America; America is in August and September; in India and but then it is chiefly for home consumption. Exports China there are two crops in the year.

of rice from India are immense notwithstanding, South Carolina has always been the chief rice- averaging in value above two millions of pounds growing State of America. Georgia ranks next, annually. For instance, in 1857 £2,301,182, and in then North Carolina and Louisiana. The delta of 1861 £2,962,497. The largest export from Calcutta the Mississippi is admirably calculated for this grain, in ten years was in 1864, during the American war, and it is now grown successfully in all the warmer namely, 550,000 tons, when, no doubt, Carolina rice States of the Union. In 1840 the United States fell short. The smallest export in the same ten years produced 80,841,422 pounds of rice.

was in 1866, when, as now, the crops had failed in ending in June, 1850, the quantity raised was the Bengal provinces, and the people were dying of 215,313,497 pounds, of which nearly 160,000,000 famine. pounds were the produce of South Carolina, or more On a subject of so much interest at the present than all the other States together. In the year moment figures will be pardoned, and to enable the ending in June, 1860, out of 187,140,173 pounds reader to appreciate the vast difficulties of contendSouth Carolina produced only 119, 100,528 pounds, a ing against a famine, and turning trade from its decline which proved that the embarrassments of the usual channels, we must quoto still further from country were already beginning to be felt. By the commercial sources. Merchants in India have to meet census returns of 1870 we find that the quantity their engagements to supply England with upwards of rice grown in the United States had fallen to of 1,000,000 tons of rice annually. In 1858, 260,000 73,635,021 lbs., of which South Carolina produced tons of “cleaned,” and 33,601 tons of “ paddy," or only 34,277,380 lbs. Before the war the production anhusked rice, were imported from the East; and in of rice in America was steadily increasing. During 1867, 2,778,754 tons of cleaned, besides unhusked the first two years of the war miles of the rice-lands rice, were brought to our shores, the greater part near the coast were abandoned, and have long since I of which was from India and the adjacent islands.

In the year

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