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he could to avert the doom of his friend. And now were kept from the laity. Yet spiritual life could it is not in sorrow or regret that his feelings find not be wholly suppressed, and if the people could vent. “Oh, that I were worthy,” he writes, like not sing in the churches, their voice burst forth in him to conquer Satan, and to depart this life. Blessed the processions" and on similar occasions, or else be God, who has granted us, who are so unworthy, found utterance in the retreat of some convents. We this glorious token of His grace.” A few weeks do not now refer to the hymns of those secret and after, he publishes what he calls, “A blessed story persecuted believers who were outside the pale of concerning L. Kaiser, who was burnt in Bavaria for Rome, like the Bohemian brethren, some of whose the sake of the gospel,” which breathes exactly the hymns likewiso Luther introduced into Germany. spirit of the Ein feste Burg. This brings us to the The learned Wackernagel has arranged the German 1st November, 1527, "the tenth anniversary of the hymns of that period into those which recognise no victory over the indulgence-traffic,” at which time other mediator than Christ, of which he reproduces we have a letter of Luther's, containing almost all about fifty; those which are idolatrous, addressed the principal expressions of the celebrated hymn, either to the saints or the Virgin ; and those which and so seeming to fix its date.

are of a mystical character. By far the largest But this is not all. It was quite in the same number of hymns are addressed to the Virgin, and manner that Luther's first and second hymns had often grossly offensive and blasphemous, the profanity been composed. And this leads us still deeper into going so far as to introduce quito a new worship the inner history of Luther's church-poetry. Soon addressed to St. Anna, the supposed mother of the after his return from the Wartburg in 1522, tidings Virgin, to whom, with application to Is. xi. 1, 2, and had reached him of the first martyrs to the restored Rev. xii. 1, even higher honour was declared due gospel. Two young Augustinian monks in the Low than to Jesus Himself or to His mother, since they Countries—Luther calls them “lekls "---had refused had both sprung from her! It was probably with a to recant, and the Professors of Louvain had them reference to this that Luther afterwards (about 1534 publicly burnt in the market-place of Brussels. While or 1535) paraphrased Rev. xii. 1 in his “Hymn of consternation seized the mind of Germany, Luther the Holy Christian Church.” alone was joyous.

- Thanks be to God," he wrote, We have said that the diligence of a great scholar “that IIe at last begins to show fruit of our, or has traced to the period before the Reformation rather of His, word, and gifts us with new martyrs." fifty Christian hymns in German. But how little It was on this occasion that he drew up his letter of they must have been known, or were suitable for consolation and admonition to the Christians of general popular use, appears from the fact that the Holland and Flanders, and immediately upon it com- first German hymn-book, dating from the year 1524, posed his first religious poem (we can scarcely call contains only eight hymns in all! That was the it a hymn) “about the two martyrs of Christ at beginning of the richest hymnology in the world : Brussels, burnt by the Sophists of Louvain.” Not the Berlin hymn-book of 1842, which is by no means more than a month later, and another public occa- complete, containing no less than 1,564 hymns! That sion, though of an opposite character, elicited a earliest German hymın-book of 1524, however, was second epistle and a second religious poem, this timo not edited by Luther himself, though just one-half a real hymn of joy and thanksgiving: For the of its contents were of Luther's composition. The gospel which had been persecuted in the Nether- great Reformer himself was at that time engaged lands was welcomed at the very other extreme of upon a wider subject — which, indeed, embraced the Fatherland, in Liefland and Esthland, and while hymnology—that of drawing up an order of divine lo would have " the Christians of Riga and Revel” service in the German language, and his first hymnwarned of the trials wbich would assuredly befall book, the musical portion of which belongs chiefly to them, ho burst into the jubilant hymn commercing, his friend Walther, dates from the year 1525. Before "Now, come, rejoice, dear Christians all,

further referring to this we ought to describe the

effects produced on the people by these changes. And sing with gladsome mirth.”

Some idea may be conceived of the general interest These two hymns, as many of those which followed, excited, from the fact that in the years 1524 and were inmediately published in the forin which wo 1525, no less than four different printing-presses would now call is Tracts," and scattered broadcast were sending forth edition upon edition, either in over the face of Germany.

single sheets or in collective forın, of these new What extraordinary effect the introduction of hymns. In an incredibly short time they became German hymns produced, those only can conceive coinmon property. Yonng and old sang them in who are acquainted with the state of matters before public and private, in church and in market; they the Reformation. It would indeed be erroneous to were, so to speak, in every one's mouth. Thus in suppose that there were not German hymns before Magdeburg in the year 1524 an old man was sitting that time, and yet alike the congregational hymn in the market-place, singing them to the people, and and congregational singing date from the Reforma- selling the broad sheets, when the burgomaster, on tion. Neither the Roman Catholic nor vot the Greek his way from church, saw the crowd, and had the Church has any congregational praise in its services. “evil fellow” cast into prison for his heretical singing. What of it there exists belongs not to the laity, but But quite two hundred burghers went straight up to is assigned to the clergy and the choir. If the old the townhouse to intercede for him. Such a deputaRoman Catholic saying be true- Cantus in ecclesia lati- tion could not be resisted ; no, nor yet the two littlo tiam cæli significat (Song in the church means the joy boys who, at the close of a popish sermon in one of of heaven) – then assuredly there was little of that the churches at Liibeck, just as the preacher was celestial joy, at least upon earth. The treasures of going to commence his prayers for the dead, rose to the ancient church in the magnificent hymns of strike up one of Luther's noblest Reformation hymns, Ambrose, Prudentius, and others, some of which in which presently the whole congregation joined, -a were aftewards restored to the people by Luther, practice afterwards repeated in that good old town


whenever an anti-evangelical sermon was preached, I indeed he placed next to theology. His hymns are till at last the Council felt it needful to open the all terse, manly, and yet childlike, full of the deep pulpit to the gospel ministry. A plan, this, more faith of a strong man's soul—the form being always

, effectual and far more pleasant than that of the cele- subservient, corresponding to the substance. Thus, brated Janet Geddes for abolishing the mass, not by there is often a single unrhymed line at the end of hurling footstools at the heads of unlucky priests, each stanza to express in simple language the leadbut by singing them down in gospel praises. Tó ing thought. Like all true compositions, the music come to even higher effects: it is credibly testified by of Luther singularly corresponds to his poetry. Of one who lived close to that time, that many hundreds the latter it may be said that if the object of every were converted to the true faith by means of that good hymn is praise, and its characteristics, that second earliest hymn of Luther

it is scriptural in contents, popular in form, and Now, come, rejoice, dear Christians all."

experimental in cast, then Luther's hymns may be

regarded as the very model, and Germany itself A Carmelite opponent of the Reformer relates how has never superseded or excelled them. Yet they the cause of Luther had been "marvellously ad- are comparatively few in number-altogether only vanced” through these hymns, which, as he says, thirty-six-some translations from the Latin, some were sung, not merely in churches and schools, but emendations of old German hymns, some metrical “ in houses and workshops, in markets, streets, and renderings of the “ Belief,” the Lord's Prayer, the fields.” Nay, strangest of all, such was their popu- Ten Commandments, etc.; only a small proportion larity, that they were even introduced into Roman being hymns proper, partly renderings of psalms, Catholic churches, and some of them actually appear like "Ein feste Burg," and a few wholly original in a Popish hymn-book printed at Cologne in 1610, compositions, like the Christmas Hymn. Yet in the " by order of the Prince-Bishop of Spires."

day when all secrets of Christian life shall be laid After this, we ought to enter into a detailed ex- open, how many of its deepest and strongest impulses amination of Luther's hymns and musical com- during the last three centuries shall be traced up to positions. But the subject is far too wide, and all the psalmody of him whose watchword in song and we can hope to do is, in the fewest possible sen- in word was the pure and simple truth of the gospel! tences, to sum up our estimate of Luther as a reformer of church-service, a hymn-writer, and a musical composer.

It was comparatively a long time before Luther consented to introduce a reformed German service in place of the old Latin Mass. To him all else seemed secondary as compared with

The Curtain. preaching the pure gospel of Jesus Christ, and he would willingly bear with men's weaknesses so that

HE was walking in the spring-time, he obtained liberty and opportunity for proclaiming

in the morning-tide of life, the free forgiveness of sins through the blood of

Little recking of the journey-of Christ. We could here quote in his own terse, strong

its peril and its strife ; language, passages which might possibly be mis

For the flowers were peeping coyly, understood by those who forget that there are two

and the sunshine glistened bright, kinds of “gloaming,” one which goes before the

And the dewdrops lingered quiver. light, and the other which precedes the night!

ing like fairy bells of light: Moreover the excesses and extremes of certain

Not a cloud was in the heavens ; sectaries kept him back even beyond the time he had

not a surge was on the deep, put to himself. When at last the much-needed

For the rimpled sea lay breathing change came, all that was contrary to the cross of

in an unimpassioned sleep; Christ was purged out, the service conducted in the

And the fresh green leaves were German language, and, as an essential element of it,

nodding to the whispers of congregational psalmody introduced. Even so con

the brecze siderable latitude was left, and Luther expressly “Oh! the world must be a paradise, with promises like guarded himself against forcing his own practice upon these ! others. Only this he hated, either to have the old There's no canker in the blossoms, and no blight upon Popish melodies to the new hymns, or else to bring the trees !” in secular music into the churches. His opinion of his own poetical powers was the humblest and most But, though beauty bloomed around her, and the velvet turf modest. He long sought to induce others to com

was soft, pose hymns, and only addressed himself to the task And the budding earth vas smiling at the sunny dome aloft ; as a matter of necessity. Passionately fond of music, Though above, behind, beside her, spread a prospect fair and gifted with a strong, sweet voice, he mostly added

wide, tunes to his hymns, and, in general, revised with Yet a shalow crossed her pathway she would fain hare cast Walther all those which were to be sung in the aside ; churches of Protestant Germany. The life of Luther For a curtain hung before it—to her very feet it rolled, is full of anecdotes showing how sensitive he was to And it checked her looking forward, by its dark and massy the influences of music, recurring to it whenever he

fold : was in sorrow or trouble, and on one occasion being 'Twas her only bar to joyousness.—that curtain dense and restored by it to consciousness after a long and blackdeadly faint. His prefaces to the various editions

For at every onward step she took, it stretched across of his hymn-books, as well as that “to all good her track, hymn-books," and his poem in honour of music, show While a form like Time's reached forth its hand and in what high esteem he held “the noble art," which slowly pushed it back,


Oh! the world is very lovely, and I'm young and very gay, But again the picture faded, and another rose to view : And the sunbeam's wealth of amber light lies broadcast on On a river's bank a crowd had met to bid a ship atlieu : my way;

There again were old home faces, older, sadder than of yoro, And the sky is like a sea of blue—the sea, a blue, blue sky; And herself--she stood the foremost, weeping wildly on the And the foliage quickens vividly, that late was wan and shy; shore : And the skylark trills a melody, midway to purer spheres ; Every eye was on the vessel, but her own din straining And the dewdrops twinkle merrily, as childhood smiles in sight tears ;

Only sought on deck one girlish face whose smiling lips were There's no storm-cloud in the heavens ; there's no moan

white, ing in the wind

Though she leaned against a stalwart form that held her Oh! life's road is not a rugged road ; its thorns I cannot


to his heart; find,

And the maiden wailed, “My sister! oli, my darling! But this darksome curtain mars my view, and I want to must we part ?" peep behind !"

And a voice cried, “Bound for India,"-how its echo

made her start! But old Time paced on unheeding, and the curtain did not rise,

She had clasped her hands across her eyes, for tears were While a voice like music near her whispered, “ Child of welling fast; earth, be wise !

But when next she raised her head, behold! the parting scene For that curtain veils the future which is better left un

was past. seen."

It was now a bridal party, with a white-robed virgin troop, But she answered more impatiently, “Oh, please to raise And the guests in rich apparel—she the centre of the group, the screen!

In her snowy dress and veil of lace, her wreath, and jewels I am sure I should be happier if prescience were allowed ;

bright, I should then be warned of danger-now I'm walking in a With the rubies glowing redly, and the diamonds flashing cloud;

light; It is surely best to be prepared for coming joys and And the stranger—now her bridegroom--at the altar by woes !"

her side; So the air grew dark around her, like the dusk of even. · And the wedding bells were pealing, and the nuptial ing's close;

knot was tiedBut the voice like music spoke no more; -and the cur. And the maiden murmured blushing, “I should like to tain slowly rose.

be a bride !"

my child ! "

She was gazing on a picture of a home from childhood But the pleasant prospect melted, till it vanished like the known,

rest; On a cluster of familiar forms-ono form was like her And anon-she was a mother, with an infant on her breast. own !

In an unknown lofty chamber she was pacing to and fro, And it seemed a festal gathering, like that of New Year's And her face was looking upward, but the look was full of Day;

woe, For her grandsire stooped before her with his locks of silver For tlie baby lay so stilly, in a slumber so profound, grey ;

There was one, and only one, repose, so very pale and sound; Avd her father, bland and stately, filled his wonted house- And she saw the mother knew it all, but wished to be hold place,

beguiled, With her gentle loving mother in her comely matron grace; Though her haunting look of anguish almost drove the And she saw her dark-eyed sister, like a fairer second self- maiden wild, And a golden-headed brother boy, a mischief-loving elf- As she sobbed, “I will not be a wife! I will not loso

And a taller, elder stripling with a thoughtful student

brow: 'Twas a knot of friends, both old and young, beneath the holly-bough

It waxed faint as she was speaking, for no vision lingered And the maiden clapped her hands and laughed, “All

happy then, as now !"

And another opened on her, midst a romping childish throng:
Two bright prattlers at her footstool, and one kneeling by

her knee, WI, the smile was yet upon her lip the scene dissolved | And one throned upon a cushion, in a chuckling fit of glee; and changed

And one tiny chubby chorub nestled dimpling in her lap, In a garden lustrons with the moon a pair of lovers ranged; While another arm wreathed round her neck, and stirred her They were lovers--for a manly face so earnest and so brave

widow's cap : Bent in fondness o'er her mirrored self, grown womanly and Ah! that widow's cap! it told a tale so sorrowful and grave;

plain, Yes, her mirrored self, whose sweet frank look returned the

Round the wan, worn check, and shadowell brow with stranger's gaze,

lines of patient pain ! As the sunbeam woos the leaf-bud forth, and the bud imbibes

But the chubby babe crowod laughing, and the widow its rays :

smiled again. And the maid exclaimed, with arch gay glance, “They're

going to confess ! Oh, they both look rather silly-but all lovers do, I Still, the maiden sighed and pondered, while the vision guess!

changed anew. And he really is so handsome that I'm sure I'm saying She was seated by a siek-beil-oh, how aged and grey she yes!"

grew !

far away,

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She was watching, she was waiting for the coming hour of Then there rose in sight, 'vid sombre yews, a shadowy churchdoom

yard To the fairest of her household flock, in girlhood's carly bloom, Where the signal stones loomed spectrally, as though they For the fragile form lay nerveless, and the chcek like simset

stood on guari ; flushed,

There, engraven on the sculptured slabs, were names of kith And the spirit-eyes were darkening, the loving tones were and kin; hushed :

The vaults had need to be wide and deep for all who slept Then the maiden questioned, shuddering, “The others, therein ! where are they?

Not a gravo but bore some vell-known name; no friend And a voice said, "One is worthless, two are wedded seemel missing here !

And the maiden read each record, but she did not shed a tear, One lies sleeping in the ocean, one is still his mother's As she faltered, “Were there nought beyond the charnel. stay."

house abyss, Who would venture on life's journey ? who would prize

its shallow bliss ? "Drop the curtain !” now she pleaded, but her pleading

Show me something to redeem it from a misery like was in vain ;

this!" For another scene was dawning, as the last began to wane : Now, reclining in a grandam's chair, with features shrink Then a flood of light shone round her, and the churchyarul and old,

scene was hid ; She was pressing to her thin white chcek, a little head of And her dazzled eyes ached quirering bencath each drooping gold;

Tidl; But the liead of gold, the full bold glance, the pink and But she forced lier glauces upward, where a cloud of silvery rounded face,

huo They were surely bringing back to mind an earlier baby Framed a band of angel faces ; erery angel face she knew; race,

And her own was there among them, but so radiant and so For oft she sighed, and her furrowel brow was sailly over

fair! cast,

And she whispered gladly, eagerly, “Oh ! are we all-all Unconscious grew the fond caress, and her eyes were there?” filling fast

But a solemn roice said, “ Two are lost! the youngest With the dim, far look that mocks at space, and pierces of thy seven; to thie past.

And the student youth, with whose liigh aims there

mixed unholy leaven, It was over! life was ended when that changing picture

And whose genins found the way to fame, but lost the

way to heaven!" In the next-two mouruers sorrowed in the chamber of the dead,

The voice was mute ; and the curtain dark fell silently and But their sorrow was not equal--for he mourned for her who

slow, slept ;

And the maiden mused : “My path in life through every stage While the fairer weeper mourned for him, and grieved be. cause he wept :

That glorious final scene atones for all the griefs I bore, For the sleeper was his mother. And the maid with awe

But I've nothing left to liope for now, with all things known struck breath

before ; ('ried, “How strange for young live self to gaze on self in

I shall never taste a present joy, for coming ills I scan, age and death!"

It was mercy's hand that screened from view the future years But the shrouded form that once was hers, wore such an air of peace,

Could we all behold the days to come, and read the That it seemed as though the soul rejoiced at prospect

troubled tale, of release,

The boldest glance would shrink appalled, and the stontest Had lit again a long-quenched light, at the moment of

hearts would quail ; devease,

Oh, I wish-I wish I had not asked to look behind the veil!"

II. E. HUNTER. The scene died out, and the curtain mored as if about to

fall, But the maiden moaned, “I know too much, or I needs must know it all !

MITTHEW MORRISON: I see that my earth-career is run : but show ine what

AY AUTOBIOGRAPHY. became of the student brother keen to climb the steepest heights of


IIEN I awoke the following morning the sun Of the blue-eyed boy of wayward mool and sancy love of was shining sweetly in at my chamber window. mirth?

It was seven o'clock by my watch, and, remembering Of the dear, dear sister ? and of them to whom we owed

that tutors must not be lie-a-beds, I got up. o'ir birtlı ?

Raising my window blind when I was dressed, of the friends, the many friends of youth, whose trusty what a lovely prospect did my eyes rest upon! A hearts we share ?

half-circle of richly wooded hills, with a range of I have passed through all the scenes of life, but have higher and more rugged heights behind, swept not met them there;

within a quarter of a mile of this side of the house. Oh, I missed so many from my path! where are they? The morning mists, with a glory upon them, were tell me where ?"

ascending from the intervening glens, and as they

fled ;

I know;

of man ;


the nursery


glided up the lofty hill-sides, folding and unfolding by-ordinary clever, being fonder, like the generosity themselves in endless evolutions, glimpses of rifts of young folks, of their play than of their books; ploughed by winter torrents, and of lonely grey but they were willing to learn, because I promised, peaks, would suddenly appear, and as suddenly if pleased with their diligence, to be their playvanish. There was a charm and mystory about these fellow when out of doors. Little Missy began her momentary views; and for some minutes my oye alphabet this day, and the little thing took such a eagerly watched for new discoveries. What a plea- fancy to me that there was no getting her to stay in sure it would be climbing these heights, and exploring all their nooks and recesses, in which specks And here I should like to say a word anent the of snow vere still gleaming ! A green slope, on management of bairns. I have ever found it easiest which cattle were feeding, separated the hills from to rule them through their affections, for gaining the stables, which were partly concealed from the these is conquering the citadel. I believe more house by luxuriant evergreens.

The shrubs were bairns are spoiled by severity than by over-indulglittering in the sunshine, as if rain had fallen on gence. Love never really injured any one; want of them during the night and was not yet absorbed. it, I fear, has stunted and withered many a generous It was the latter end of March ; everything had a and promising disposition. I have certainly engreen, vigorous look; and as I threw up the window countered tempers and wills that required a firmi and bent out, I saw that a climbing rose-tree on the hand to control them; but even these, I found, wall was already in bud. The pure, bracing moun- could be subdued by patient, judicious, and steady tain air, which came sweeping in at the open kindness. I have been often pained to see how window, seemed to sweeten my blood and lighten children are driven and lectured by both parents and my spirits, strange as I felt in this new scene. teachers. There is a cry about undutiful sons and

I was in the schoolroom by eight o'clock, but no daughters in these days; I should like to know what one came near me for half an hour. Then the door

was the early training of such. I have known was slightly opened, and a child's face peeped in. parents with so little sympathy for childhood as to I smiled, and invited it to enter ; but it hastily be incapable of taking à toddling child on their slipped away. However, in a few minutes the knee to tell it a story ; who took no notice of their children were brought to me by an elderly nurse. children's games except to complain of the noise They were well grown, comely children, the eldest and banish them from the room; and yet because about ten; and the little Missy, who was the these children obeyed the instincts of their nature youngest, only five. They were shy at first, but in and sought that amusement from home which was less than half an hour we were good friends, Missy denied them there, these parents would severely seated herself upon my knee, and the boys told me punish and threaten them. What loving memories all about their dogs and ponies. I thought it could such mismanaged creatures have of parents better to get well acquainted with them before I and home in after days ? spoke of lessons; besides, I had not yet learned I was over all the policy with the boys in the afterMr. and Mrs. Gordon's mind anent them.

noon, and was introduced to their ponies and other James Willison, the butler, summoned us at niue pets. I thought it would be my own fault if I was o'clock to the library, where the fainily assembled not comfortable here; the only thing I might occafor prayers. It was on the ground-floor, as were all sionally miss would be society, for of course I did the other public rooms. Mr. and Mrs. Gordon and not expect that Mr. and Mrs. Gordon would make a young lady were in the room. I was received me their companion. Her frankness had a certain politely, and felt less nervous than I had expected. stateliness with it, sufficient to warn me not to preMr. Gordon was a fine figure of a man, but there was sume upon it; and though Mr. Gordon was polite, something cold and repelling in his air and manner. he liad spoken to me with that tone which great Mrs. Gordon was a comely lady, plump and short, men use towards their inferiors. When I was walkwith a pleasant voice and way; The other lady, | ing with the boys, I saw him at a distance with his Thom Mrs. Gordon briefly introduced to me as Miss dogs and gun; but I had no more communication Tulloch, and who was seated somewhat behind with him or his lady till dinner. I then experienced backs, neither spoke nor came forward when her the humiliation that my mother had alluded to, for name was mentioned, but made me a slight curtsey. after the cloth was removed I got a plain hint to withA troop of servants, both male and female, entered draw. I never needed it to be repeated, though the room almost immediately after me, arranging certainly, especially when strangers were present, I themselves on chairs on either side of the door-and felt it mortifying enough. I found I was to be chaplain as well as tutor.

The children were with their parents in the drawBreakfast was served in the dining-room, a well- ing-room during the evening, but I was not invited proportioned, lofty room, as were all the chief apart- there. However, I did not miss my tea, the housements of the house. Mrs. Gordon readily entered keeper sending it to my room. I spent some time into conversation with me during the meal; but Mr. in reading, though my thoughts often wandered from Gorion either looked at papers or was silent. Miss my book to my mother in her solitary parlour, and Talloch made the tea and coffee; and from that cir- to Jeanie and Alison Carruthers at their seams. cumstance, and the little, or rather the want of I soon grew accustomed to the ways of the family. attention of the master and mistress of the house It was a very regular house, Inveruven, and the towards her, I conjectured that she was either a servants were obliging and civil. They had a very lady's companion or a poor relation. I was not much active and respectable person, Mrs. Anderson, over taken with her appearance, and from the coldness them as housekeeper. She was of a religious turn of Mrs. Gordon's manner to her I could see already of mind, and because I was a preacher of the gospel that she was no favourite of that lady's.

she respected me for my office, and let me want for The lessons began after breakfast. I found the nothing ; but, indeed, I have been much indebted to children agreeable companions. They were not female kindness all my life.


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