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which I heard the first tinkle of the kirk bell. their hats, and it was a grey day. I was glad to see

, I was able to assume an appearance of composure as that the kirk was so gloomy. In the table seat were I accompanied the minister to the kirk, but every limb several old pauper wives in duffle cloaks and white was trembling. As usual in country places, the mutches, with a black ribbon pinned across them; kirkyard wall, being low, was crowded with male and a few old men. One of the heritors' (proprietors) sitters, who, while taking off their hats respectfully lofts was empty, but to my sorrow the front and to the minister, examined me curiously as we passed most conspicuous one was filled to the door with in front of them. Country folks are very apt to gentry, among whom were seated several spoiled judge of a man's gifts by the size of his bones and and restless bairns. The minister's seat-a square sinews, and look with far more respect on a preacher seat with a table in the middle—was on one side of a powerful frame of body, and lungs corresponding, of the pulpit; and seated there, with their faces than on one of a diminutive and feeble build like to the preacher, were the three misses, each premyself. The minister was a tall, portly man, and I pared with paper and pencil to take notes of the was conscious of appearing to great disadvantage sermon. beside him. And as if purposely to add to my dis- The minister in his prayer must needs allude, fortress, he thoughtlessly informed me that the con- sooth, to his “dear young friend, who was to be gregation was more numerous than usual, owing to privileged that day for the first time to preach the the people having heard that a new hand was to gospel. I did not thank him for it, but I believe preach.

he meant kindly by me. What kind of exposition he I followed the minister into the vestry, and was gave I know not, but when he closed the Bible it there arrayed for the first time in the official gown. seemed to me the briefest that had ever been deliMr. Balbirnie helped me on with it, and made me vered in a kirk. My time I found was now come, drink a glass of wine, a bottle of which he kept in a and with a species of quiet desperation I prepared to press. The wine gave me some heart, and as the face the congregation. bell had now ceased, and the betheral had taken the It was truly a trying moment of my life when books to the pulpit, I prepared to follow him there- Mr. Balbirnie, after giving me an encouraging clap the minister coming hindmost. The passage from on my knee, retired from the pulpit to his family the vestry door to the pulpit was, fortunately, not a seat, and I rose, and with a voice which I vainly long one, and while proceeding along it I kept my endeavoured to steady, gave out a psalm to be sung. eyes steadily fixed on the man's back, that the sight At my request a stool had been placed in the pulpit, of the congregation might not unnerve me at the which I had been told was a deep one, to raise me to beginning. But there was an unchancy half-witted a convenient height above the book-board; but as old wife, who always sat on the pulpit stairs, and Mr. Balbirnie needed no extra elovation, it had been about whom the betheral ought to have given me pushed under the seat by the betheral, who told me notice. She had already taken her place—from which I should find it there and could draw it forward when there was no dislodging her without using unbecom- necessary. There was no time, however, for doing ing violence—and though there was room enough so between the minister's leaving and the giving out for us to pass her, over her I must needs stumble, of the second psalm, so that my head and shoulders owing to the gown, which was too long for me, only were visible to the congregation at the first, getting twisted about my legs. The minister, pro- which must have looked awkward and singular. videntially, got a grip of me before I had either hurt While they were singing, I succeeded in pulling the her or much affronted myself; but she was of a stool forward; but it was a broad, ponderous thing, cankered nature, and though it was in the kirk and and made a weary creaking and straining during the I was to preach, she did not scruple audibly to say process, which must have been audible to the people “Sorra's in the lad !” “Whisht, Jenny, my woman!” near the pulpit, notwithstanding the bawling of the I heard the minister whisper in answer, clapping her precentor, who was one of the most uncultivated on the shoulder to quiet her. It made my face burn singers that have so often disgraced our Scotch kirks. like the fire; but as Mr. Balbirnie on entering the I got it properly placed at last, and when the singing pulpit stood up immediately at the book-board to was over I stood up on it to pray. give out the psalm, his broad figure tolerably screened I never once opened my eyes till I had concluded. me from observation and gave me time to recover I got through the duty with tolerable composure, myself.

and I trust with some devotional feeling also. I I ventured at length to raise my eyes and glance was addressing my God, and this solemnised and round the kirk. It was little different from the usual elevated my spirit, delivering me for a season from country kirks of that period, except in being some my slavish fear of man. But when the noise of the what more antique in its aspect; the crumbling, people resuming their seats, and of the usual coughworm-eaten woodwork was of oak, almost black with ing and blowing of noses, was succeeded by the deep age, and the pulpit and mouldings of the doors were expectant silence preparatory to turning over the quaintly carved. There was a small gallery in front leaves of the Bibles in search of the text, I felt as if of the pulpit, and one on either hand, with an aisle all my former apprehensions were returning with under each, for the building was in form of a cross. double force upon me. Groping in my pocket to be These aisles were lighted with narrow small-paned sure that my manuscript was at hand in case of


accident, I pronounced the text, and fixing my eyes ever a word failed me I must come to an abrupt determinedly on a monumental slab on the wall stop. opposite the pulpit, I commenced to preach, my one That moment, I grieve to say, did arrive, and I object being to get through the service as speedily as fairly broke down in the middle of a sentence. possible.

Whereabouts I was in the sermon seemed utterly I was dubious if my voice sufficiently filled the obliterated from my recollection, therefore every kirk, therefore I strained it to the uttermost, and effort to take up the stitch I had dropped only conprobably this rendered it shrill and discordant, fused me the more. I would not wish my greatest for my lungs are in proportion to the size of my enemy (though I am thankful to say that I am at body, and, though free from weakness, are cer- peace with all men) to experience such misery as I tainly deficient in power and compass. This unusual endured that unhappy moment. There was I standexertion ere long threw me into a violent heat, and ing up in the pulpit, the mark to which every eye in I was constantly compelled to pause and wipe my the wondering congregation was directed, a "stickit" face. Though I had resolved not to look at the con- preacher--name most dreaded by all youthful aspigregation, I was irresistibly tempted at these times rants after the office of the ministry—my eyes fixed in to steal a glance at them. They were all singularly utter confusion upon the Bible before me; my tongue attentive; there was not a head to be seen on a literally cleaving to the roof of my mouth; and the

l; book-board or a wandering eye apparent through the perspiration trickling down my forehead and cheeks whole kirk. On the contrary, every one seemed so as to take all the starch out of my shirt collar and open-eyed and open-mouthed, gazing at me with an neckcloth. I had a vivid consciousness of certain expression of wonder and curiosity. It may have titterings, ill-disguised by coughs and clearings of been the unhappy juvenility of my aspect, or it may the throat, taking place in the kirk, even in the have been the high key in which my voice was pitched very manse seat. There was also a peculiar rustle, that thus attracted their attention, for country con- as if the folks in the backmost pews were rising up gregations are proverbially sleepy-headed, and often to get a better view of me, and with the tail of as I have preached that sermon since, it has never my eye

I saw that the half-witted old wife was standawakened the same interest. This close observation, ing erect on the pulpit stairs, taking note of my proinstead of encouraging, distressed me. I felt as if ceedings. they were all watching for my breaking down. There How long the pause lasted I know not-it might were two places in the kirk that I never consciously be moments or it might be minutes—to my feelings glanced at-the minister's seat and the front gallery it was hours. But the very desperation of my situaone-yet somehow I was cognisant of significant tion supplied me with courage ; and just in the nick looks being exchanged between the misses below and of time-for the minister, as he afterwards informed the gentry above.

me, was in the act of rising up to take my place-I All things considered, however, I had got on with plunged my hand into my pocket, and pulling out the some freedom for at least a quarter of an hour. My written sermon which I ought to have had before me memory had not yet threatened to fail me, and I was from the first, I opened it at random, and commenced beginning to feel that I had got over the worst when, at the first paragraph that caught my eye, though being once more obliged to pause, not merely to wipe quite uncertain whether I might not have already my forehead, but to gain breath, my eye chanced to preached it. I neither lifted eye nor finger from the light on a face in the centre of the front aisle. The paper till I had finished the discourse. I must have face was that of an elderly man, shrewd, critical, and read most indistinctly, for my mouth was as dry as severe. The eye, even in the obscurity of the aisle, a piece of burnt brick, and there was a sensation shone with a keen, cold glitter, like steel in moon- about my throat as if a ball was sticking half-way light, from under a shaggy, grizzled eyebrow, and down it. How I prayed I know not; but after proit was fixed upon me. My mind was in that morbidnouncing the benediction at the close, I found myself state which rendered it peculiarly sensitive to dis- at last cowering back in the pulpit, exhausted both turbing influences. From the first moment I saw it, in body and mind, while the congregation were disthis face exercised a kind of fascination over me.

It missing. was like what I have read in travellers' books about When the betheral came to open the pulpit door the power which a serpent's eye has over a bird. I for me there was a suppressed grin upon his face. had no difficulty in recognising the status of the in- I was ashamed to meet the people, and lingered in dividual. He was doubtless of note in the congrega- the pulpit till the kirk was almost empty. The silly tion-a ruling elder, perhaps—and he was now bent old wife, however, was very slow and hirpling in her on judging this new accession to the ministry, which, movements, and I overtook her and another old in my insignificant person, was holding forth to woman in the passage. She turned and saw me, and them this day. Now, my eye never removed from the unfeeling creature, who had neither the bowels the slab without instantly singling him out among of a wife nor a mother, girned at me with her sour, all the hearers in the aisle. If on any of these wrinkled face, and bade me “gang hame, and learn occasions I had found his gaze averted from me, my lesson better.” The other woman had better the spell would have been broken, but the stern manners, however, and sharply told her to haud look of attention never relaxed. It became at last her ill-scrapit tongue, and let the puir young lad a species of persecution, and irritated and distracted alane." me far more than the scribbling of the minister's I found the minister waiting for me in the vestry. daughters or the fidgeting of the bairns in the front He made very light of my misfortune, and seemed to gallery. A cold perspiration began to burst out regard it as rather a good joke. all over me, my presence of mind I agonisingly “ Hoots, man!” said he, in his hearty, jovial way, felt was deserting me, and though I still continued giving me a sounding slap on the shoulder, that, in my discourse, I was conscious that I owed it to my present weak state, made me stagger, "cheer a mere mechanical trick of memory, and that when- | up! Many a man has broken down in his first





sermon and become a popular preacher afterwards. “No, no, Matthew—do not say that!” said my Think no more on't, you'll do better the next time!” poor mother, who guessed what had happened ; “it's

I shook my head in utter despondency; I was just been want of nerve, and time will mend that." grievously cast down.

"I do not think it will mend it, mother," I said, "Ay, ay, ay! you think it's all up with you just looking sorrowfully up in her face; and then I saw

But I nearly stuck myself, man, the first time how pale she had got, and what a cruel disappointI preached. Go your ways up to the manse, and ment I had brought to her, not merely now, but for rest yourself for half an hour. The session and I her whole future life. have to meet here ; but I'll join you at the end of “How was it, Matthew ? tell me all about it?" that time-you'll be a different man after dinner.” she asked, drawing a chair close beside me, and

I accordingly left him in the vestry waiting for taking one of my hands in hers. And I told her the elders. They were standing in the passage out everything that I have set down here. side, and the foremost of them was the grim old She made no comments on what she had heard, carle who had worked me so much ill. slunk past but clapping me kindly on the back, she rose and them with downcast head. The kirkyard was clear went to the cupboard, and poured a little whisky by this time, and I hurried through it and up to the (which she always kept in the house as medicine)

I stole like a guilty thing in at the door, into a glass, which she brought me, along with a which happened to be open, and ascended the stairs biscuit. She made me take it, and watched me as I to my room. I had taken my resolution. I could did so. not face the minister's daughters after what had “How do you feel now, Matthew ?” she then occurred; and I had a yearning desire to return to asked. my mother, who would sympathise with and console “Better," I answered; and I certainly did feel me. Hastily cramming my things into my pocket, I better than I was. hastened away, for fear I might meet the minister, “Matthew," she said, confidently, “ if those three who I knew would frustrate my purpose. Fortu- cutties had not been there, and if you had taken nately, I met a servant-girl in the lobby down-stairs, your breakfast—which no man can preach wanting and I asked her to tell Mr. Balbirnie that as I did —it's my belief you would have got on as well as not feel well, which was truth, I was returning to your neighbours. Edinburgh. I was glad when I got beyond the “Do you really think so, mother ?" I said, with bounds of the manse and kirk, and then, stealing somewhat lightened spirits. A minister's wife has through the village like a criminal who fears detec- great experience in these things, and my mother had tion, I made the best of my way towards home. more than most.

It was a dreigh walk that. I was weak and faint “I am sure of it, my dear. And now I'll get you in body; and oh, but my heart was heavy! If I your tea, with a rasher of the Culdees loch bacon, had been a woman, I should have willingly given for there's nothing else in the house." way to it, and sat down by the roadside and wept. How tender and loving is a mother! My mother's I was bringing disappointment and sorrow to my soothing words and kind ministrations were like a poor mother. She would comfort me, I knew, but healing balm to my depressed and wounded spirit. she would feel my failure keenly; and it was a total She would not even express disappointment lest it failure, I feared. I was not fitted to preach-I had shoʻıld pain me, but persisted that the morbid state not courage for it. I felt certain it would be the of my feelings had made me exaggerate my failure. same as to-day every time I entered a pulpit. I had With the paper before me I was sure to succeed next mistaken a mere natural inclination for an inward time, and I began to admit a hope that she might be call. Eight years of study were thrown away; for right. the honour of being one of God's labourers in his Nelly brought in the tea-things with the tear in pleasant vineyard of Scotland was assuredly not in- her eye, and she tried in her own way to encourage tended for me.

me too. She had heard in our own country side of Much of my despondency arose, no doubt, from an various ministers who had almost “stuck” when empty stomach and an exhausted frame, for I had preaching their first sermon, and yet had become scarcely broken bread that

powerful preachers afterwards. When I reached the town I stole through byways “ There was ould Mr. Router,” she said, “ for ane. to our house. I was afraid of meeting acquaint- The first time he preached not a soul in the kirk kent ances; above all, I dreaded seeing the Carrutherses, what he said except the precentor beside him. And lest my looks should betray my misfortune. But I yet, during the coorse o his ministry, they say he met no one on our stair when I crept wearily up it. dang the leaves out o' four Bibles, and broke the I could not look Nelly in the face when she opened sides o'twa pulpits wi' perfect birr. Live and learn, the door, and when she said, “Eh, sirs ! Mr. Mr. Matthew-we maun a' live and learn! A bairn Matthew, can this really be you the nicht, and hasna the pith o' a grown-up man, and ye're but a lookin' sae like a ghost ?” I made no answer, but bairn at the preaching yet.” went straight into the parlour. My mother was in And truly, what with their encouragement and the her own room, as usual on Sabbath evenings. She tea, I was greatly consoled and strengthened. Though came immediately on Nelly informing her of my when Miss Betty after worship returned her usual arrival, and found me seated in the big chair with thanks for edification, I felt my face redden as I my elbows on my knees and my face concealed in remembered the little cause I had given to the Kirkmy hands.

land folk that day to make me a similar compliment. “Matthew, my dear, what ails you ? ” she said, in My mother prudently advised me to keep my own a trembling voice, as she laid her hand upon my counsel. shoulder.

««• It's an ill bird'-you knov the hyword, "Mother, I fear I have mistaken my trade," I Matthew,” she said, significantly. answered, thinking it best to speak plainly.

And truly I followed her advice.


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NGLAND at work” might fitly form the title reaching 684,102, of whom nearly one-fourth are

of the third volume of the Census Reports, women. for it shows most conclusively that idleness is very The number of clergymen, ministers, and “others far from being a national failing. We welcome the connected with religion” is returned at 44,562, of picture here presented to us. “Life is real, life is whom about 5,000 are women being missionaries, earnest," it says to every reader, with no uncertain deaconesses, and sisters of charity. The number of voice, while in its most minute details it presents a women classed as “authors and literary persons is record of which an Englishman may be proud, show- far larger than the number of males, standing in ing that we are surpassed by no other country in the round numbers at seventy-eight as compared with world in the application of labour to every conceivable sixty-one thousand. The figures under this head end. And then, again, as we look down this long are, however, probably among the least trustworthy list of the people's occupations, we can scarcely fail in the book, for while a woman who is described as to be struck by the bond of union which is here fur- a "literary person " is very unlikely to be anything nished between class and class. Work is the solvent else, a very considerable proportion of our male which unites us all in one mass. The form of our authors and students are nominally engaged in other daily occupation may differ-here a master, there a professions under which they would return themservant, on the one hand a brain-worker pure and selves to the enumerators. Thus, very many of the simple, on the other a labourer from whom little if novels, the sensational “leaders," and even the any thought is required—but in all cases there is the sterner articles which fill the pages of our high-class same obedience to the same law, the realization of reviews and periodicals, come from the pen of the one at least of the great ends for which we are placed young physician, the barrister, the clergyman or here.

minister, who often ranges beyond divinity, or the Looked at from this point of view, the figures be- government employé, who appears in the census under fore us have an interest for all thoughtful men; but his strictly correct designation, although in all proit is from a somewhat lower standpoint that we shall bability he gains more by writing than by the exerat first invite the reader to regard them. And at the cise of his ordinary vocation. This, however, is one outset we have to remember that the population of of the accidents against which the compilers of these England and Wales, which in 1871 amounted to reports can scarcely contend, unless, indeed—and the

— 22,712,266, is here separated into six great classes, result would be most interesting—they were to with numerous orders and subdivisions. First, we request professional men engaged as authors or on have the professional class; secondly, the domestic the press to state the fact, and introduce the figures class; thirdly, the commercial class; fourthly, the thus obtained in a note. Under the legal class we agricultural class ; fifthly, the industrial class; and find several sub-heads, commencing with the barlastly, the indefinite and non-productive class. To risters, of whom there are about three thousand five arrive at the number of actual non-workers we hundred, followed by about twelve thousand solicitors must look to this last division; and after deducting and attorneys, fifteen hundred law-students, nearly the workers whose branch of labour is undefined, nineteen thousand law-clerks, and nearly one thouwe have the comparatively infinitesimal number of sand law-stationers. In the medical class physicians 166,832 persons over twenty years of age not returned and surgeons are returned together. While out of the under any occupation. In other words, we find that forty-four thousand “ doctors" and druggists, using in every thousand persons there are only from seven the former word in its restricted sense as applied to to eight who are really idle, and many of these are, medical practitioners, we have no less than three of course, aged and infirm men and women, who thousand lady followers of Æsculapius, a figure at might more truly be described as “past work." which the heart of Mrs. Garrett Anderson, M.D., and Looking at the population under twenty years of her colleagues, ought to rejoice. age, the number of non-productive individuals is, of The progress of the "sweet girl graduates” at the course, materially increased, for then we come to the Inns of Court, and at the other institutions frequented scholars and children, who number upwards of seven by those “learned in the law," does not seem so millions and a half of the total population.

general, for of thirty-seven thousand lawyers and Turning from non-workers to workers, the first law-stationers, only fifty-one are females, and these point which strikes us is the vast number of their are probably engaged in the clerical part of the work, occupations. In Class I, for instance, we have a This is nevertheless double the number returned somewhat wide and comprehensive reading of the under the same head ten years ago. The work of term “professional.' We are accustomed in every- teaching still continues to attract the greatest proday life to talk of the learned professions," while we portion of female labour, nearly three-fourths of the also speak of the naval and military services under the hundred and twenty-seven thousand teachers being same category, but in the census under this head we find women, while considerably more than a quarter of the lawyer classed with the barrister and the law- these ladies are under twenty years of age, a fact sadly stationer, the druggist with the physician and surgeon, suggestive of the breaking up of happy homes by & still larger class of "authors, literary persons, and death or distress, which is the too frequent cause of students," followed by artists, musicians, actors, this form of woman's work. The number of actors teachers, and scientific persons. These, then, are and actresses is slowly increasing, but the total regarded as the professional classes of English society, number of persons employed on the stage is little and numerically they form its smallest division, only more than seven thousand. Looking at the return

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of musicians one might almost fancy the old assertion a corresponding ratio to the increase of the popula- . that “the English are not a musical people” to be tion, but to a far greater extent, thus showing that a delusion or a fond invention of some jealous the real cause of the present scarcity is rather an foreigner, for we have nearly nineteen thousand increase in the demand than any falling off in the persons who thus describe themselves. Unfortu- supply. In a word, the number of persons who can nately, however, is by no means necessary for a afford, or think they can afford, to have what our musician to have a practical acquaintance with the American cousins call “ a help," has risen so largely art, or even to be a votary of St. Cecilia, for common that the ordinary provision of the country is inexperience proves

that any man or woman who can sufficient. Thus if we go back to 1831, when our teach the rudiments of pianoforte-playing considers population in round numbers was fourteen millions, it right to put a brass plato on the door with we find that the number of female servants was only those ambitious words “Professor of Music” upon a little over half a million, whereas in 1871, with it. There is no branch of art or science wlich our twenty-two millions of people-an increase of is so pretentiously invaded by the worst form of one half—we have more than a million and a quarter quackery as the musical art; and we believe that it servants, more than double the supply of forty years would not be by any means an act of injustice to ago. We shall realise this proportion still more deduct at least half the number of those who de- clearly if, instead of looking at the number of servants grade the name of music by styling themselves its in comparison with the whole population, we contrast “professors.” All other professions are fenced it with the female population only. In 1831, oneround by some securities against fraud, but in this thirteenth of our women and girls were servants; in case the title is self-assumed too often by those who 1861, one-tentlı ; while in 1871 the proportion was have not the slightest claim to it.

one-ninth, a very noteworthy evidence not only that We have very little comfort to give to those ladies domestic service has by no means lost its popularity who cling with affection to the old-fashioned term an occupation, but that the available incomes "blue-stocking," and who regarà a scientific woman of the people are increasing, although it by no

, as a most desirable acquisition to society. Among means follows that this is the wisest way of the six thousand "scientific persons” only forty-nine expending them ; rather, we are inclined to believe are females, and it is difficult to imagine the exact that there is a tendency to sacrifice comfort for the function by which even this small number of ladies sake of “ appearances." In many a family of the manages to obtain, or expects to obtain, a liveihood. lower middle classes, where comforts were secured in

The strength of our army shows an increase of days gone by through the good offices of the nearly three thousand on the previous census, standing daughters of the household, under the guidance of at 93,793, while the navy's effective force is returned tho “gudewife,” there is now to be found a partial at 42,698, also an increase of about the same number if not a total absence of the old-fashioned homeas compared with 1861. In leaving this branch of liness, which was a bright feature in the English the subject, a line must suffice to state that more than life of the past generation. But leaving the moral a hundred thousand persons are employed in the of the tale to preach its own sermon, to which we various offices of the imperial and local government, trust our readers will not turn a deaf ear, we must including the civil service, the poor-law officials, pass on to note the third, or commercial class, which and all who directly or indirectly servo “under the includes about one-twenty-eighth part of the whole Crown."

population. The second, or domestic class, is, as might have Under this head we at once find a clear index to been expected, the most numerous, except the in- the progress of the country, not merely in regard to definite, or non-productive class, already alluded to those who are what is termed “mercantile persons, Of the total number of 5,905,171 individuals under including merchants properly so called, bankers, inthis head, nearly a quarter of the whole population, surance-office clerks, brokers, salesmen, accountants, the majority are women under the separate divisions commercial travellers, and all who are employed in of wives and others mainly engaged in household the great buying and selling work of the nation, but duties; wives assisting generally in their husbands' more especially in the case of persons engaged in the business; persons engaged in board and lodging; conveyance of men, animals, goods, and messages, and domestic servants. The latter division includes who are arranged in an "order" by themselves. the large number of more than a million and a IIere we look in vain for the postboy of days of yore, quarter of women and girls, and 157,000 men. while the genus “donkey-driver'' has altogether There is, perhaps, no part of the census which fur- disappeared, although he is still to be found in nishes a clearer indication of the increased and in propriâ personá at our holiday resorts, Perhaps this creasing prosperity of the nation than this return is, as the late Charles Knight remarked when he of domestic servants, while at the same timo it offers found only eighty-seven members of this fraternity an explanation of the dearth of cooks, housen aids, returned in the census of 1861, "owing to the uniand nurses, of which we are so constantly reminded. versal desire to have a genteel occupation recorded in People, in fact, are in the habit of talking upon this the consus; at any rate, the fact is evident, and the subject without considering for a moment what are donkey-driver, appearing as a commercial man, now the true bearings of the case; and when they argue seems as extinct as the postboy. that because they find some difficulty in obtaining A still more marked change is noticeable in the servants, therefore the supply is falling short, they list of those who form what may be described as the are making what the census proves to be an alto great carrying department of the country. Here we gether baseless assertion. Instead of there being see at once the enormous growth of our railway any falling-off in the number of women and girls system, which in the days of the earlier censuses had who devote themselves year after year to “service, no existence, while the number employed on canal as it is technically called, we find, on the other hand, traflic is diminishing in a corresponding degree. that the number has steadily increased, not merely in | Even in the ten years between 1861 and 1871, the

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