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the ordinary posca, or sour drink of the legionaries, | Epistle to the Hebrews, at a time when the Temple when Jesus on the cross cried “I thirst” (Matt. was yet standing and its sacrifices offered, says, xxvii. 48; Mark xv. 36; Luke xxiii. 36).
respecting the sin-offering, “the bodies of those 8. The language of the evangelists seems to imply beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by that the procession, on leaving the judgment hall
, the high priest for sin, are burned without the passed not through the city, but outside it (Mark xv. camp. Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify
, 20; Luke xxiii. 26; John xix. 17).
the people with his own blood, suffered without the The present site fails to satisfy any one of these the gate” (Hebrews xiii. 11, 12). Not merely “a conditions. It is not only far within the walls, but gate,” but “ the gate" through which the bodies of apparently must have been so in the time of our the sacrifices were carried out to be burned. The Lord, when the city was much larger and more great sin-offering for the world was thus led forth to populous than now; though in the time of Con- be crucified, through the very gate and in sight of stantine, when the walls were demolished and the very spot in which the typical sacrifices had been the city desolate, it may have been outside the burned in the Valley of Hinnom. Again, the inhabited district. Even if by any sudden bend or rending of the veil at the moment of our Lord's re-entering angle the line of circumvallation left it death gains a new significance if this view be adopted. outside, which, however, is very unlikely, it must The Temple, as we know, opened to the east; it still have been in the midst of houses, for we find would be within sight of Calvary. How striking, that Agrippa, ten years afterwards, constructed a third how suggestive, that the typical veil should thus be line of wall to enclose extensive suburb "rent in twain from the top throughout,” just when which had sprung up on this side; and we know “we received boldness to enter into the holiest by the that the ceremonial law and social usages of blood of Jesus by a new and living way, which he the Jews forbade the formation of graves among the consecrated for us, through the veil
, that is to say, abodes of the living. Where could the priests have his flesh” (Matt. xxvii. 51; Mark xv. 38; Luke stood who so feared defilement that they would not xxiii. 45; Heb. x. 19, 20). And yet further, the enter the judgment hall ? (John xviii. 28). Amongst fact that the place of our Lord's death, burial, a crowd of Roman soldiers and rabble, and in a place and resurrection was in close proximity to the of public execution and interment, they must have Temple, would give additional significance to the been defiled. If, as seems certain, houses were all taunt of those that passed by, saying, Thou round the present site, where could the great multi- that destroyest the Temple and buildest it in three tude have watched from “afar off”? The judgment days, save thyself” (Matt. xxvii. 39, 40; Mark xv. hall and the barracks are believed to have been in 29, 30). Here again the type and the antitype come the Castle of Antonia. In this case the Via Dolorosa into close juxtaposition. must have led, as tradition now marks it, through Should any our readers wish to pursue this the heart of the city, crowded at the time to its subject further, we refer them to “The Topography utmost capacity by the multitudes who had come up of Jerusalem," by Mr. Fergusson; to "Horeb and to the feast. The rulers “feared an uproar among Sinai,” by the Rev. George Sandie ; and to letters the people," many of whom “believed on Him ;
in the 66
Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exhence the need for taking our Lord by subtlety, and ploration Fund," by Dr. Hutchinson. for hurrying over the trial in an illegal and stealthy manner. Is it likely that they would run the risk of a disturbance and a rescue in the crowded streets, especially with a guard of only four soldiers ? (John xix. 3). We can hardly doubt that, in ac
SEA-SERPENTS. cordance with the indications of the narrative, the rulers chose some place for the execution to which AFTER some years of oblivion, the old story about they could pass immediately from the prætorium into
the open country.
was in September, in the Sound of Sleat, between We have but to transfer the scene of the crucifixion Skye and the Scottish mainland, that some unknown from the northern to the eastern side of the city, in the monster was seen -from a gentleman's yacht, and Valley of the Cedrcu, to find all the requirements of reported with the usual circumstantial yet confused the narrative satisfied. It is, and always must have details. been, outside the walls. It was a recognised place
Mr. Frank Buckland, who seems to be regarded as of interment, the valley to this day being full of a sort of Judge of Appeal in regard to "Curiositios graves, many of them very ancient and cut in the rock. of Natural History," thus gave his opinion about the Irrigated by the river, and by wells and fountains, Scotch sea-snake: there were numerous gardens. The slope of Olivet Personally, I do not believe in the existence of a would allow a great multitude to watch the scene sea-snake, although there aro many snakes in the sea, afar off, and the priests standing on the Temple these latter being highly poisonous. Some of them cloisters would be within sight and hail of Calvary are beautifully figured in Dr. Fayrer's splendid work without fear of defilement. One of the two main on the Thanatophidia of India. The object seen in roads leading from the country into Jerusalem passed Scotland in September last was either dead or alive. close to the spot. And the procession leaving the If alive, the appearance was probably caused by prætorium would emerge at once from the city into porpoises or seals. Turtles migrating in mid-ocean the open country.
havo also been taken for sea-snakes. Professor Assuming, then, that the site of Calvary is to be Owen mentioned this in his lectures. Again, the sought on the eastern side of the city, the whole appearance might have been caused by fish of some narrative becomes clear and consistent. If this be kind. I have placed in my fish museum at South conceded, a new and unexpected conformity between Kensington a cast I made of a very large conger-eel type and antitypo is discovered. The writer of the in the attitude of swimming. The idea that the sea
snake might possibly be a conger was first given me Other instances, where the shaggy manes have
THE MOUND-BUILDING MEGAPODE.
"In April, 1872, Mr. Provost Barclay, of Montrose, informed me that a gymnetrus, or vaagmaar, or deal-fish, had been caught in Messrs. Johnstone's salmon stake nets measuring six feet. In 1849 one of these fish, twelve feet three inches long, was exhibited in Regent Street, and I well recollect going with my father and the late Sir Robert Peel to examine it. The wake caused by these car-fish swimming swiftly through the water would give the idea that they were of much greater length than they really are. It is possible that large halibuts coming up to the surface of the water might give the appearance of the sea-snake, and would especially account for the convolutions of the sea-snake being not on the same plane with the water, but like a rope placed on the floor and then shaken up and down. I have myself twice seen, at Herne Bay, what might have easily been mistaken for a sea-snake-namely, a long line of sea birds, at considerable distance from the shore, swimming swiftly just above the surface of the water. Basking sharks might also give the appear-OF all bird-dwellings the most singular I ever say
is that and “If the Scotch sea-snake was composed of inani- the surrounding archipelago. This bird is a member mate objects, it was probably a log of timber, a bit of a small but deeply interesting gallinaceous family of wreck, such as a ship’s mast, or a tree covered known as Megapodinæ, which have this peculiarity, with barnacles or sea-weed. A friend of mine who that they never sit upon
eggs. They bury them has lately returned from Kamtschatka tells me that in immense tumuli that excite the astonishment of he came across a sea-snake in the Northern Pacific. strangers, leaving them to be hatched by the heat of He examined it, and found that it was a mass of the sun or by fermentation. This family of birds is bea-weed rolled by the action of the tide into an im- found in all the islands between Australia and the mense cable. As the waves passed under it it had the Philippines in the one direction, and from Borneo to appearance of an immense snake swimming."
New Britain in the other. In the “ Leisure Hour" for 1862 a capital paper My first acquaintance with the nest of this remarkon "Sea-Serpents” appeared from the pen of Mr. able bird was made in New Guinea when exploring Buckland, in which he reviewed the whole question Manumanu River in November, 1872. Whilst breakin a masterly way. In that paper he mentioned one fast was preparing I strolled into the bush to collect form of the appearances which keep alive the belief ferns. Close to the river, inside a dense growth of in some monster of the deep as yet unknown to timber, was a great mound, with a depression at the science. 'A sea-serpent was seen off the Island of top: It was a perfect circle, and it was evidently Stronsa, one of the Orkneys, by some gentlemen in artificial, great quantities of leaves being mixed a yacht, and also by some fishermen whose nets it with loose earth. It could not have been built by broke. After a time it was thrown ashore, and its human hands, as there were no traces whatever of vertebræ, when placed together, measured sixty feet cultivation in the neighbourhood. The mound was in length. Sir Everard Home examined them, and carefully measured, and proved to be ten feet high found them to be portions of the backbone, or verte- and sixty feet in circumference at the base. Our old bræ, of the basking shark, a not very rare kind of native guide persisted in saying that it was built by fish. Basking sharks generally swim in pairs, and birds. But I remained incredulous until we fell in the vertebræ of two basking sharks had been rudely with several similar mounds on Bampton Island, near put together to get the length of sixty feet.” This the entrance to the Fly River. These were exactly happened so long since as to be reported in the first the size of that just described. The natives utilised volumes of the “Wernerian Transactions," half a them by planting them with bananas and other trees century ago or more.
and shrubs. On another occasion Sir Edward Belcher saw a We had previously seen some eggs of this bird at strange head and a long neck raised out of the water Mauat, on the south-western coast of New Guinea. in the Gulf of Florida, and had a boat lowered in- Mauat is about 260 miles distant from Manumanu, stantly to examine the object. After a short but so that it is evident that the Megapodius is common stiff pull, he came up to a group of very large throughout New Guinea. The mounds at Cape marine turtles swimming along in line near the York are large, but not equal to the one on New surface of the sea.
Guinea. It is not surprising that they were formerly
regarded as tombs of native chiefs. It was interest | Wake at what hour I might from my sleep, they ing at dawn to hear the loud call of these noisy birds were still scratching vigorously. as they ran about the bush in all directions.
The Megapodius is found in the larger islands of The Megapodius tumulus is about the size of a large Torres Straits, and of the Inner Route, as well as on fowl; it is often called the “ Jungle Fowl.” Its egg the mainland as far south as Cardwell. is disproportionately large, being three and a half Frank Jardine, Esq., the magistrate at Somerset, inches in length, and two inches in diameter. It is related to me the following anecdote. A native of a true oval in shape, and of a brown colour. The Cape York went one day in search of the eggs of the taste is strong and musty to the European palate. Megapodius, which are much prized by the blacks.
Numbers of Megapodii unite at the commencement | Whilst he was exploring the hidden riches of a large of the north-west monsoon to build a new mound, or mound, the upper part fell in and suffocated the poor to add to the size of an old one. For this purpose fellow. The family instituted a strict search for the they use their great feet; the natives assert that missing man. After a day or two, guided by footprints their wings are also called into requisition, but I about the mound, they resolved to examine its contents.
cannot guarantee the fact. Sand, loose earth, sticks, In a short time they came upon the corpse in the leaves, and stones, furnish the materials. The eggs, attitude of digging; so that it would be no exaggerawhich are very numerous, are hatched by the heat tion to say that this man was smothered to death in generated by the mass of decaying vegetable matter. a bird's-nest ! The mother birds await the emergence of their It is probable that the larger mounds are of great young, and then lead them about like other birds. age. The brush-turkey (Tallegalla Lathami), and the They feed on seeds, fallen fruits, and insects. They pheasant (Leipoa ocellata), both seen by us, are also love the neighbourhood of the sea and the sandy mound-builders. They abound in New Guinea, as banks of creeks. The time when they lay their eggs is well as in Northern Australia. The eggs of the the hottest part of the year, from September to brush-turkey are somewhat larger (three and threeMarch.
quarter inches long, and two and three-eighths inches I obtained three young birds, and numbers of in diameter) than those of the Megapodius tumulus, of eggs. My young Megapodii proved irreclaimably a pure white colour, and delicious in taste. The wild; and, despite constant care, lived only three habits of these three birds are similar. They are weeks in confinement. Night and day, with the most appropriately called Megapodine, or Great-footed briefest intervals of repose, they were scratching Birds, on account of the size and wonderful strength the flooring of their cage, scattering in all directions of their feet. the sand with which they were liberally supplied.
W. WYATT GILL, B.A.