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CHAPTER II.- DOMESTIC LIFE.
Once more I turn my eyes on the green hills and mering white out of doors. The beech-trees stretch swelling pastures. There may be a bareness, a their bare wintry arms motionless against the sky; monotony in the landscape to those accustomed to a the rime is fast settling down upon them, and upon rich and wooded country, but to me it seems very
the shrubs that border the walk. I cannot see this calm, very peaceful, strangely beautiful—like the from the nursery, but I got a glimpse of it from the face of a sweet and gracious woman.
staircase window as we came up from the parlour after tea. The panes to-morrow morning will be
dim and rich with the fantastic blazonry which an My father was minister of the parish, a devout invisible finger has already begun to trace upon and worthy man, who discharged his duties con- them. The stars are looking solemnly down on the scientiously, but cared little to make a noise in the skylight window of our nursery. I have been world. He was a person of considerable erudition, glancing timidly up at them at intervals since they however, and read in his Greek Testament every have appeared, for they awe me, these stars; they morning. He was of a stately presence even at the exercise a kind of weird influence over me which time when I can best remember him—when he was forces me to watch them. I love the window in the well up in years, and which harmonised well with a daytime, though its only view is a little patch of sky, certain formality of manner which usually impressed and though the raindrops often patter so fiercely strangers.
upon it as to make me hide my head in Bell's lap He was of middle age before he got possession of in terror-for there the blythe light streams in, and the living, having been for twelve years assistant and the birds come twittering around it; but at night I successor to the previous minister, Dr. Bertie, who am haunted by these mysterious eyelike stars, which was in feeble health. My mother was rery young seem gazing in on me from the darkness. when she became engaged to him, and she waited And yet the sky window is not the object of patiently all these years, though she saw her youth greatest dread to me in our peaceful nursery. There and bloom departing from her, and had more than is the Dark end, as it is called in the household, so one opportunity of being comfortably settled in life; near that to cross the intervening space which sopabut it was James Morrison or no one. They were rates it from the nursery and leads to the staircase married whenever the manse was put in order. A its door must be passed, sunk so deeply in the shadow legacy of a few hundred pounds, opportunely left to of the great napery press that one can never be quite my father by a distant relative, furnished it. The certain it is shut; for the little round window in the furniture was all good substantial mahogany, fitted front gable alone gives light to this dusky vestibule. to stand wear and tear, with no carving or orna- This apartment was a large lumber-room correspondmental work about it. My mother provided the ing to the nursery, whose window had been boarded necessary silver articles, the blankets and napery, up to save the tax. It was never entered by any one her own chest of drawers, and the best bed with the but my mother, who kept her store of wool and lint brown moreen curtains, which now stands in my in it. A great chest covered with a hairy skin and guest chamber, the hangings being, of course, some- ornamented with rows of tarnished brass nails, stood what worn and faded with the use of years.
in the centre of the room, concerning which there My mother had little portion, but she made up for was a household tradition that it was full of important it by her thrift. She was one who could "put to law papers, which, examined properly, would be her hand,” as the saying is; make her husband's found to entitle us to a fortune.* When old enough shirts, knit his stockings—ay, cook his dinner if need to attempt this, I found they had belonged to the sere, and yet at all times be a lady. It used to be relative who left my father a legacy, and that they said of her that her sixpence went as far as most were only receipts and old business letters. people's shilling; but it was not from penuriousness, We youngsters firmly believed that this room was she had a wise liberality of spirit. She was a person haunted by an evil spirit. I suspect the notion of low stature and slim inake, with a pale but clear originated from some undefined threatenings of Bell's complexion and gentle look. Everybody liked her, in a time of nursery insubordination, which our for she was no scandalmonger, but ever loving peace imaginations invested with supernatural horrors. and quietness. She had a peculiar knack in helping We occasionally ventured into it in our mother's people to help themselves, procuring spinning for company, for our confidence in her protection was the old women, and little jobs about the gentlemen's unlimited, and our curiosity was at least as great as policies and farmers' steadings for the bairns; and our fears; besides, the winter's provision of apples this she said was better than almsgiving, for it lay in one corner: but the door must always be set fostered independence.
wide open, and the slightest flickering of the candle, Nor was her own wheel idle, she could spin with which was necessary there even in the daytime, the best of them; and not merely on the little fancy would make us fly from the room in terror. wheel on which ladies of that time spun fine lint in Notwithstanding its questionable neighbourhood, their parlours, but on the “muckle wheel” itself. the nursery is a cheerful room on a winter's evening. She kept it in the nursery, and on it she and Bell, A lamp burns on the table, but the chief light is our old bairn's-maid, spun many a roll of white from the fire, which blazes brightly from the frosty woollen stuff, and many a goodly piece of linen, fine, air, and beside the high fender my mother sits at her and yet of a strength and durability that would wheel. She wears a white apron to save her gown laugh to scorn most of the fabrics of the present from the lint she spins. We bairns—there were
three of us—are clustered round her, admiring how It was during the winter season that the wheel fast she turns the wheel, and shouting with miswas busiest. Let me try to recall one of those long-chievous glee when the thread chances to snap. My past evenings, the remembrance of which has such a mother, though not a trained singer, had a voice as inelancholy charm for me.
clear and sweet as a lintie's; and many an old tune It is a keen frosty night, and all is silent and glim- she knew, the sound of which now-especially when
CHAPTER III. MY SCHOOL DAYS-THE GENTRY OF THE PARISH.
heard unexpectedly—ever gives me a pain at the Of the former we had only two resident families heart. And there she would sit in her own particular within walking distance - Mr. Kennedy of Hallhigh-backed chair, and sing to us such songs as “My craigs, and the Farquharsons of the Hirsel. The boy Tammie," or that most pathetic of Scottish dit- Kennedys were only with us during the summer and ties, “ The flowers o'the forest ;” or else tell us old- autumn ; they always spent the winter in Edinburgh. fashioned nursery stories, which, if they had not They were a fine family, and much respected in the much sense, had somehow a wonderful charm. And district. Hallcraigs was a large property, and the thus the evening would pass till we heard my father's mansion-house was a handsome modern building, study door open and the parlour bell ring, which with a very tasty lawn and shrubbery, and many summoned us to go downstairs for family worship. neat, well-kept walks about it.
And winter after winter can I recall these simple The Hirsel family were of a more ancient pattern domestic scenes, which were rarely interrupted by of manners-your regular proud old gentry standing visitors. We lived so solitary a life that a new up for all the privileges of their order, and not yieldrobin-redbreast come to the parlour window to be ing an iota of them, though it might amount to fed, or the track of a hare through the snow, was nothing more important than the splitting of a regarded by us as a striking incident. But where straw. But their family tree was of far greater were children more happy than we?
longitude than their rent roll in these days, and that might partly account for it. The founder of
the family had been one of the greatest reivers of I was the youngest of the family. Archie, the his time on the Scottish border, carrying off someeldest of us, was a gallant, frank-hearted laddie, times a hundred head of cattle at a sweep, besides with the curliest black hair and the blythest eyes I setting every barnyard and farmhouse he met with ever saw. My father allowed him to choose a pro- on the English border during his raid in a low, as fession, and he fixed upon that of medicine, hoping Miss Philadelphia Farquharson used often to boast. to get an appointment on board a man-of-war. He I marvelled to hear her talk thus to my mother, had a great yearning after a seafaring life, and he thinking that if her forbear had reared and fed well knew that his mother would never consent to the stirks instead of stolen them, it would have his entering the navy but as a peaceful surgeon. been more creditable to the family. But I dared He and I were very unlike each other. My highest not say so to Miss Philly, being but a young lad, ambition was to be the minister of a quiet rural and standing much in awe of her; for truly she had parish like
my father: I disliked change and tumult. a touch of the old reiver's grimness about her own Our sister Mary was a bonny, sprightly lassie, with aspect, especially about her mouth and cheek-bones, far more of Archie's disposition than of mine. She which were very square and strong. Her voice, too, was her father's darling—the very apple of his eye. was harsh and masculine in its tones; and few were
Archie and I were sent to the parish school. My courageous enough to differ from her; and my experiences there were far from pleasant, for the mother, whom the mere waff of Miss Philly's master was one of those mean souls who tyrannise garments was almost sufficient to knock down, was over the weak and timid, and wink at the faults of certainly not one of them. the bold. I had only one friend at school-young Miss Farquharson was more womanly, though dam Bowman, of the Culdees Loch Farm. Ho
quite as stately as her younger sister; but having vividly these old times come back to me as I write the misfortune to be born with a club foot, which his name! His father was a thriving farmer, and she tried to conceal by wearing long gowns, was not Adam was his only child. I loved him as only a very active in her habits. A short walk round the shy, solitary boy can love the companion who garden after breakfast was the extent of her daily astonishes him by his preference. I loved him, do exercise. She used to sit for the greater part of the I say ?-I love him still. More than forty years day on a settee in the drawing-room, working at have rolled over Adam's head and mine since that something called knotting, with a volume of Sir period, and truly our friendship hath been some- Charles Grandison or the “Spectator" on a little what like that of Jonathan and David, even “passing long-legged table beside her. Anything more modern the love of woman."
in literature she professed to despise as wholly unWhen Archie. was fourteen he was sent to Edin- fitted to form the taste or correct the morals of the burgh College ; Mary was placed in a boarding- age. Flowers she seemed to have no love for, nor had school in that city at the same time. Our parents she even a cat or a dog for a pet, and she reminded thought that a good education was the best portion one of nothing so much as of a great wooden doll they could bestow on their children, and my mother's made to utter sounds and imitate human actions by i thrift and wise foresight rendered it possible. I some internal machinery. was too young then for college, and my health was She was very precise and punctual in all her delicate. This did me the good service of trans- habits. I still remember the air of offended dignity ferring me from Mr. Bairnsfather's tuition to my with which she exhibited the face of an ancient heirfather's, under which I really began to learn. I loom of a watch to my parents, on one of the rare was much in the open air, my mother thinking it occasions on which we were invited to drink tea at better physic for me than all the doctors' drugs in the Hirsel. “Mr. and Mrs. Morrison,” she said, the kingdom. Sheep-shearings, wanderings by the “are you aware that you are fully five minutes beburn in the glen till every wavy link of it was hind
time?" familiar to me, lyings on the grass in the orchard It was a most uncomfortable house to bairns, who watching the blue sky and the sunshine stealing were expected to sit still in their chairs all the eventhrough the fluttering leaves of the spreading ing, and were constantly admonished not to spill their boughs, made every summer there like a long tea or scatter crumbs upon the carpet; and Miss holiday. Besides, I was always my mother's com- Philly cut the bread-and-butter shamefully thin. panion in her visits either to rich or poor.
As for Mr. Farquharson, the laird, he seemed a man who had come into the world by mistake, and coast of New Guinea. The ill-fated Maria expedihad found nothing to do in it. He was a tall, stoop- tion was but an outburst of the popular feeling on ing, narrow-chested, melancholy-looking gentleman, this subject, and nothing would be easier at any with a long drooping nose, which had generally a time than to get up a similar expedition for the snuff-drop attached to it; who sat very close to the purpose of gold-digging and colonisation from the fire, and was always talking about taking medicine. port of Sydney. Miss Philly managed all his affairs for him, doctoring The two vast islands bear the same name in the included. He never condescended to notice me, and language of the Strai and of the south-western I confess that I cherished a strong but secret dislike part of New Guinea-Daudai; Australia boing Great and contempt for him.
Daudai, New Guinea Lesser Daudai. Doubtless in It was a peaked, ivy-covered, rambling old house, ages past the two formed one great southern contithe Hirsel, with somewhat of the look of a fortalice nent. This idea of oneness forced itself very strongly about it; and, indeed, the most ancient part of it upon my mind during my late visit (at the end of was said to have been built by the old reiver him- 1872). Torres Straits are so completely studded with self. There the most trivial domestic arrangements islands and sandbanks that the voyager does not were matters of solemn debate and deliberation, as realise that he has broken off from Australia. The if the welfare of the whole community around de- water is everywhere so shallow that it naturally pended on whether the green terrace walk was mown suggests a late irruption of sea over very low land. this day or the next, or on Peggy cook putting a One reef connects both, so that to cross the Straits corn more pepper in the soup. They would have is like sailing across a vast lagoon. thought that the world was coming to its end if they Many points of similarity exist between the two could have been made to understand how little their | Daudais. Kangaroos, opossums, dingoes, and cassoneighbours cared about them.
waries abound in both. The famous mound-buildNo beggar was bold enough to venture up the ing birds (the Megapodius tumulus), the brush Hirsel avenue, for the family purposely kept a dog turkey, and the pheasant inhabit New Guinea, of so ferocious a disposition chained close to the North Australia, and the intervening islands. The kitchen door, that no stranger durst approach him. delicious nutmeg pigeon (Carpophaga luctuosa) has And, truly, it is my deliberate opinion that persons its home in New Guinea ; but about the month of who take such precautions to keep the poor at a dis- November comes over to Australia in thousands for tance from their habitations, deserve the contempt the purpose of incubation. The wild nutmeg-tree and execration of men, though they should be able grows like a weed in many parts of Northern Austo count their lineage as far back as to the days of tralia, the Straits Islands, and New Guinea. It is Noah.
a pity that the fruit could not be utilised. On the The summer vacations always brought back Archie little island of Tauan, close to the south-western and Mary to the manse. It was a great pleasure to coast of New Guinea, I frequently held services us to hear the town news, and to see how proficient with some of our Rarotongan evangelists under the in all lady accomplishments our Mary was growing, pleasant shade of a nutmeg grove. That valuable for she could not only play the pianoforte, but she tree, the Mimusops Kauki, flourishes on both sides could execute curious embroideries and even pictures of the Straits and on the Islands. The fruit is dried in silk.
in the sun and strung for use in seasons of scarcity. I look up as I write to one of these pictures, which, Its shape and sweetness have occasioned the misframed and glazed, hangs above my chimney-piece. nomer of "date" among the whites. It represents a female figure bending over a grave It has been said that the marine shell-fish found and strewing flowers upon it. She leans upon a in the shallow waters of the shores of New Guinea monument, and a tree, probably intended for a are quite different from those which are met with weeping willow, droops above it. It is a fanciful upon the coasts of Australia.” This statement does and tasteful piece, but it rouses a crowd of painful not accord with my experience; for we picked up memories in my bosom. Alas! the hand that abundance of whelks, spinula, cuscuta, turritella spiralis, wrought it has long been mouldering in the grave. and the common margarifere on the south-western
coast of New Guinea, and on the north-eastern coast of Australia. The New Guinea margarifere were much
inferior to those on the Australian coast; owing proNOTES ON NEW GUINEA.
bably to the continual drainage of fresh water from BY THE REV. W. WYATT GILL, B.A.
the moist coast of New Guinea, whilst the opposite
The beautiful goldenNEXT to Australia, New Guinea is the largest shore is wonderfully dry.
island in the world. It is twice the size of tipped pearl oyster (avicula) is found close to the the British Isles, being nearly fourteen hundred shores of New Guinea, as well as all along the great miles in length, and in the widest part four hundred barrier reef of North-East Australia. The centre of in breadth. The interior of this great country is diving for the avicula is about nine or ten miles south perfectly unknown; but we may hope that in a few of Bristowe Island, which is an integral portion of years Christian philanthropists and the lovers of New Guinea. The distance from Australia would science will succeed in opening up this land of lofty be about seventy miles. Now the avicula is found all mountains and great rivers. Considerable interest along the coast of York Peninsula. It seems to me is felt by many in England with regard to New that there is a wonderful similarity between the Guinea. But a great deal more interest is felt in littoral and marine shells of the opposite coasts. Australia. And rightly so; for New Guinea is But at the Murray Islands - which lie midway nearer to Australia than even Tasmania. The between the two Daudais at the widest part of the late proclamation of the imperial government Straits, close to the eastern limit of the Great Barrier brings the frontiers of the immense province of Reef-there is a great variety of beautiful shells, Queensland to within twenty miles of the southern not (I think) to be met with on the coast of either
New Guinea or Australia. And this is just what the habits of the two races? In both there is the one might expect from the position of those islands. same wretched system of numeration, neither being
There are also striking differences between the two able to count ten. The aborigines of Australia are Daudais. The soil of North Australia is particularly a lanky, half-starved race, whilst those of Southdry and barren, whilst that of New Guinea is covered | Western New Guinea are well-developed and sleek. with the rankest tropical vegetation. Australian | Nor is this difference surprising, as the latter are a forests yield but little shade, but the dense continuous settled race, possessed of abundance of good taro, forests of New Guinea defy exploration. Trees of bananas, yams, and cocoa-nuts; whilst the former vast height and girth shut out the sky. Underneath subsist chiefly on innutritious seeds, fruits, and roots. are tree-ferns of great beauty (the frond of one The absence of the cocoa-nut and other valuable exceeded the length of our five-oared boat), Kentia palms from Australia is sufficient to account for the procera, and other strange palms, intermingled with immense physical deterioration that has been going exogenous trees, whilst vines hung their delicate on for centuries. drapery from the loftiest trees to the ground.
Two distinct races inhabit New Guinea: the The reason for this difference is not far to seek. Papuan, or black, which prevails from the noble There are no very lofty mountains in Australia, Manumanu River all along the south-west coast, and none to compare with the glorious Owen Stanley the light-coloured Malay race which occupies the range, which at some forty miles from the shore eastern peninsula. The Papuans are absolutely rises almost perpendicularly to the height of 13,205 nude, and like the allied races in Australia, the feet. At the back of these is a still loftier range, as Straits, and Melanesia (with a few exceptions, where yet unnamed, whose summit, veiled in cloud or snow, they have intermixed with the lighter race), are not probably human feet will never tread. The count- circumcised. They glory in their nudeness, and conless streams which rush down the gorges and valleys sider clothing to be fit only for women. These in the rainy season convert the low lands into one Papuans are a muscular race, and are taller than vast morass. Hence the malaria which afflicts the their light-skinned fellow-countrymen in the eastern sea-coast of New Guinea. Towards the east, where peninsula. They are better fed than the inhabitants the life-giving trade winds blow, the climate becomes of Redscar Bay, and are accustomed to exchange more salubrious. Doubtless, in the interior there their surplus produce for the pearl oyster-shell furare table-lands with a temperate climate.
nished by the Jervis Islanders, who have but little That two species of kangaroo should climb trees
food of their own. in New Guinea-incredible as it may seem to some The Papuans are incorrigible smokers. It is done -is one of those striking adaptations to the swampy by inhalation. Very strange it was to see them with character of the country which evince the wise closed mouths expel the smoke through the nostrils, arrangement of a Divine Hand. We had painful and even through the ears, sometimes falling down experience of a large ant (a quarter of an inch long) insensible. They grow their own tobacco. Men, which makes its nest in the branches of lofty trees, women, and children smoke day and night, ashore cleverly bending the leaves and glueing the edges and afloat. In so unhealthy a climate may not this together.
practice be somehow beneficial ? On the coast* of Australia there are no cocoa-nut The inhabitants of Redscar Bay, who are of a rich trees, save a few planted by our own countrymen in olive complexion, obviously form a part of that great late years, whilst the shores of New Guinea are lined family which has spread all over central and eastern with interminable groves of this most useful palm. Pacific, from New Zealand to the Sandwich Islands The finest cocoa-nuts I ever saw grew on Bampton in the one direction, and from Tonga to Easter Island Island, in sight of the entrance to the Fly River. in the other. “Mata,” for “eye,” is the same in Certainly the cocoa-palm could not grow as luxu- Malay, at Redscar, and in all the Polynesian dialects. riantly in Australia as in New Guinea, on account “Haine," the Redscar Bay word for “woman,” is of the immense difference of soil, the one being so obviously the same as the Rarotongan “vaine," the humid, the other so arid. Yet a great change Tahitian “vahine," and the Samoan_“fafine." might be effected even in Northern Australia by an "Rima” is “hand” at Tahiti and Rarotonga, industrious people. In sailing along the coast of
at Samoa, "ima" (dropping the r) at RedsNorth-Eastern Australia the eye wearies of the mono- car; or, reduplicated, “imaima.” The word for tonous sand-ranges, condemned to perpetual barren- "hand" at Redscar, as throughout the Polynesian ness unless the cocoa-nut be hereafter planted there. dialects, also signifies "five," there being five fingers On the contrary, the shores of New Guinea are on each hand. The unity of these races is no longer everywhere covered with primeval forest, and after a speculation, but an ascertained fact. passing Yule Island to the eastward become an ever- The light-skinned men of the south-eastern peninvarying panorama of tropical loveliness.
sula have the instinct of shame, which alone elevates It is usually assumed that the aborigines of western them immeasurably above the black aborigines of New Guinea are a totally distinct race from those of the south-west coast of New Guinea. All wear a Australia. Is this really tho case ? Everybody narrow, insufficient girdle. Strangely enough they knows that the Papuans dwell in fixed habitations, are uncircumcised. In general the Polynesians are a whilst the Australian blacks, like their own casso- circumcised race. As the exploration of New Guinea waries and emus, ceaselessly roam the desert. Yet proceeds, it will be interesting to learn whether the the Australian black is not deficient in original other light-skinned aborigines practise this rite; caient, as 15 very evident Irom tneir stone axes,
and, where it is disused, whether a distinct reason canoes, fishing nets, etc., which I have seen in North can be assigned for the omission, as the writer has Queensland. May not the difference in the physical traced in some parts of Polynesia. features of the country account for the difference in The Redscar Bay natives occasionally use tobacco, * The cocoa palm does not grow at a distance of more than twenty | this indicate that the areca palm does not flourish in
but greatly prefer to chew the betel-nut. Does not miles from the ocean, the salt air being necessary to its existence.
BY THE REV. S. J. STONE, M.A.
the low, stampy coast of south-western New Guinea ? picked a quarrel with our teachers, and, because the We obtained several prettily-ornamented flasks filled poor fellows hesitated to give them all the property with chunam.
designed for the purchase of food, the whole party The tiro races build their dwellings similarly ; was massacred. Verily the tender mercies of the that is, on high stakes, to avoid the annual inundation heathen are cruel. On the low shores of Redscar and attacks from alligators and serpents. In Redscar Bay a party of thirteen Rarotongans were stationed. Bay we miss the enormously long houses which pre- They all suffered greatly from intermittent fever, vail from the Fly River westward, and in which great three of them dying from that cause. But the lightnumbers of couples live in tiny compartments. At skinned aborigines were uniformly kind and helpful Manumanu the houses are comparatively small, but down to the date of their removal to Cape York by all two-storied. In the distance the village seemed Captain Moresby, of the Basilisk. This exactly like a long double row of enormous pigeon-houses. corresponds with the estimate we formed of the
The Redscar Bay people, like some of the Austra- Manumanu natives, who treat their own women so lian aborigines, delight in extraordinary nasal orna- chivalrously. I would tender my best thanks to the ments. These are mostly straight; but some curve captain and the doctor of H.M.s. Basilisk for their outwardly, as if in imitation of the horns of a bull. timely assistance in rescuing the missionary party The natives of Mauat-the part of the south-western at Manumanu.
at Manumanu. A small steamer, the Ellangowan, coast where we landed several times—used but few has just been purchased in England for the service of nasal adornments, although the septum was invariably the New Guinea Mission, mainly the gift of Miss pierced.
Baxter, of Dundee. Three experienced missionaries The women of Manumanu and the neighbouring vil- are about to enter that important field of labour. lages were better clothed than their dark-skinned sisters May God speed these heroes of the cross ! in the west. They use the leaf of that odd-looking palm, the Nipa fruticans, in making their neat girdles. Indeed, the Redscar natives generally are a superior race, anxious for clothing, and courteous to strangers. Sonnets of the Sacred Pear. The women are adepts in the manufacture of coarse pottery, several specimens of which we purchased. A glass bottle in which we put sand excited great SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY. admiration as to the nature of the clay which could
“ This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, produce transparent pottery! These women were
and manifested forth His glory. -St. John ii. 11. exquisitely tattooed-face, arms, legs, and body. The men being slightly marked, made amends by
O! the beginning of the end. At morn smearing red paint on the forehead, wearing white
The wan face of the melancholy maincowries and the chignon, surmounted by head-dresses of white and green parrakeet feathers. Infants are
That all night long beneath the moon hath lain, invariably carried on their mothers' backs in nets, A death in life, of all but hope forlornthese nets being suspended by a string from the Catches the glory of the light new born. forehead. In this particular they resemble some Rose-red the joyful waters greet the hour tribes of Australian blacks.
Rich with the promise of meridian power, The timid, shrinking, down-trodden Negrillo women were not seen by us on the mainland. They
And smile the cold moon's memory to scorn. were secreted in the bush with the pigs and other So turned our Sun the water into wine! valuables. The women we saw belonged to Tauan, So watchers for the dawn in Cana saw Saibai, Bampton Island, etc., all bordering on the
That orient splendour and the paling Law; coast of Lesser Daudai. But the most striking difference is this, that the
So had they precious foretaste of the Vine black race is naturally fierce and warlike. In the
Whose fruit in full and ever-flowing tide neighbourhood of the Fly River they are avowedly Makes glad the City of the mystic Bride. cannibal, whilst the light-coloured race are gentle and friendly. The terrible bow-of male bamboom used by the Mauat warrior, is superseded at Manumann by a very inferior wooden bow. The Manu
Varieties. manu shield seemed made for ornament rather than use.
I may here observe that during the eight weeks SIEGE OF GIDRALTAR.—The great siege of Gibraltar, which spent by us in New Guinea waters in the hottest was commenced in 1779, ended only with the Peace of 1783.
The Artillery, all ranks included, numbered only 485. The season of the year, we suffered but little inconve
lowest estimate of their losses was 196. There were fired during nience from the great heat. This we attribute to the
the siege 200,600 rounds and 8,000 barrels of powder. At the entire avoidance of ardent spirits, and the frequent termination of the siege there were standing mounted on the use of tea as a beverage. Those around us who con- works 548 pieces of ordnance. The device, afturwards used by tinually drank rum suffered a good deal.
the Russians at Sebastopol, was tried during the defence of In December, 1872, in conjunction with the Rev. charges at high elevations, and on the other hand ineans were
Gibraltar. Guns were sunk in the sand and fired with dangerous A. W. Murray, I landed two teachers and their wives devised for depressing the guns as much as 70 degrees. The on Bampton Island (Bārama) near the entrance to blockade commenced in 1779, and was so well enforced that the Fly River. Never were evangelists located under fowls sold for over a guinea a couple, tea for £2 6s. 6d. a pourian seemingly more favourable circumstances. We wan
eggs about 5d. cach, and a cabbage for 1s. Tzd. dut neither dered freely over the island unarmed, entered their hunger nor scurvy could tame the garrison, neither could the
bombardment, which came in 1781, though the gunners were dwellings, and partook of their hospitality. And yet, sometimes so exhausted that their fire had to be slackened to only a few weeks afterwards, these same islanders allow them to slecp for awhile. On the 27th of November,