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preserved in ice and excellently dressed. You look Of course there were the vulgar rich and the unat the libraries, the books prove to be of "standard pretentious refined ; and it was soon discoverable authorship;" you ask for amusement, and you have that the North and the South looked shyly at one games in abundance, from quoits on deck to draughts another. Gaiety was the order of the day, and of in the cabin. The ladies have their conversation the night too; the equipages were fine, the dressing room; the gentlemen-well, I wish they would keep was very stylish, and the lovely precocious children to it—their smoking-room; and your portmanteaus crowded every avenue and hall of the house. are under the care of my friend the baggage master, The President was at Long Branch, living in the who, at eleven any morning, will attend you to quietest way possible, surrounded by a charming your trunks in the most patient and obliging manner. family. The day I called was the day of the races, The officers are picked men; the first boatswain a and I should not have been surprised to learn that perfect specimen of sleepless activity, and except the General was on the course ; on the contrary, he two refractory British sailors, who were put in irons never sanctions such amusements, and I found him one night for disobedience, they are a set of fine, engaged in training a pair of jet black Arabs in his well-disciplined, and capable fellows, all English, own grounds. In an easy, affable manner, he placed for the line is an English line. Then the ship is a chair under the verandah, lit his cigar, and chatted clean, I may say exquisitely clean, not a bit of pleasantly about things in general, and education grease, not a fray of rope, are to be seen anywhere; in particular. He is ex officio one of the trustees the absence of all smell

, even of cooking, surprised of Mr. Peabody's educational fund, and I certainly and delighted us. As to the company, it was good; met with no one in the States more fully informed the men reserved and taciturn for the first day, but as to the wants and condition of the coloured popuwhen land was out of view, and especially when lation than General Grant. The object of this trust the Sabbath came, all reserve was thrown off, and is to afford temporary help to existing schools, and hands were grasped, for it was felt that there was to maintain them till they need no further aid. The one common bond of union, and that we were the President at one time held the opinion that the muniservants of One Master.

ficence of the great philanthropist would not avail to That Sabbath was memorable on many accounts, effect the object he had in view, but he now admits and it answered well to George Herbert's description, that, contrary to all his expectations, the operations Day most calm, most bright."

of the trustees, under the judicious direction of Dr.

Sears, have been of the utmost practical value. It Our captain asked the clerical passengers--and we is evident that the elevation of the coloured race is had three-to arrange the service as they wished; regarded by the President as one of the greatest and at the appointed hour the bell tolled, and in five safeguards for the peace and security of the country. minutes the saloon was well filled with worshippers, I am not at liberty to refer more fully to his no difference being made on that day between steer- opinions, but my interview left an impression that age and state-room passengers. The captain was he is animated by a spirit of high patriotism, and there, reverent and interested, the purser led the that he entertains the most friendly feelings to the singing, a young lady of Quaker creed played our "old country.” And here I must say that all tunes, a clergyman read the prayers, and a worthy | through the States English travellers are treated with old Primitive Methodist minister preached. Having the utmost courtesy and respect; and I often heard thus broken ground with the emigrants, who filled Americans of the better class deplore the tone and the steerage, a service was arranged in their quarters spirit of spread-eagle orators and writers for the in the afternoon, and a touching scene it was. After press, as irritating and insulting to the English people. that, a German gentleman addressed the children Even the blacks speak of the “old country with of the "Fatherland," and another a company of affection, and I heard frequently in the common Swedes. An evening service was asked for, and of schools the national anthem sung in honour of the those who were well enough to attend there were British visitors. Let the people be polled, and it few on board the ship who did not keep holy that would be found that there was in the heart of the Sabbath-day. How often was it said on the voyage, native American a deep and settled sentiment of “That Sunday put us all at ease,” and as the weather | attachment to the people of our land, and this is cleared and sickness vanished, acquaintances became specially the case among professing Christians of friendships, and we shook hands with regret when the Anglo-Saxon stock. Staten Island came in view.

Nine miles from Long Branch there was a camp The aspect of New York was not very assuring, and meeting. The President, who is an Episcopal Methothe delays at the Custom-house, and the exorbitant dist, had been there, and I could not resist the temptacharges of the hackmen, did not serve to comfort the tion. Certainly the sight was wonderful. On the shores. new-comers. Angust, too, is an "out-of-season” of the Atlantic, encamped in a region called “Ocean month, and everybody was away; so as nobody was to Grove," eight thousand people were living under be seen, and even on Sunday no public worship could canvas for the summer months. Religious revival be counted on, I soon transferred myself from the and health were the objects sought. The camp, there“Fifth Avenue Hotel” to the “West End,” at Long fore, was mainly one of religious people. Families Branch. Hero I knew I should find the American came from the cities and the plains, each with people, and there was quite enough of display and cart, tent, furniture, and provisions. The tents were luxury to satisfy more fashionable tastes than mine. pitched in lines, intersecting each other, and forming A tornado had recently swept the coast, the whole avenues and streets all leading to one grand avenue, district was deluged with water, and as the villas the width of a “Queen's Drive," and opening to the and hotels are all “ framed”—that is, made of wood ocean. The streets had their names - Pilgrim Street, and glass-it was wonderful not to find more havoc Avenue of Rest, etc., and the postman and tradesmade by the winds and breakers. In the hotel I man plied their business with a certain knowledge of found some 600 people, from all parts of the States. I every name. Public worship was held at stated.

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39 hours in some one or other of the spacious marquees, \ scarcely known; the youth, a citizen of the future, and prayer-meetings were largely attended. Physical cannot take a menial situation, and therefore hé exercise for the young people was promoted under seeks a clerkship or a government office. The Irish good regulations, and temperanco was the rule of this are the porters, the waiters, and the drudges; the interesting community. The bay is exceedingly fine, Dutch, German, and Swedes are the small traders. and at the time I was there there were more than What America wants is the skilled mechanic, and it five hundred persons bathing along the shore. Men is no use sending any one else. An admirable moveof business come here to escape the heat of the city ; ment exists in Canada for receiving outcast boys and sickly mothers to recruit their strength; school girls sent out by Miss Macpherson from the streets teachers with narrow means secure their seaside of London, and Mr. Brace does the same work in holiday-people of unfashionable tastes, who do not New York. Thousands of these children are taken go to the snow regions of the White Mountains ; out of the gutter, and no sooner do they arrive in and the discipline is so good, and order so well Quebec or in the West than a demand is made for preserved, that there is no need for a police force, them, and they find homes without difficulty. Upon and though property is open to depredation, it inquiry I found that this beneficent effort is so worthy is as secure as if enclosed in palace walls. I met of support that I cannot but express a hope that here with many spiritually-minded persons, and I can friends in England will give it their generous aid. truly say that I was greatly refreshed by the novel It is a singular fact that the children of Roman scene, and by my pleasant intercourse with these Catholic emigrants do not as a rule remain Romanists. earnest Christian people.

They come of age, and many being then American The great cities are very unlike each other, and citizens, refuse longer to be controlled by the priests. pre-eminence is claimed by_ the partisans of each. In America the inducements to temperance are Boston is to the genuine Yankee as great as is great. You sit down to dinner, a tumbler-glass is Chicago to the newly-arrived adventurer, and even placed before you, and no wine-glass; iced water Brooklyn people appear to look down upon New and iced milk are at your right hand, and iced tea or York. On the whole I prefer Philadelphia ; it is a coffee can be had for asking. Your neighbours, charming city, and as the centre of Pennsylvania it right and left, take no wine, and it is a remarkable is worthy of the old settlement. Its pure marble, thing to hear a champagne cork drawn; ale and beer its house for every artisan, its noble park, its street are seldom called for, and no custom of drinking arrangements, make it a most attractive place, and “ for the good of the house” is observed. The fact having regard to its peculiar adaptation, the wonder is is, you are not expected to take strong drink. No that the seat of Government was ever fixed at Wash- doubt the climate is exhilarating, and lassitude and ington. Among other institutions visited in this city fatigue are less felt; no doubt there is drinking in was the Penitentiary. Here was a man pointed out the saloon, beneath the hotel, of liquors and ardent by the governor as the identical man described by spirits to a large extent by business men. But Dickens in 1862* as in a dying condition, having then the fact remains that drinking is not the custom, completed two years of his imprisonment. He says, and as a consequence, nutritious foods are much more “In another cell there was a German. With colours taken. In ten weeks I saw two drunken men.

I procured from the yarns with which he worked, he never heard a driver of a public vehicle, excited by had painted every inch of the walls and ceiling quite liquor, cursing or abusing his fellow-driver, and I beautifully. He had laid out the few feet of ground never witnessed such street rows as frequently disbehind with exquisite neatness, and had made a grace our London streets. My visits to the poorest little bed in the centre, that looked, by-the-by, like parts of great cities were frequent, and I went in a grave.. A more heartbroken, dejected, wretched company with the police, and this is the result of creature it would be difficult to imagine." It shows their experience and of my own observation. how easily an amiable disposition may be imposed The great feature of each town is the handsome upon. This incorrigible fellow is still in prison, and architectural character of the places of religious still in the decorated room, but in 1873 he is plump worship. The most costly sites, the most convenient and jocose, and expressed his firm intention of re- arrangements, the most comfortable in fittings, even maining in his quarters as long as the governor was to luxuriousness, belong to the churches and the inclined to be kind to him.

Sunday-schools. Common schools are everywhere We hear much of the corruption of judges and neatly built in red brick, with white stone dressing, public functionaries. It is a mournful fact that in and with ample playgrounds. The superintendent the halls of the Capitol, as in the municipal chambers is usually a man of superior ability, and the teachers of some leading cities, anything can be done “for a are mostly females, well trained, and teaching on the consideration," and men have a known price. In class system.” No monitors or pupil-teachers are to New York the state of things is shameless, and in be seen, and the teaching, so far as I saw in about Chicago at this moment four aldermen are picking thirty schools, was thorough. The class-rooms are oakum and working out their sentence for receiving lined with slate midway round the room, occupying bribes. But it is not the true American so much as about four feet in depth. The desks are single, with the foreigner of degraded reputation who does such space to pass between, and the order and discipline injury to American society. I scarcely heard any are perfect. The great defect in these institutions prayer offered in public without a reference to this is the want of provision for infants, children not alarmingly prevalent sin.

being admitted before five or six years of age. No one should emigrate to the United States who Even in the mission schools of the Children's Aid hopes to turn his knowledge of book-keeping and Society, where food is given in the middle of the clerkship to account. Your American citizen rarely day, it is a rare thing to see a ragged child, the poorest brings up his boy to a trade; apprenticeship is being fairly clothed. In German districts there are

German teachers, and the same for Swedes and Nor• "American Notes.” By Charles Dickens. 1862.

wegians. The coloured schools are equally well



appointed, but a few black children are now found | his written in 1835 (Visit to the American Churches, in the white schools. The schools are free, and the by Andrew Reed, D.D., and James Matheson, D.D.), religious instruction is limited to Bible-reading, which seem to forecast the future, now realised in followed by a service of prayer and singing, very 1873. reverently performed.

So far as England and America are concerned, The railroad travelling is, on the whole, pleasant, peace, intercourse, and union should be employed the pace is rapid, the vibration considerable, but and sanctified as means of energetic co-operation for the carriages are really comfortable, and the oppor- the conversion of the world. This is the end to which tunity of moving, lounging, and walking is complete. we should be steadfastly looking in all our interThen the provision of iced water is very refreshing. course; and, great as this end is, it may be thus Bibles and other books are found in some trains, contemplated without despondency. These nations with an inscription on the cover, “Read and return.” are singularly prepared by Providence for this high The system of checking luggage and sending it on service; so much so, indeed, as to indicate that it is to your hotel is perfect, and only one class being consigned to their hands. Where shall we find two provided; the rate of three cents. or three-halfpence nations placed so advantageously on the surface of a mile is very moderate. It is a curious fact, however, the globe to this end? Where shall we find them in that the Pulman drawing-room cars at advanced possession of so much of the world's commerce, which fares are used by the rich, giving evidence of aris- is a direct means to this end? Where shall we find tocratic tendency, while travellers on long routes a people whose civil and religious institutions are so hire places in sleeping and hotel cars, and retain prepared to bless mankind ? and where shall we find exclusive possession of them through the journey. any people who are so ready by desire and effort as The engines are very powerful, the engineers are these to bestow whatever makes them distinguished well-covered in and screened, and instead of a shrill and happy upon all other nations ? Blot out whistle, the train comes into each station with a England and America from the map of the world, deep-toned bell, tolling just as though people were and you destroy all those great institutions which being rung into church.

almost exclusively promise the world's renovation ; Having travelled South and West, and in Canada but unite England and America in energetic and and New England, for eight weeks, I arrived at resolved co-operation for the world's salvation, and New York at the commencement of the sittings of the world is saved.” the Conference of Evangelical Christians. It is quite impossible to describe the course of these meetings, much less the spirit in which they were conducted. The numbers of delegates from all parts of Europe and America, the attendance daily for

Winter Glooms. ten days of thousands of persons, the subjects of discussion, are evidences of the success of the gathering,

HE winter morn wakes sad and slow while the full reports by the daily press, and the

Beneath a sullen firmament; attention paid by public bodies, showed that the

The cock crew out five hours ago influence spread far and wide among the population

But doubtingly, as if he dreamt. of the city. The clergy of all denominations are

The noon creeps up—no light—no sun; great power in America, and the happy spirit of

The sombre fogs hang chill and drear. union and concord is manifest in all their public

By four o'clock the day is done, action. There is no rivalry, no envy, hatred, or un

And Life grows short and shorter, Dear. charitableness, no need to pray for the healing of divisions; and well might the President say, in

The ragged skies are patcht with cloud; receiving the delegates at the White House in Wash

Out roars the echoing waterfall ; ington, “Gentlemen, I am happy to welcome you to

The winds come howling fierce and loud ; a land where the people enjoy the blessing of perfect

The door creaks hoarsely in the hall. religious liberty."

The birds are silent in the wood, It was universally felt that such a conference

Save here and there some moaning dove, could not have been held elsewhere than in New

Or redbreast heavy with its mood, York. In London the same hospitality might have

And Life grows faint and fainter, Love. been shown, but the same conditions of religious The meadows spread all wan and drencht; equality do not exist. The Young Men's Christian Slack snowdrifts lean against the hedge; Association rendered noble service, and the generous The knotted fallows, deeply trencht, arrangements of the Hon. W. E. Dodge and of

Are frozen fast: upon the edge Drs. Schaff and Prime, the honorary secretaries,

Of whitening pools the cattle stareare beyond all praise.

While hoar with icy rime above What other persons may say I do not know; the Gaunt bushes meet the tingling air, result of my observation is this : that no words can

And Life grows cold and colder, Love. convey the sense I have of the importance of the meetings held, as inaugurating a new era in the Give me your hand. 'Tis true and firm. history of Christian union.

What matter how we thus grow old ? This union has always been dear to me, and is Or life speeds out? or fires that burn doubly so now. Personally I have been brought into Decay so fast? Ah, still enfold close contact with some of the best and most bene- My life with yours; warm heart, warm hand, volent American citizens, as from childhood I have They thaw the frosts of Time, and clear learnt to honour and esteem the representatives of a All shadows, till in happier Land country for which one whose name I bear had such a Our life grows bright and brighter, Dear. true regard. It is with pride that I quote words of


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YILL now I never thought of writing a book. Not I was born in an old-fashioned manse in a quiet

that I am unaccustomed to the art of composi- southland parish. A bonny green spot it was, lying tion, having not only indited many sermons since I among hills that gathered round as if seeking to hide became a probationer, but a pamphlet on the reli- it in their bosom. It was a land of rich pasture and gious and physical condition of the poorer classes in of springing water; every hillside had its rill, gushour large towns, offered by me to a publisher ten ing and sparkling in the sunshine, and singing the years ago, but which it did not suit him to accept, praises of Him who can bless and beautify the soliexcept on terms to which prudence forbade me to tary wilderness. Our farmers devoted themselves accede. Still, I am doubtful if my gifts fit me to less to raising corn than to rearing cattle. The become an author, for I have never been what is numerous herds and flocks which speckled the face called a "popular" preacher; though at the same of the country were an animating sight; and I still time it is but justice to myself to mention that divers seem to hear the deep lowings and bleatings which judicious persons have expressed favourable opinions echoed from hill to hilī, in the calm quiet evenings anent my pulpit ministrations. One thing, however, of summer. What the grassy slopes of Bashan and is certain—my gifts, whatever they amount to, have Gilead were to the pastoral tribes of ancient Israel, never yet procured me a manse and stipend.

our hills were to the simple but independent race I was sitting some evenings ago in my parlour in that divelt among them. the old town of Edinburgh. I was somewhat low in In imagination I am again sitting on one of the spirits, for the weather had been very rainy for some green slopes. It is evening, and the shadows are weeks, and the quiet street in which I live is parti- fast lengthening on the grass. Around me, hill cularly dull at such seasons. I was resting in my rides behind hill, none of them attaining great elevaeasy-chair by the fireside, and as my eyes were fixed' tion; but green and smooth to the very summits. upon the glowing embers I began, half-consciously, Here and there is a scanty sprinkling of brush wood; to make out pictures in them.

but trees there are none, except those patriarchal ones I know not how it happened, but that night the which shade the roofs of the lone farmhouses and whole fire seemed thronged with old scenes and faces. shepherds cots that peep out from the quiet openings They shifted and changed like the shadows on a in the hills. At different points streams glitter in green hill-side, allowing me time to recognise them, the setting sun. Yonder goes a long file of milch and then vanishing. There was the manse I was cows towards a gate, lowing impatiently for the born in, with the little round window that looked loitering milkers; how long and fantastic are the like the eye of the house, high up in the front gable; shadows of the cattle upon the sward ! Hark to the the garden behind, with its trim walks edged with bleating of the lambs from the higher pastures, and box; the grass plot, with its border of snowdrops to the mothers' response! and white lilies in their seasons, on one side; and on And there beneath, to the right, is my old homethe other, separated from the manse by a low wall manse and kirk and kirkyard glinting in the evening and a row of beech-trees, the sloping braes of the sunshine. There is the quaint two-leafed door, inkirk glen with the burn wimpling between them. nocent in our time of lock and key, and often left As to the faces—they were those of some once very unbarred at night-with little Kate, our spaniel dog, dear to me, but who have long passed away, leaving lying on its step. Yonder is the mossy apple-tree, me a lonely grey-haired man.

on a branch of which my poor brother Archie and I And as I mused over the old times, the thought used to play at see-saw; with the great barberry somehow came into my mind to write the story of bush beside it-many a pricked finger did it give us

life. I do it not with an eye to publicity, though when gathering its fruit for my mother to pickle. if these experiences of mine are found in my reposi- That sunny orchard sloping so gradually to the little tories at my death, my executors are at liberty to burn, what sports we have had under its old gnarled make what use of them they please.

trees; the sunshine is still trickling like water down When I read the biography of any man, I am not their trunks, and flooding the turf beneath with satisfied unless it gives me a clear impression of who bright quivering patches. And on that stone seat and what were they to whom he owed his being, and under the large pear-tree, how often did my mother his first impulses towards good or evil. Judging sit at her seam while we played among the trees at of other minds by my own, I therefore purpose to “hide and seek" or

Jenny Jo"! give some account of my honoured parents and of The kirk is ancient, and has the smallest of belfries. my calf-days, before entering on the events of my The people said the bell was cracked, which might riper and more experienced years. I must premise, account for the unpunctuality of many of them on however, that I have nothing striking or new to tell. Sabbaths. But to mo it seemed to utter sweet music; But though my life hath been chequered by little and it was a proud moment of my life when old that is strange and marvellous, though I have not David, our betheral, permitted me for the first time been visited by unusual storms or blessed with much to ring it. With what awe and reverence did I use sunshine, I hold it a truth that the history of the to peep into the dusky hole in which it hung silent humblest individual, faithfully rendered, hath in it from abbath to Sabbath, for to me the bell was inboth solemn and instructive lessons. Who, indeed, stinct with a strange, mysterious life, and I would

, can paint aright the struggling inner life-the hopes, not have been shut up alone with it for a world! In the joys, the sorrows, the weary, weary conflicts of the dreary, gusty winter nights, indeed, the thought an immortal soul ?

of it was a terror to me.



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