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rights is the aspiration of all humanity. It is also a goal that the Chinese Government has long been striving for. We believe that the universality of human rights should be respected . . . As a member state of the United Nations, China has always actively participated in the activities of the organization in the field of human rights. It attaches importance to its cooperation with agencies con

cerned in the U.N. system ...": Now, therefore, be it 1 Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives 2 concurring), That Congress calls on the Government of the 3 People's Republic of China4

(1) immediately to release Rabiya Kadeer, her 5

secretary, and her son; and 6

(2). to permit Kadeer, her secretary, and her 7

son to move to the United States, if they so desire. Passed the Senate May 2, 2000.







H. CON. RES. 348

Eorpressing condemnation of the use of children as soldiers and expressing

the belief that the United States should support and, where possible, lead efforts to end this abuse of human rights.


JUNE 7, 2000 Mr. LEWIS of Georgia (for bimself, Mr. PORTER, Mr. LANTOS, Mr. PAYNE,

Mr. LAHOOD, Mr. ENGLISH, Mr. BRADY of Pennsylvania, Mrs. CHRISTENSEN, Mr. GILLMOR, Mrs. LOWEY, Mr. MOGOVERN, Ms. NORTON, Mr. CAPUANO, Ms. LOFOREN, Mr. WAXMAN, Mr. BERMAN, Mr. SANDERS, Mr. CROWLEY, Mr. MCDERMOTT, Mr. ENGEL, Mr. STARK, Mr. OWENS, Ms. SLAUGHTER, Mr. ALLEN, Mr. KENNEDY of Rhode Island, Ms. MCKINNEY, Mrs. MORELLA, Mr. MOAKLEY, Ms. RIVERS, Mrs. MEEK of Florida, Ms. PELOSI, M& LEE, and Mr. GUNZALEZ) submitted the following concurrent resolution; which was referred to the Committee on International Relations

CONCURRENT RESOLUTION Expressing condemnation of the use of children as soldiers

and expressing the belief that the United States should support and, where possible, lead efforts to end this abuse of human rights.

Whereas in the year 2000 approximately 300,000 individuals

under the age of 18 are participating in armed conflict in more than 30 countries worldwide;

Whereas many of these children are forcibly conscripted


units due to economie necessity, to avenge the loss of a

family member, or for their own personal safety; Whereas many military commanders frequently force chilą

soldiers to commit gruesome acts of ritual killings or torture against their enemies, including against other children;

Whereas many military commanders separate children from

their families in order to foster dependence on military units and leaders, leaving children vulnerable to manipulation, deep traumatization, and in need of psychological counseling and rehabilitation;

Whereas child soldiers are exposed to hazardous conditions

and risk physical injuries, sexually transmitted diseases, malnutrition, deformed backs and shoulders from carrying overweight loads, and respiratory and skin infections;

Whereas many young female soldiers face the additional psy

chological and physical horrors of rape and sexual abuse, being enslaved for sexual purposes by militia commanders, and forced to endure severe social stigma

should they return home; Whereas children in northern Uganda continue to be kid

napped by the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) which is supported and funded by the Government of Sudan and which has committed and continues to commit gross human rights violations in Uganda;

Whereas children in Sri Lanka have been forcibly recruited

by the opposition Tamil Tigers movement and forced to kill or be killed in the armed conflict in that country;

Whereas an estimated 7,000 child soldiers have been involved

in the conflict in Sierra Leone, some as young as age 10,


with many being forced to commit extrajudicial executions, torture, rape, and amputations for the rebel Revolutionary United Front;

Whereas on January 21, 2000, in Geneva, a United Nations

Working Group, including representatives from more than eighty governments including the United States, reached consensus on an optional protocol on the use of child soldiers;

Whereas this optional protcol will raise the international min

imum age for conscription and direct participation in armed conflict to age eighteen, prohibit the recruitment and use in armed conflict of persons under the age of eighteen by non-governmental armed forces, encourage governments to raise the minimum legal age for voluntary recruits above the current standard of 15 and, commits governments to support the demobilization and rehabilitation of child soldiers, and when possible, to allo

cate resources to this purpose; Whereas on October 29, 1998, United Nations Secretary

General Kofi Annan set minimum age requirements for
United Nations peacekeeping personnel that are made

available by member nations of the United Nations; Whereas United Nations Under-Secretary General for Peace

keeping, Bernard Miyet, announced in the Fourth Committee of the General Assembly that contributing governments of member nations were asked not to send civilian police and military observers under the age of 25, and that troops in national contingents should preferably be at least 21 years of age but in no case should they be younger than 18 years of age;

68-024 D-01--8


Whereas on August 25, 1999, the United Nations Security

Council unanimously passed Resolution 1261 (1999) condemning the use of children in armed conflicts;

Whereas in addressing the Security Council, the Special Rep

resentative of the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict, Olara Otunnu, urged the adoption of a global three-pronged approach to combat the use of children in armed conflict, first to raise the age limit for recruitment and participation in armed conflict from the present age of 15 to the age of 18, second, to increase international pressure on armed groups which currently abuse children, and third to address the political, social, and economic factors which create an environment where children are induced by appeal of ideology or by socio

economic collapse to become child soldiers; Whereas the United States delegation to the United Nations

working group relating to child soldiers, which included representatives from the Department of Defense, sup

ported the Geneva agreement on the optional protocol; Whereas on May 25, 2000, the United Nations General As

sembly unanimously adopted the optional protocol on the

use of child soldiers; Whereas the optional protocol was opened for signature on

June 5, 2000; and

Whereas President Clinton has publicly announced his sup

port of the optional protocol and a speedy process of re

view and signature: Now, therefore, be it 1 Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate

2 concurring), That

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