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comes propitious unto us, and ordained Christ's death to be a propitiation for us. For we are "justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ, whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood. We have an advocate with the Father, and he is the propitiation for our sins. For God loved us, and sent his Son to be a propitiation for our sins.”. It is evident, therefore, that Christ did render God propitious unto us by his blood, (that is, his sufferings unto death,) who before was offended with us for our sins. And this propitia tion amounted to a reconciliation, that is, a kindness after wraih. We must conceive that God was angry with mankind before he determined to give our Saviour; we cannot imagine that God, who is essentially just, should not aboininate iniquity. The first affection we can conceive in him, upon the lapse of man, is wrath and indignation. God therefore was most certainly offended before he gave a Redeemer; and though it be most true, that he "so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son;" yet there is no incongruity in this, that a father should be offended with that son which he loveth, and at that time offended with him when he loveth him. Notwithstanding therefore that God loved men whom he created, yet he was offended with them when they sinned, and gave his Son to suffer for them, that through that Son's obedience he might be reconciled to them.
In vain it is objected that the Scripture saith our Saviour reconciled men to God, but nowhere teacheth that he reconciled God to man: for in the language of the Scripture, to reconcile a man to God, is in our vulgar language to reconcile God to man; that is, to cause him, who before was angry and offended with him, to be gracious and propitious to him. As our Saviour adviseth, "If thou bring thy gift before the altar, and there remeinberest that thy brother hath aught against thee, leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way, first be reconciled to thy brother, that is, reconcile thy brother to thyself, whom thou hast injured, render him by thy submission favourable unto thee, who hath something against thee, and is offended at thee. As the apostle adviseth the wife that “departeth from her husband, to remain unmarried, or to be reconciled to her husband,” (1 Cor. vii. 11;) that is, to appease and get the favour of her husband. In the like manier we are said to be reconciled unto God, when God is reconciled, appeased, and become gracious and fa. vourable unto us, and Christ is said to reconcile us unto God, when he hath moved, and obtained of God to be reconciled unto us, when he hath appeased him, and restored us unto his
favour. Thus " when we were enemies we were reconciled to God,” (Rom. v. 10;) that is, notwithstanding he was offended with us for our sins, we were restored unto his favour by the death of his Son.
Nor is it [in the second place) any wonder God should be thus reconciled to sinners by the death of Christ, who while we were yet sinners died for us, because the punishment which Christ, who was our surety, endured, was a full satisfaction to the will and justice of God.
"The Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.” Now a ransom is a price given to redeem such as are in any way in captivity; any thing laid down by way of com. pensation, to take off a bond or obligation, whereby he who before was bound becometh free. All sinners were obliged to undergo such punish. ments as are proportionate to their sins, and were by that obligation made captive and in bonds, and Christ did give his life a ransom for them, and that a proper ransom, if his life were of any price, and given as such For a ransom is properly nothing else but something of price given by way of redemption, to buy or purchase that which is detained, or given for the releasing of that which is enthralled. But it is inost evident that the life of Christ was laid down as a price; neither is it more certain that he died than that he bought us: “Ye are bought with a price,” (1 Cor.
vi. 20; vii. 23,) saith the apostle, and it is the. "Lord who bought us," (2 Pet. ii. 1,) and the price which he paid was his blood; for "we are not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, but with the pre. cious blood of Christ. Now as it was the blood of Christ, so it was a price given by way of compensation : and as that blood was precious, so was it a full and perfect satisfaction. For as the greatness of the offence and iniquity of the sin is augmented, and increaseth according to the dignity of the person offended and injured by it; so the value, price, and dignity of that which is given by way of compensation, is raised according to the dignity of the person making the satisfaction. God is of infinite majesty, against whom we liave sinned; and Christ is of the same di. sinity, who gave his life a ransom for sinners: for God hath purchased his Church with his own blood. Although therefore God be said to remit our sins by which we were made captive, yet he is never said to remit the price without which we had never been redeemed: neither can he be said to have remitted it, for he did require it and receive it.
If then we consider together, on our side the nature and obligation of sin, and on the part of Christ the satisfaction made and reconciliation wrought, we shall easily perceive how God forgiveth sins, and in what remission of them consisteth. Man being in all conditions under some law of God, who hath sovereign power and dominion over him, and therefore owing absolute obedience to that law, whensoever any way he transgresseth that law, or deviateth from that rule, he becomes thereby a sinner, and contracteth a guilt which is an obligation to endure a pu. nishment proportionable to his offence; and God, who is the lawgiver and sovereign, becoming now the party wronged and offended, hath a more just right to punish man as an offender. But Christ taking upon him the nature of man, and offering himself a sacrifice for sin, giveth that unto God for and instead of the eternal death of man, which is more valuable and accepatble to God than that death could be, and so maketh a sufficient compensation and full satisfaction for the sins of man: which God ac. cepting, becometh reconciled unto us, and, for the punishment which Christ endured, taketh off our obligation to eternal punishment.
ON THE CREED. $ 10. ON THE RESURRECTION OF THE BODY, AND THE LIFE
The resurrection of the body and the life everlasting. How does man differ from the brutes ?
He has a living soul, which shall exist eternally; while the spirit that animates the brute perishes together with its body.
The resurrection unto eternal life is one of the principles of the doctrine of Christ, (Heb. vi. 2,) and one of the privileges of the members of Christ. What is death ?
The separation of the soul from the body.
Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was; and the spirit
shall return unto God who gave it. Eccl. xi. 7. What becomes of the bodies of men when they die?
They are dissolved by corruption, and turned again into dust. I have said to corruption, Thou art my father; to the worm,
Thou art my mother and my sister, when our rest together
is in the dust. Job xvii. 14. 16. All flesh shall perish together, and man shall turn again unto
dust. Job xxxiv. 15. Thou hast brought me into the dust of death. Ps. xxii. 15. If our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved.—2 Cor.
v. 1. Death is sometimes in the Scriptures called a sleep :not a sleep of the soul, but a sleep of the body till the last day. Now shall I sleep in the dust. Job vii. 21. Lest I sleep the sleep of death. Ps. xiii. 3. Our friend Lazarus sleepeth. John xi. 11.
It is the common lot of all, except Enoch, (Gen. v. 24,) and Elijah, (2 Kings ii. 11,) and there is no escaping it. Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return, Gen. iii. 19. What man is he that liveth and shall not sce death ? Ps. lxxxix.
48. Death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned. Rom. v.
12. It is appointed unto men once to die. Heb. ix. 27. What becomes of the souls of men at death?
They go to a place of happiness or misery, accordingly as they are prepared for the one or the other. Lazarus and Dives: the rich man was tormented in hell; and
Lazarus was carried by angels into Abraham's bosom. Luke
word of God, &c., and they cried with a loud voice, saying,
them that dwell on the earth ? Rev. vi. 9, 10.
Till the morning of the resurrection.
The re-union of the soul and body.
This is equally as easy to God, as the uniting them together at first. Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God
should raise the dead! Acts xxvi. 8. Will the same body rise which we now inhabit ?-Will there
be no alteration in it ? Our bodies will be the same, but they will experience such a change as will take away from them all tendency to decay, and adapt them for that eternal state of existence, for which we are hereafter destined.
The bodies of the saints will be fitted to bear an exceeding and eternal weight of glory; and those of the wicked to endure unspeakable and everlasting torment. It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. I Cor. We shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an
eye, at the last trump. 1 Cor. xv. 51, 52. This corruptible must put on incorruption; and this mortal must
put on immortality. 1 Cor. xv. 53. Who shall change our vile body that it may be fashioned like
unto his glorious body. Phil. iii. 21. The dead in Christ shall rise first: then we which are alive and
remain, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. i Thess. iv. 16, 17.
We shall rise with the same tempers and tastes which we had at the time of our death.
The proofs of a general resurrection are many, The prosperity of the wicked and the sufferings of the righteous in the present life afford a strong presumption of it. The angels who sinned were punished : for God, who is just and holy, cannot permit sin to pass with impunity; and rewards have been promised, and punishments threatened to mankind in general; it follows, therefore, that as there cannot be equal retribution here, there must be a resurrection, "in which every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.” 2 Cor. v. 10. Nor is there any thing in the fact itself which should render it improbable. Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth
alone; but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit.' John xii. Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it
die. 1 Cor. xv. 36. The dust out of which Adam was made was as far from being flesh, as any dust now.
The doctrine of a resurrection is taught both in the Old and New Testament. [Abraham) accounted that God was able to raise (Isaac) up, even from the dead: from whence also he received him in a
figure. Heb. xi. 19. I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the
latter day upon the earth. And thougin after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God. Job xix.
25, 26. I shall be satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness. Ps. xvii.
15. God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave; for he
shall receive me. Ps. xlix. 15. Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they
arise. Isa. xxvi. 19. Many that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake. Dan.
xii. 2. O grave, I will be thy destruction. Hos. xiii. 14.
The Sadducees denied a resurrection : but the Pharisees, and other Jews, firmly believed it. Matt. xxii. 23. Mark xii. 18. Acts xxiii. 8. 1 Cor. xv. 12. Now, that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he calleth the Lord, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living. Matt. xxii. 31. Luke xx. 37, 38.
Jacob had been dead two hundred years, when Moses thus spake. The Son of man shall sit upon the throne of his glory, and be
fore him shall be gathered all nations. Matt. xxv. 31, 32. Thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the just.
Luke xiv. 14. Marvel not at this; for the hour is coming, in the which all that
are in the grave shall hear his voice, and shall come forth.
John v. 28, 29. That of all which the Father) hath given me, I should lose
nothing ; but should raise it up again. John vi. 39. I know (my brother) shall rise again in the resurrection at the
last day. John xi. 24. They preached through Jesus the resurrection of the dead. Acts
iv. 2. [Paul at Athens) preached unto them Jesus and the resurrec
tion. Acts xvii. 18. God, who quickeneth the dead. Rom. iv. 17. If we have been planted together in the likeness of his death,
we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection. Rom.
vi. 5. He that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your
mortal bodies. Rom. viii. 11. God will also raise us up by his own power.
1 Cor. vi. 14. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed. I Cor. xv.
13. 21. 42. 51.