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in addition to their name wrote till death, and some even opened a vein, became on crowded a wide ranthe inmenge sheet, in a short time,
additional signature. Even the margin was scrawled over and, as the document filled up, the subscribers seem to-have been limited to the initial letters of their name. Zeal in the cause of Christ, and courage for the liberties of Scotland, the
soice, of shouting arose a few. were deepły impressed with very different feelings. Most of them, of all sorts, wept bitterly for their defection from the Lord. - And, in tes. timony of his sincerity, every one confirmed his subscription by a solemn oath. With groans, and tears streaming down their faces
, they all lifted úp their right hands at once. When this awful appeal was made to the Searcher of Hearts, at the day of judgment, so great was the fear of again breaking this Covenant, that thousands of arms which had never trembled, even when drawing the sword on the eve of battle, were now loosened at every joint. After the oath had been administered, the people were powerfully enjoined to begin their personal reformation. At the conclu. sion, every body seemed to feel that a great measure of the divine presence had accompanied the solemnities of the day. With their hearts much conforted and strengthened for every duty, the enormous crowd retired about pipe o'clock at night. Well, indeed, might Henderson boast, in his reply to the Aberdeen doctors, that this was the day of the Lord's power, wherein we saw, bis people most willingly offer themselves in multitudes, like the dew.drops of the morning--this was, indeed, the great day of Israel, wherein the arm of the Lord was revealed the day of the Redeemer's strength, on which the princes of the people assembled to swear their allegiance to the King of kings.!!
» The GLASGOW GENERAL ASSEMBLY forms the next great step in the second Reformation. The very fact of its being held was, in itself, a triumph, One little oversight in the establishment of Episcopacy left an opportunity for assailing it, which was now powerfully and successfully seized upon. It had been allowed that the Bishops were accountable to a General Assembly, and this slender cord became a cable in the band of Henderson, by which be pulled the whole fabric of Prelaey to the ground. The King's Commissioners, unable to resist the tide of the Assembly, left it in despair. The As sembly, notwithstanding, proceeded with their business. The Bishops were tried, deposed, and excommunicated. Several of the most important principles in the constitution of our Pres*byteriéšs were laid downand adopted. And Henderson, who had presided with the riost distingaislied ability and courage, throughout the whole proceedings, triumphantly dissolved the Assenıbly, exclaimingas we have now cast down the walls of Jericha,& let him that rebuildetli them beware of the curse of Hiel the Betheliteo's 25 yaz sa co vd bedrsedia
Passing over a most interesting account of the commencement of open hostilities between Charles and the Covenanters, we notice the proposal of Henderson for the compilation of the great standards of the Presbyterian Church, in its CONFESSION, CATECHISMS, and FORM OF GOVERNMENT. This is particularly noticed by our author, in a manner most honourable to Henderson.
“ Had there been nothing else to render this Assembly conspicuous in the pages of our Church History, or to secure respect for the memory of its moderator, the magnificent idea, which he here was the first to suggest, of framing our Confession of Faith, our Larger and Shorter Catechisms, and our Directory or Platform of Church Government and Worship, would have been enough to immortalize the period in which he lived. By these Henderson has erected a monument, in almost every heart in Scotland. For two hundred years, these have withstood the attacks of infi. delity, and even many severe wounds from the hands of their friends; yet is the Confession of Faith, unshaken as the rock of ages, still found, on a Sabbath afternoon, in the hands of our peasantry, dear to them almost as their Bible, and the Catechism carried morning after morning, by our sons and our daughters, to the parish school, (the plan of which Henderson devised,) that their contents may enlighten the mind and spiritualize the nature of the rising generation. Next to the introduction of Christi. anity itself into Scotland, and the translation of the Bible into the vulgar tongue, the framing of the Confession of our Faith and of the Catechisms, has conferred the greatest boon on every Christian in our country. It was on Wednesday, the 28th of July, that Henderson first suggested to the Assembly the propriety of drawing up a Confession of Faith, a Catechism, and a Directory, for all the parts of the public worship. His first intention seems to have been to frame the system in such a way as to make it agreeable to the worshippers on both sides of the Tweed. But there is no compromise of Presbyterianism in it from beginning to end, so as to support the Episcopalian principles of the English. On proposing the matter, he expressed himself as being anxious to escape the toil of compiling these important works; but the burden was laid on his back, with liberty to retire from his parochial duties whenever he pleased, and to call to his assistance the abilities and diligence of any of his brethren.”
An interesting account follows of the preparation and signing of The SOLEMN LEAGUE AND COVENANT, and of the calling and sitting of the memorable WESTMINSTER ASSEMBLY. We can make room for no more than the following graphic sketch of the place, and manner of conducting the business :
“The room, which was all hung, was about the the College fore. hall at Glasgow, and fitted, up like the Assembly House in Edinburgh. At the upper end sat the president on a chair raised. Before, and under him, his two assessors were seated, and before them, through the length of the room, stood a table, at which were the scribes. Along the room, on to the right of the speaker, stood three or four benches, which were occu.
pied by the Scottish Commissioners and the Members of Parliament de. puted to the Assembly. On the benches opposite, going from the upper end to the chimney, sat the Divines, to the number of about seventy; and in the open space from the fire to the door, the Lords of Parliament had chairs set for them, as they came occasionally to the House. They met at nine o'clock, and generally sat five or six hours. Every diet began and ended with prayer ; but, on particular occasions, when their discus sions had become too keen and perbaps personal, wben divine light was required to illuminate their path, or when the sins of the land cried for repentance, they humbled themselves before God by continued acts of devotion, occupying a sederunt of nine hours. At these appointed times, Twisse would open with a brief prayer; Marshall would pray for two hours, most divinely confessing the sins of the members of the Assembly in a wonderfully pathetic and prudent way; Arrowsmith would preach an hour, and then a psalm was sung; afterwards, Vines would pray near two hours, and Palmer preach an hour; and again, Seaman would pray near two hours ; after this, Henderson would bring them to a sweet conference of the heat confessed in the Assembly, and other seen faults to be remedied, and point out the necessity of preaching down Anabaptists and Antinomjans; and Twisse would close the whole with another short prayer, and a blessing on particular occasions."
“The Assembly divided themselves into three committees, in each of which every man might attend as a member. When the Parliament sent the Assembly written orders to take any purpose into consideration, every committee took a portion, and, in their afternoop meeting, prepared matters for the next day. After a short discussion, the result of their deliberations was set down in the form of a distinct proposition, and forti fied with apposite texts of Scripture. Next morning, after prayer, the clerk read the proposition and Scripture, and a long, learned, but orderly, debate ensued, not only upon every proposition by itself, but on every text of Scripture brought to confirm it. After a matter had been thor. oughly handled in replies, duplies, and triplies, sometimes for twenty days, and the whole mind of every member expressed ter his satisfaction, the clerk rose with the amended proposition, and advaecing to the speaker's chair, be read it and put the question, whether the patter were properly stated. After the numbers of contents and non-coterents were ascertained by the one division standing, the proposition was rec, ded, and there could be no more of the matter. And if, in the course o debate, any speaker came back upon it, he was called to order. In th same way they went on with the first Scripture alleged for proof of till proposition. No man addressed another in debate, but spoke to thyodair, and in all contradictions kept to general discreet expressions. bphe outward form of the pro. cedure was, in every respect, worthy of imit ion, but for its woful length.',
THE DEATH OF HENDERSON closexubis interesting volume. He sunk under his accumulated labpars of body and mind, never having been of a robust constigation, but of a most sensitive and tender mind. And we cantit better conclude our notice of the volume, which should have been much more lengthened, had our limited pages admitted than by the foilowing condensed view of the character of Henderson, given by the author:
“ Henderson seems to have been remarkably mild and affectionate from natural temperament, and, as a proof of this distinguishing feature, she was dearly beloved by his Sovereign and his friends, and much respected even by his opponents. In the very furpace of controversy, in which be was so much occupied, the serene and amiable qualities of the Christiany and the native courtesy of the gentleman,opeyer gave way. He was, in every respect, remarkably adapted for the station he held as leader of the middle party, between two others which were more extreme in their measures. Averse, on the one hand, to an absolute government, which Baillie and other westerns were willing to support, and altogether hustile to that spirit of republicanism and religious independency which was daily gaining ground, Henderson, as the supporter of a limited monarchy, restrained and modified the ultra contending factions with which he was surrounded. His weight in the councils of the Covenanters mainly de. pended on the single circamstance, that the sincere and sensible men, of very different opinions, rested their entire confidence in the honest and accuratate balance of his mind. His death, therefore, like the crushing of the key-stone of an-arch, brought every thing at once into confusion. As moderator in the stormy Assemblies of that stormy period, to cool the heat of fiery spirits ; as the convener of a committee, to chalk out the prudent course, amid doubtful modes of procedure ; as a commissioner for Scotland, in every treaty for peace entered into during his lifetime, tu de. tect and defeat the secret tactics of negociation zu as the perman of a party, to explain, defend, and enforce a proposition, to frame a healing overture, often to the entire contentment of opponents, or to embody the sentiments of a large meeting in condensed legislative language'; and, as a debater, to strike he, at the moment ripest for conviction, to select the argument most powerful in confirming and confuting, and to gather every waverer to his votenno man of that age, 80 productive of varied talent, was better qualified by disposition, intelleet, and experience. But, although gentle in his lispositions, he was far from being insensible ; on the contrary, Baillie adnits, that the man bad, by nature, a little choler not quite extinguished? A hąsty or harsh expression, however, was scarcely ever permitted to escape him; uokind feelings and uncharitable construc tions were foreigo tipis heart. But, in one instance, when he felt his cbaracter impeachecowahe vindicated his conduct with bogest indignation ; and, on another ocds gion, when be found himself overreached, the iron deeply wounded his ilpirit. It has been asserted, that, in contending with the Independents, h caution, in the end, dwindled into indecision, and chat his candour was 'Quetimes turned into simplicity by Cromwell and Vane. Henderson was more oindeed, apt stocberish suspicion, but lopy after he detected the lurkinanractices of his cold blooded opponents, he continued to act on the dibrified conviction, that
daring courage of the man who
never feared Lae face of clay, for the sudden, vigorous, and regardless spirit of him who has denominated, bý bis enemies, the Archetypal Bitter- Beard ;' but he was distinguished by the greater elevation and tenderness of sentiment constant
feeling of prudence and forbearance cautous moral cou
and the milla modest, passive endurance, which
a crowns human
generally with success. Knox Melville, and Henderson were all conspicuous for the fortiter in rdbut Henderson alone combined with it the suaviter
in modo." His loyalty and personal respect for the King, his grati. tude to him, and pity for his suferings, should not be forgotten. In every stage of the struggle,
these sentiments were always nearest his heart, and in the end they sapk bim into melancholy, which might not." perhaps, kause his death, but it assuredly hastened it. The love of liberty, says M*Crie, was in him a pure and enlightened Aame; he loved bis natire country, but his patriotism was no narrow, illiberal passion-it opened to the welfare of neighbouring nations, and of mankind in general. His learning, prudence, and sagacity, soon distinguished him among that band of patriots who associated for the vindication of their national rights; and be was consulted by the principal nobility and statesmen, on the most in portant questions of public concern. Averse to severe or high measures, and disposed to unite all the friends of religion and liberty, he nevertheless did not hesitate to approve of and recommend bold and decisive steps, when necessary to remedy intolerable grievances, or to prosecute and secure a Becessary reformation." His sagacity and political wisdom were free from the base alloy of duplicity and selfishness, with which they are so often debased. His integrity and virtue remained unpcorrupted amid the blandishments of the court, and the intrigues of the cabinet. 'The confidence reposed in him, and the influence which he was enabled to exercise, which were as great as ever were enjoyed in a Presa byterian Church,' he did not in a single instance betray or abuse. As a public speaker, he was eloquent, judicious, and popular. His eloquence was easy, but impressive, grave, but fluent. It was like the motion of a deep river, which carries ode along insensibly, with a full tide, cold and clear, rather than with the rapidity of a swollen currept. Wbenever he preached, it was to crowded audiences ; and when he pleaded or argued, he was regarded with mute attention. So long as the purity of our Presbyterian Establishment remain as often as the General Assembly of our Church is permitted to convene-while the Confession of Paith and Catechisms, Larger and Shorter, hold a place, in our estimation, second to the Scriptures alone and till the history of the revolution during the reign of Charles I. is forgotten—the memory of ALEXANDER HENDERSON will be respected, and every Presbyterian patriot in Scot. tland will continue grateful for the SECOND REFORMATION of our Church, which Henderson was so instrumental in effecting.”
With this short 'sketch we introduce to our readers the Life and Times of Alexander Henderson. Its author has our most hearty thanks for his well-timed and useful labours. We ramnestly hope he may feel himself encouraged to proceed in the useful path of history on which he has entered, and that lie will favour the Church with his contemplated volume on the Life and Times of Robert Douglas, Our quotations from his presents work, render it unnecessary that we should charaéterize it farther than we have done. It will be suffi. went to say, it is clear, simple, comprehensive, interesting, and instructive.s No Presbyterian should be satisfied without a perusal of ite We particularly recommend it for Congregational Librariesv . And, since
it has pleased the great Disposer