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document G 38 is inserted, to be followed in turn by eight successive sections of document MK, MK $810-17.
The location of the document G account of the Sermon on the Mount, G $$10–17, within the framework of document MK seems to have been determined by Luke's identification of the situation portrayed in G 89 with that outlined in MK $16. It results in Luke's changing of the order of his document MK $$16, 17, and in the rewriting of MK 816 in such form as to eliminate the local element and to conform it to the general situation portrayed in G 89. Having preceded it, however, by MK $17, he must needs represent Jesus as having come down from the mountain, for the multitude of G 89 and MK 916 cannot be addressed except “on a level place.” Having provided a setting for the Sermon under the influence and by the use of G 89 and MK $$16, 17, Luke follows with G 8810-17, his only record of the Sermon. And since document MK subsequent to MK 917 has nothing which demands a different course, he acts on his principle of keeping his documents intact by following the record of the Sermon by the remainder of document G in its order and without interruption, G 8818–22.
Luke is free now to move within the limits of documents MK and P. In document MK his next section, MK 818, deals with the charge against Jesus of league with Beelzebub. But document P contains an account which seems to be a duplicate, P $16. Therefore MK 918 is omitted by Luke (Principle 2). That part of MK $18 which is not paralleled in P $16, namely MK $18E, has its parallel in P $21. Document MK 818A has provided a multitude, and MK 819 requires the presence of a multitude. In order to provide this feature of the setting, a feature lost to Luke by his non-use of MK $18, Luke reserves his use of MK $19 until he has inserted MK $820, 21, the introduction to MK $20 supplying the multitude. The influence of the change of order is seen in another particular, the thought content of MK 821 resulting in the change of “whosoever shall do the will of God” to “these who hear the word of God and do it,” Luke 8:21 compared with document MK $19."
1 In view of the sequence of events in MK $818, 19, it is worth considering whether we have in P $16) the document P record of that which stands in MK $19, even as in P $16A-I there is the parallel to MK $18B-F, and whether Luke 8:21, as against the close of MK $19, was infuenced by the belief of a parallelism in P $16).
Why Luke does not take up the parable in MK 823 is explained (Principle 2) by its presence in P $37. That he should omit the parable in MK 822 may be accounted for, perhaps, by the general likeness of the situation it portrays to that in the parable of the Sower, MK $20A, in both cases the casting of seed upon the earth. That MK $24 falls out results apparently from the use of MK $19 after, instead of before, the parables by the sea. These several adjustments of the document MK narrative at this point all seem to have resulted from the parallelism of document P to document MK which begins with MK $18B. Luke now employs consecutively document MK $825-33, except $829, 32C-E. The faithfulness of Luke, in the main, to his sources will be recognized if it is recalled now that to document MK 833 he has departed from the order of his document MK, notwithstanding the necessity of adjusting it to the documents G and P, only in the different placing of the Call of the Four, in the reversal of order in MK $$16, 17, and in the setting of MK $19 after instead of before MK $820, 21. His choice of document GS$1F, 6, as against document MK $832C-E, 29, results in these events finding a place earlier in the record of Jesus' life than if he had followed document MK. Other than these instances, there are no differences in order between Luke and his document MK which affect a full section, the remaining divergences consisting of the arrangement of paragraphs within the sections on the Last Supper and on the Trial."
The problem of the location of the contents of document P was apparently a most difficult one for Luke, because of the almost entire absence of chronological and geographical indications in that document. It made mention of one place only, and this Luke utilized as a guide for the placing of document P within the document MK framework. In P $63 Jericho was named. In MK 10:46 also it was found. It was decided, it seems, to synchronize these arrivals at Jericho. But MK 10:46 set the event “as they went out from Jericho," while that of P $63 was recorded as happening as “he entered and was passing through Jericho.” To adjust the documents (Principle 3), the “as he went out from Jericho" of MK 10:46 was made to read in Luke 18:35 “as he drew nigh unto Jericho.”
1 For a study of the relations of Luke to document MK beyond MK 833, the reader is referred to Professor Burton's monograph.
The document P was regarded by Luke, in the absence of more precise indications, as covering the activity of Jesus beyond Jordan. Its beginning was made therefore to parallel MK 10:1. Hence Luke's documentary material for the Perean period was the tenth chapter of document MK and the whole of document P. Having found one point of contact between them in the common mention of the town of Jericho, he interpolated his document MK chapter as a whole before document P $63. In accordance with Principle 2, document MK 10:2-12 was omitted because of document P852, likewise MK 10:31 because of P 841; certain of the thoughts of MK 10:35-45 are to be found in P 831, and in Luke 22:25, 26. That document P might not stand destitute of chronological and geographical hints, document MK 10:1 was apparently rewritten as the opening of P $1, and there was added also P $838, 57, 64C (Principle 3).
The literary principles of Matthew were neither so few nor so simple as were those of Luke. They may be stated as follows:
Principle 1.-Within those narrative portions of his documents where chronological or geographical data were absent or were vague, to group those events that were related through having a common geographical center.
Principle 2.-To combine the several accounts of his documents when they seemed to record the same event or discourse, especially when the material presented any considerable body of the words of Jesus.
Principle 3.-To group the sayings of Jesus on a single theme, even to the extent of taking one phase of the theme from one document and another from another.
Principle 4.–To choose document MK as against document G where they possessed material in common-the opposite of the Lukan preference.
Principle 5.-To condense the narratives of MK where they were especially full of secondary details.
Principle 6.—To change the order of thoughts within a section of one document when necessary to the effecting of a junction with matter from another document.
Principle 7.—To make the Pharisees the source or the object of
such unfavorable criticism as the documents leave indefinite in source or object.
Principle 8.—To enlarge quotations already made from the Old Testament, and to insert additional ones at other points in the history.
Principle 9.–To modify the apparent rigor of hard sayings.
Principle 10.—To eliminate all demoniac confessions of Jesus as the Christ.'
Principle 11.—To eliminate references to anger or other apparently condemnable moods in Jesus.
Matthew could not well begin his use of document MK by the insertion of MK ŠIA, for his previous recording of the infancy narratives indicates that he had another conception of the beginning of the gospel than that set forth by documents MK and G. But passing over MK $1A he uses MK $1B-G, except C, in the order E, B, D, G, F (Principle 6), the portion F preparing for the message of John taken from GSIB, D, E. The absence of MK $IC from both Luke and Matthew, together with the fact that the quotation is said in MK ŠIB to come from Isaiah, whereas portion C is from Malachi, makes it reasonably clear that C came into Mark, subsequent to the use of document MK by Luke and Matthew, through the influence of the quotation taken by them from G $20C. In the difference between the beginning of GQ1B and Matt. 3:7 there is seen the application of Principle 7. As against G $1F, Matthew chooses the form and place of MK $32C (Principle 4). MK $2 with perhaps some influence from G $2 is next used. In the combination of MK 3 and G $4 Matthew makes use of MK 83B which had been passed over by Luke. Since Matthew had opened his gospel with an impressive genealogy of Jesus drawn from another source he does not make use of G 83. An application of his Principle 8 may be seen by comparing G $4B with Matt. 4:4. Of document G, $85 and 6 are omitted because of preference for the MK record (Principle 4). Therefore Matthew now uses MK $4, placing between portions A and B his document G $7, to which he attaches a lengthy quotation (Principle 8). There now lay before him the choice between MK 85 and G $8, and
• Perhaps Matthew acted in this particular under the influence of such a thought as that in I Cor. 12:3, “No man can say, Jesus is Lord, but in the Holy Spirit.”
. On the source of Matt. 3:14, 15, see pp. 361–72.
he chose the former (Principle 4). But there followed in document MK a section which Matthew could not use as a whole, MK 86, because of the nature of most of the narrative (Principle 10). Turning to document G he found the record of a tour in Galilee and of a widespread fame of Jesus, G $9. The situation there portrayed' he apparently identified with MK 986E, 9, 10B, and used the record of it given him by G 89. This resulted in the Sermon on the Mount, G810-17, being given its place by Matthew at this point in his gospel. The same section, document G 89, has been determinative, it seems, for the location of the Sermon by Luke, but he has identified the situation in G $9 with that portrayed in MK $16 rather than that in MK 886E, 9, 10B, and therefore has placed the Sermon after using MK $$6–17.
Having derived a position for the Sermon from document G in comparison with document MK, Matthew is prepared to bring into use both the account of the Sermon given in document G and that supplied by the discourse document which he alone possessed, the important document M. Moreover, since he has now reached a lengthy body of discourse material, there is occasion for the free and full application of Principle 3. For its application, document P supplies a large number of utterances of Jesus which, by the greater or lesser looseness of their attachment to the contexts in P, invite to redistribution. The actual course of Matthew in the use of his several documents at this first point where he has the basis for a lengthy discourse from Jesus seems to have been as follows: The document M form of the Beatitudes was chosen, M $1, as against G 10A. But the actual experiences of the early Christian community seemed so clearly portrayed in G $10B that this Beatitude was added from G, it not being recognized that the last of the document M Beatitudes was the M parallel for document G $10B. From M
* It is not necessary to assume that document G 89, as we now have it, is in the precise form that came to the hands of Matthew. By a comparison of MK $30 with its parallel in Matt. 9:35, it will be found that Matthew adds “and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of disease and all manner of sickness." Similarly, it will be found that to the first statements of MK 831A he adds in Matt. 10:1, "and to heal all manner of disease and all manner of sickness." Within G 89 the words "and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of disease and all manner of sickness among the people” may be the editorial addition of Matthew, being his form of summary for the activity of Jesus on his tours.