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by the injunction "let him be unto thee as the Gentile and the publican."

As for the second half of the saying in document P §54B, the portion E, its parallelism with the Matthaean E seems reduced by the circumstantial introduction to the Matthaean E, "Then came Peter and said to him." But this introduction must surely be regarded as the editorial endeavor appropriately to resume the theme so that the second half of document P§54B may now be utilized. For it seems difficult in the extreme to suppose that the mind of the Twelve was so unaffected by the stupendous promises in portions B-D that the thought of Peter was held during this time not by the sayings of B-D but by that of A, so that he returned to A through the secondary question in E about times of forgiveness. Moreover, the rewriting in the Matthaean E takes as its starting-point the saying of Jesus in the document P portion E, and represents Peter as leading Jesus beyond the standard of "seven times," as in document P, to the "seventy times seven" of the Matthaean form. This expansion to the "seventy times seven" seems like an endeavor by some subsequent disciple to meet the tendency to take the original saying of Jesus about "seven times" in a literal sense. Both in portion A and in portion E, therefore, the evidence seems to indicate that the more original form and extent of the sayings are found in the document P record; the Matthaean is to be regarded, apparently, as the expansion and adaptation of the sayings.

Judged by its content, the Matthaean portion A was intended to be represented as addressed to a large body of disciples, for the injunctions are hardly fitted to cover only disputes in the circle of the Twelve. Moreover, if regarded as referring primarily to disputes among the Twelve, then the larger community, "the church," that is, those bodies constituted by the Twelve, would in turn pass judicially upon the conduct of those who had constituted them. But obviously, on the contrary, it is not thought that the assignment of function set forth in portion B is intended for every member of the new community, but rather for the Twelve alone. By the portion B, therefore, there passes to the whole body of the Twelve that which in gospel MT 16:19 was reserved for Peter alone. Notwithstanding the fact that there is a shift from the whole company of the disciples,

as in portion A, to the Twelve and to them alone, as in portion B, there is a slight basis for junction of the two sayings in that each deals with judicial procedure. But the element of judicial activity in the Matthaean portion A seems to be an accretion to the original saying of Jesus as recorded in portion A of document P 854B. Shall it be said that the portion B is an additional and still later development due to the same tendency? Is it an expression of the tendency of "the church" to assume the right to pass final judgments upon the conduct of men, especially concerning the movements of the religious life?

It is difficult to find any relation between the sayings in the portions C and D and those that precede them in A, B, or a definite connection in thought between that in portion C and that in portion D. Certainly no sayings of Jesus exceed in scope of promise those in C, D. It seems necessary to raise the question whether the sense of community life involved in "if two of you shall agree" ought to be considered as a development from experience, and the saying in portion C treated as a modification of some such original as is attested by document MK 11:24, "All things whatsoever ye pray and ask for, believe that ye have received them, and ye shall have them." If one may draw an inference from the results of tendency which are ascertainable where parallels are present, one would conclude from the comparison of gospel LK 21:14, 15 with document MK 13:11 that the assignment of post-ascension activity to Jesus, as is done in portion D above, is the outcome of the actual spiritual experiences of the early community, rather than the promise of Jesus himself to his disciples beforehand.

Apparently it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that what was begun in document MK 9:33-50, namely, the making of that section of the document the depository for several distinct sayings added to document MK subsequent to the time that the exemplar used by Luke was produced,' was carried forward yet farther in the parallel portion of gospel MT after the time when Matthew had produced the eighteenth chapter of his gospel from document MK in combination with portions of document P and the parable from document M §20. From an examination of all the evidence in Matthew's eighteenth

I See pp. 67-78.

chapter, it seems necessary to hold, (1) that, of the exhibit on pp. 69 and 70, Matthew derived from his document MK, after the manner previously outlined,' the portions A-M except L; (2) that, having added the portion L from document P 854A, he continued with P $54B; (3) that to these sayings from P §54 he added the appropriate parable from document M §20, thus closing that section of his gospel; (4) that the parable in portion Q with its introduction in portion P and its application in portion S are from a later hand, not being drawn from document P, but preserved by some other line of tradition; (5) that the modification and enlargement of portions T and V and the insertion of the portion U are the work of some one subsequent to Matthew; (6) that in all these sayings inserted subsequent to the framing of the gospel by Matthew there are most evident marks of the late origin of the thought expressed in them.

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There is no reason why the above paragraph should be considered in any study of the teaching of Jesus about the future of the Christian community, except for the fact that in the portion G of the Lukan account there appear the words "this do in remembrance of me.” Neither these words nor any other slight suggestion that the institution of an ordinance for the future is intended are recorded by the document MK. However, the whole of the portion G is omitted by Bezae Cantabrigiensis, and by the Old Latin (Itala) manuscripts a, b, e, ff2, i, l. Naturally it is treated, therefore, by Westcott-Hort as one of "a few very early interpolations in the gospels." It has apparently been derived by some later editor from I Cor. 11:236-25. That portion of the letter of Paul is traceable, in turn, to some such report as that in the above portions B, C, D of document MK. It is notable and significant that the only words in the Pauline paragraph which cannot be derived from the Markan portions B, C, D are "which is for you: this do in remembrance of me" and "this do, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me," that is to say, the words quoted in Paul by which an ordinance is definitely established are absent from both document MK and the document used, if other than document MK, by Luke in the above paragraph. From whence Paul received these additional words we do not know; it suffices for present purposes that it be clearly seen that they are not derivable from the reports of Jesus' words as these are transmitted by document MK and gospels MT and LK.


In that section of the Gospel of Mark which is proved, by MSS evidence, not to be a genuine part of document MK, there are large powers and startling immunities promised to the promoters of the mission:

GOSPEL MK 16:17, 18

And these signs shall follow them that believe: in my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents, and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall in no wise hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.

These words probably had their origin and vindication in the reputed history of the early days of the new community; in that history it is possible to find incidents in support of substantially all of these "signs." The tremendous outburst of new and vital religious conviction, enthusiasm, and consequent power, which marked the

first movements in the history, manifested itself in activities of an extraordinary nature. The outlook of those who moved in the midst of these striking phenomena did not extend to the distant future of the society, to that slow process of normal growth, by the very customariness of which all the exuberant vitality of new-found truth and conviction would be worn into the commonplace. For them, there was no future for the society different from the present. Thus it was that present experience could fashion itself into expectation for the future; could regard itself as promised in the past; and, as both promise and expectation, could take form as the completion of the document MK which, ending at 16:8, was without a forward look.

But certain of these phenomena had a significance other than that of forwarding the mission. They testified to the victory of the forces of good over those of evil; they were open evidences that in the clash of the two great world-powers, God and Satan, the latter was being cast down; this casting-out of devils, this taking-up of serpents, prophesied the entire overthrow of "the old serpent, he that is called the Devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world." And beyond that overthrow, but to be accomplished only through it, there lay, in the hope of the early community, "the salvation, and the power, and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of his Christ."


Apparently out of this world-view and these experiences, it came about that there was attached to a fresh, vivid, suggestive phrase from Jesus, spoken at a moment of high feeling and in a form which lent itself to misunderstanding ("I beheld Satan fallen as lightning from heaven"), a body of ideas similar to those which found expression in the unauthentic conclusion to the Gospel of Mark:


And the seventy returned with joy, saying, Lord, even the devils are subject unto us in thy name. And he said unto them, I beheld Satan fallen as lightning from heaven.

Behold, I have given you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall in any wise hurt you.

The rapid recession of these phenomena, and the consequent imperiling of the validity of the promises of immunity, led later, it may be surmised, to the repudiation of significance in them, and to emphasis upon another, surer possession:

Howbeit in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.

1 Rev. 12:9, 10.

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