« ÎnapoiContinuați »
That thought which Jesus expresses in this Lukan passage by “rich toward God” is the thought which is covered in the saying under consideration by the phrase "treasures in heaven.” Both phrases designate a present reality, not merely a promise of the future. The latter is not excluded; but, if thought of as resident in the saying, it must be taken as implicit not explicit, and as secondary not primary; it must be regarded as an outcome, not as an incentive.
That Jesus should make an appeal for some other ambition as central rather than that of amassing treasures upon earth, that is, that he should choose "treasures upon earth” as the object of his attack, seeing in them a real menace to that being “rich toward God” which he considered the highest good, grew out of those conditions of his times which favored the religious leaders as financial masters. In the dominant sect, he saw the tendency strongly at work. From this came his outspoken warning, “Ye cannot serve God and mammon.' “And the Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all these things; and they scoffed at him.” It was apparently the clear perception by Jesus of the cankering effect of this form of ambition among the ruling classes that led him to make the unconditioned and relentlessly searching demand of the rich young ruler:
DOCUMENT MK 10:21 One thing thou lackest yet: if thou wouldest be perfect, go, sell whatsoever thou hast, and distribute unto the poor. Then, as at other times when Jesus spoke thus strongly against a prevailing tendency toward excessive love of wealth, he set over against these treasures upon earth that which he would substitute for them, namely, “treasure in heaven”:
And thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, follow me. In this individual appeal, as in the more general exhortation recorded in the above Matthaean P $26, this “treasure in heaven” may be otherwise expressed as a being "rich toward God," even as it is in document P $23.
This review of the sayings in which "treasure in heaven" occurs concludes the treatment of the original3 sayings of Jesus which coni Document P $48.
2 Document P $49. 3 On the appearance of the word in document MK 14:62, see pp. 83-85; on document MK 13:24-27, see pp. 170-79. Concerning the instance in document G $10B, see p. 23 and the hints under the paragraph numbered 7 on p. 51. On the occurrence
tain the word "heaven."': If it has been contended justly that "treasure in heaven” is another form of conveying the thought in “rich toward God,” these sayings contribute nothing of future content to the term “heaven.” And since none of the other sayings of Jesus about "heaven" have any outlook toward the future, it must be held that it would be a mistake to suppose any such connotation to be a part of Jesus' use of the word.
$12. THE FUTURE IN VAGUE FIGURES
The Sermon on the Mount opens, in both document M and document G, with several Beatitudes, which in document G are followed by their counterparts in Woes. The basis of the pronounced blessing or curse resides in certain outcomes of the present state, all of which seem to lie in the future, near or distant. Because of the future outlook in these sayings, they must be taken into account in any study of the teaching of Jesus about the future. It cannot be affirmed with certainty that in no case is the reference in any degree to the present. And the future in one saying may be a very different area of time from that covered by another.
No attempt is made here to determine which of the two documentary reports is the more original, for such is not necessary to the purpose in hand. Nor will an explication of the thought that lies under the figurative language be entered upon. That is neither hidden nor obscure, in either document M or document G. Those Beatitudes which refer to the kingdom of God are reserved for consideration under that theme in chap. vii. One of these, that on persecution—“Blessed are they that have been persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven" — has its document G parallel in G $10B; and the latter does not contain the phrase, “kingdom of heaven” or “kingdom of God," but substitutes "great
in gospel Matt. 16:19=18:18, see pp. 329–39; in 28:18, see pp. 342-52; in 18:10, see pp. 359-72. The emergence of the word in document P 87 is considered on pp. 340-42; in P $46B, on pp. 67-78.
i Of course, no account has been taken of the thirty-two cases of the appearance of the word in the phrase "kingdom of heaven," which, like other phrases containing the word, is peculiar to the Gospel of Matthew. That is the Matthaean substitute for the term of Jesus,“ kingdom of God," as is conclusively established by comparative study.
reward in heaven." On the basis of previous studies, it was concluded that the highly elaborated document G form of this saying is the result of the drastic persecutions of the early community. Therefore it need not be given study additional to that directed toward its parallel in document M. The remaining references are these:
DOCUMENT G $$10, II Blessed are ye that weep now: for ye shall laugh.
DOCUMENT M SI Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.
Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.
Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.
Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.
Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called sons of God.
Blessed are ye that hunger now: for ye shall be filled.
But woe unto you that are rich! for ye have received your consolation.
Woe unto you, ye that are full now! for ye shall hunger.
Woe unto you, ye that laugh now! for ye shall mourn and weep.
Woe unto you, when all men shall speak well of you! for in ihe same manner did their fathers to the false prophets.
$13. THE NARROW AND THE SHUT DOOR In the study of the final discourse on the future, when the parable of the Ten Virgins was under consideration, it was concluded that the document P report of that parable is contained in P $27. Because this document P report of the parable places so much emphasis upon the attitude of looking and watching, the servants are represented as within the house, at the door of which the lord himself knocks on his return from the marriage feast. There is no place, therefore, in the document P report, for that inclusion of some and exclusion of others of the servants which forms the impressive conclusion to the document M report of the parable.
This portion of the parable document P has apparently preserved in a slightly modified form in another location in the document:
DOCUMENT M 824 They that were ready went in with him to the marriage feast: and the door was shut. Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not.
DOCUMENT P $39 Ye shall begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, open to us; and he shall answer and say to you. I know you not whence ye are ....
depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity.
There was found in document P an attachment for this portion of
1 See p. 23 and the hints under the paragraph numbered 7, p. 51.
the parable in that reference to the “door" by which the above document P verses are preceded:
And one said unto him, Lord, are they few that be saved ?
And he said unto them, Strive to enter in by the narrow door: for many, I say unto you, shall seek to enter in, and shall not be able when once the master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door.
This "hath shut to the door" provided a situation similar to that portrayed in the document M report of the marriage feast in the Ten Virgins parable, where, after the prepared or “wise” ones had entered, "the door was shut." Doubtless it was this likeness in the conditions sketched which led to the attachment at this point in document P of those sayings which once had formed a part of the parable now present in document P $27.
Indeed, there was in this portion of the parable so dramatic an element, an element so vivid and so suitable for easy retention, that it is not surprising that it held a place in the tradition even though the parable to which it originally belonged had become so modified that this portion had no longer a place in the parable itself. It was of a form and content such as made an appeal to that dramatic imagination which was so formative of religious conceptions in the time of Jesus. That this is more than conjecture is made evident by the place given to this notion in one of the most striking of those eschatological additions by which document M is characterized:
DOCUMENT M 814 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy by thy name, and by thy name cast out devils, and by thy name do many mighty works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.
The bringing together of sayings which at one time had quite X different places in the tradition of Jesus' words is a marked charac
teristic of document P, as has been concluded from many phenomena examined in preceding studies. There is seen the combination of sayings which had no original, essential relation, as in the junction of P $20 with P $19. It is much more frequently seen in cases like the present, where the junction does not bring together unrelated thoughts through misinterpretation, but thoughts which flow so naturally into one whole that the existing combination is not without some superficially satisfying unity.
It will be observed that it is only in the document M addition to the Sermon on the Mount, M 814 above, that the words are thrown
into the personal form, and thus given an application to Jesus himself as the Judge:
Many will say to me in that day. And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from us, ye that work iniquity. On the contrary, in both document M $24 and document P $39 as above, the third person is retained: “But he answered and said,” "and he shall answer and say.” But this tendency to personalize as in document M 814 has found expression even in the document P section now under consideration, for the whole scene is given a direct relation to Jesus himself by the added words in P $39:
Then shall ye begin to say, We did eat and drink in thy presence, and thou didst teach in our streets. This apparently illustrates vividly how tradition takes form. Jesus had spoken the very simple, suggestive, but wholly impersonal words:
Many shall seek to enter in, and shall not be able when once the master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door.” To this there came to be attached other sayings about the shut door, which had originally been spoken in quite another connection. The use of the word "Lord” in these other sayings came to be taken, now that Jesus was recognized as Christ and Lord, as referring to Jesus himself. When, therefore, the saying represented one who is interpreted to be Jesus as professing no acquaintance with the hearers of his message, it was only natural to frame and include an expostulation from the condemned, grounded in the fact that he could not be ignorant of those with whom he ate and drank, and to whom he spoke his teaching
As for other sayings which go to make up the present, externally related group that constitutes document P 9839-41, a group introduced by the editorial P 838, it ought to be observed that, while undoubtedly the Lukan P, as against the Matthaean P, preserves the more original form of the words in document P $40, the evangelist Matthew has hardly found in Matt. 8:11, 12 a setting any more historically probable than that given him by his document. From the peculiarly exasperating nature of these sayings, it may be believed with some conviction that they are rightly placed neither in their Matthaean context nor in the Lukan P. They belong rather, it would seem, to the outspoken and searching utterances of the final week of the life of Jesus. In document P $41 there is reported what