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MATTHAEAN P $20 And be not afraid of them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy (aronegal) both soul and body in Gehenna. But, as has been seen, the more original form of the saying, as in Lukan P $20, is without the word “destroy,” and seems to have reference not to the fate of the “soul" in the future, but to that of the body in the present."
In one other passage it may be held that the intended reference is to the future when åtrollvue is used. This is in
GOSPEL MT 18:14 Even so it is not the will of your father which is in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish (απόληται). But this is an application of the parable of the Lost Sheep which differs much from that found in document P, where this parable is placed in what is apparently its more original historical context. Both parable and inference from parable are part of the complex problem presented by Matthew's eighteenth chapter. Both seem to have been added by another hand subsequent to the framing of the gospel by the evangelist Matthew. No assured inference bearing upon the future may be drawn, therefore, from the two passages Containing απόλλυμι ; but the thought of Jesus in the “απώλεια” of document M$13 seems clear and strong.
$7. THE SOUL (Yuxń) AND THE SPIRIT (TT VEŪua) Among the several passages in the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus is credited with the word “soul” or “life,” that is, yuxń, there is one only in which the word is so used that it has undoubtedly a future reference. This, therefore, is the only passage which properly belongs to the present study:
MATTHAEAN P $20 And be not afraid of them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in Gehenna. Even this single use of “soul (yuxń)” with a future content is excluded, however, by the evidence that its appearance here is the result of Matthaean tendency, the original thought not extending into the region of eschatological fate. What Jesus said seems more accurately set forth by
LUKAN P 820 Be not afraid of them which kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do. But I will warn you whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed hath authority to cast into Gehenna. 1 See pp. 257-59.
2 See pp. 67–78.
It seems fair to suggest that, since no other passage is found with the word “soul (Yuxń)” in a future sense, this fact ought to be retroactive, that is, to be added to the evidences previously advanced that in this passage the Lukan P is the more original, and that the Lukan P refers to two fates for the body in the present.'
Though this is the only passage where “soul (zuxń)” is given a definite outlook toward the future, it is instructive to consider briefly certain passages which set forth with clearness the essential content of the word for Jesus. This appears in
DOCUMENT P $24 Therefore I say unto you, Be not anxious for your life (vuxn), what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life (vuxý) more than the food, and the body
than the raiment?
Body is set over against youxń. Necessary to the body's preservation
is something to put on, raiment. Necessary to the continuance of the * puxń is something to eat and to drink, food. One ought not to be
anxious for one's yuxń, that is, for what one shall eat and what one shall drink to support the yuxń, nor for the body, whose requirement, as distinguished from the fuxń, is raiment. The yuxń is greater than the food which keeps it alive, even as the body is greater than the raiment which serves to protect it. But to say this much is not to affirm that the yuxń persists when food and drink cease, any more than does the body when exposed to the rigors of climate without covering.
In the estimate of Jesus,* far more valuable than any other possession which a man may call his own is his yuxń, "for what doth it profit a man, to gain the whole world, and forfeit his yuxń? For what should a man give in exchange for his yuxń?” It is the center of selfhood, the stronghold of personality, the very will of the man. There is a certain sense in which it is a something not yet attained; and to its complete finding, saving, preserving there is a way of success and a way of failure. To hold the yuxń as one's own inalienable possession, devoted to one's own selfish ends, is to fail to attain to any complete realization of the possibilities of the yuxń. It is to "lose” the fuxń, to "forfeit” the yuxń, and this loss or forfeiting of the yuxń is for any man nothing other than to “lose” or “forfeit” his own self. It is only as the fouxń is abandoned, and is devoted to
i See pp. 257-59.
a goal outside selfish interests, that it attains to the full measure of its potentialities. So soon as it ceases to be cherished as a right, and is freely spent as another's possession held in trust for service, it passes into the actual possession of the trustee, developed and fixed by the transforming process of a shift of center. The yuxń, viewed from the standpoint of its potentiality, is something to be “won.'
In these notable sayings of Jesus there is developed that suggestion which is conveyed in its simplest form by the saying: “For the yuxń is more than the food.” In the yuxń Jesus believed there was resident a possibility of self-realization which could be made actual by a certain conduct of life outlined by him. He did not himself indicate, in the course of his reference to the yuxý, that it had a life other than that of the present. If to the word yuxń there is to be given a content by which it has a reference to the future, that must be on the basis of other teachings of Jesus. It cannot be definitely deduced from any of his sayings about the yuxń. The contribution of Jesus to the conception of the youxń lies in his refusal to think and speak of man's yuxń as something static. For him it was vitally potent, waiting only the touch of a supreme purpose in order to be set free, yet fearfully liable to self-destruction by becoming self-centered.
The only instance of the use of “spirit (TT veŪua)" by Jesus in a way to indicate that the aveûna has a future is recorded by Luke in his account of the words on the cross:
GOSPEL LK 23:46 And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit (TVEūMa): and having said this he gave up the ghost (e EenVevoev). Jesus repeats here the words of the Psalmist in Ps. 31:5, using as the title of address "Father," instead of the “O Jehovah” of the psalm writer. For the author of Ps. 31, the words “into thine hand I commend my spirit” meant, as the context shows, the committal to Jehovah of the safeguarding of the suppliant during his lifetime. It had no reference to anything beyond death. If the words were actually repeated by Jesus on the cross, their application for his mind cannot be so limited, for his lifetime was now at its close. He therefore commends himself as to future destiny to the hands of his Father. It probably cannot ever be known whether Jesus cried out loudly but inarticulately and died without further utterance, as reported
1 Luke 21:18, 19.
by document MK-“And Jesus uttered a loud voice and gave up the ghost," or finished his earthly career as John records—“When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit,” or died with the commendation of his spirit to God as Luke represents in the above passage.
$8. LIFE AND ETERNAL LIFE (Śwn) Among the many pregnant sayings of Jesus there is none of greater directness, clearness, force, and essential accord with the body of his most fundamental teaching than that one which forms a part of the Sermon on the Mount in
DOCUMENT M 813 Enter ye in by the narrow gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many be they that enter in thereby. For narrow is the gate, and straitened the way, that leadeth unto life, and few be they that find it. And if one presses the inquiry as to what is meant, in the terms of Jesus, by “life (Swń),” the answer in its larger aspects is already suggested by the antithesis which Jesus chose to employ here, namely, “destruction (atrólela).”
It would seem that Jesus did not conceive of “life (Swń)” solely as something to be attained and entered upon in an age separated from the present and experienced under different conditions, for it is recorded of him that on one occasion he used this term as reported in
DOCUMENT P 823 Take hecd, and keep yourselves from all covetousness: for a man's life (swń) consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth. Though upon another occasion the questioner of Jesus, by the form of his interrogation-"Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life"showed that his mind was wholly upon the future, it is by no means certain that Jesus gave no present content to the idea of the desired “life (śwń)” when he replied, having first drawn out the law of love to God and neighbor, “Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou shalt live (non).";
The phrase "to enter into life” occurs in two passages attributed to Jesus, namely, one in gospel MT, and one in document MK. That in gospel MT is not supported by document MK which Matthew is using in that paragraph, thus: GOSPEL MT 19:17 DOCUMENT MK 10:18, 19
GOSPEL LK 18:19, 20 And he said unto him. Why And Jesus said unto him, Why And Jesus said unto him, Why askest thou me concerning that callest thou me good? none is callest thou me good? none is which is good? One there is who good save one, even God. Thou good, save one, even God. Thou is good: but if thou wouldest enter knowest the commandments. knowest the commandments. into life, keep the commandments.
1 Document P $10.
The use of “enter into life,” aside from the above Matthaean addition, is found in document MK 9:43-47. But, as has been determined by a preceding comparative study,' the original form of these sayings about the right eye and the right hand is found in document M 85, from which the phrase "enter into life" is entirely absent. That the phrase occurs nowhere else, except in the above Matthaean addition to document MK, may fairly be taken as one additional minor factor in the cumulative evidence that the document M 85 report of the sayings about eye and hand is the more original.
Another phrase bearing the word “life (5wń)” was used on several occasions by the interrogators of Jesus, namely, “eternal life.'
'To Jesus himself the phrase is attributed in two passages only, one in document MK, one in document M. That in document M appears in the Judgment Scene portrayal in M g 26: “And these shall go away into eternal punishment: but the righteous into eternal life.” That in document MK stands as the conclusion to the conversation begun by the question of the rich young ruler: "Good Master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? The words of Jesus are: “There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or mother, or father, or children, or lands .... but he shall receive a hundredfold now in this time .... and in the age to come eternal life.” That the choice of the phrase "eternal life” in this statement by Jesus results from the form of question put to him at the beginning of the conversation seems suggested by the fact that in the main course of the discussion Jesus employs only his customary designation of present and absolute blessedness, that is, "to enter into the kingdom of God.”. Since the above document M instance of “eternal life" is part of a paragraph against which there are many evidences, 3 and since Jesus apparently takes the phrase in document MK from his questioner, it can hardly be held that this form of phraseology is revelatory of the mode of view of Jesus.
To summarize the above results: The phrase "to enter into life" occurs only in passages which are shown, by the comparison of document with gospel or document with document, to be modifications of the words of Jesus. The phrase "eternal life” appears in one passage where its use by Jesus was probably prompted by the form of question See pp. 259-63.
2 Document MK 10:17-31. 3 See pp. 235-45.