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practices and inhuman sacrifices. Nor does it occur in the biblical apocryphal literature. It emerges first, in the above document MK sense, in apocalytic literature, the date of which must be conjectured. The portion D of document MK seems to be a transcription from Isa. 66:24, which reads in full: “And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhoring unto all flesh.” Since these additions about "fire" have been so freely placed here, Matthew having gone beyond even document. MK in the portion B by the change of “into Gehenna” so that his phrase reads “into the Gehenna of fire,” the question naturally arises whether in document M $4, previously considered, the saying of Jesus has received an addition in the words, “of fire."
There remain for consideration the two appearances of the word Gehenna in document M 827, the report of the discourse against the Pharisees. Of the second of these, that at the close of the discourse, a study has already been made at other points. It has been seen that this eschatological close to the discourse is unsupported by the document P report of the final words of Jesus on this occasion. Instead of consigning the Pharisees to a drastic eschatological fate, as here represented, Jesus seems to have forecast their downfall with the ruin of the nation, document P $18B. In the former of the instances in this discourse, Matt. 23:15, the phrase, “a son of Gehenna,” in the saying, “Ye make him twofold more a son of Gehenna than yourselves," seems to be a term of opprobrium, which takes its content of contempt from the fact that one condemned to the valley of Hinnom was a social outcast, made one by the nature of the crimes punished by such disposal of the body. In view of the uses to which the valley of Hinnom was put, especially because it was the depository of the bodies of criminals, it is natural to believe that scathing condemnation found one of its most penetrating thrusts in the application to the Pharisees of the opprobrious title, “son of Gehenna,” a term probably current in Jesus' day for precisely such a personal rebuke.
Unless the evidence has been wrongly interpreted, the necessary conclusion from the foregoing results is that Jesus never used Gehenna
1 See pp. 32-35, 225, 226.
in any other sense than the valley of Hinnom, that is, the valley of Hinnom as the depository of the offal of Jerusalem, the carcasses of animals, and the bodies of criminals who by the special nature of their crimes were refused the rites of burial so sacred to the Jews. Wherever Gehenna appears in any other sense in the gospels, most especially where it is conceived of as the place of future and eternal punishment, the comparative study of documents seems to show with clearness that this sense is derived by subsequent modification of the original words of Jesus.
84. TORMENT AND FIRE All passages in the Synoptic Gospels in which there appears the notion of Torment and Fire as the portion of the wicked, in the future aeon, have come under examination at one point or another in previous studies. For review, they may be set down together, with references to the places where the full discussions of their original source are to be found.
GOSPEL MT 8:29
GOSPEL LK 8:28 What have we to do with thee, What have I to do with thee, What have I to do with thee, 1.
thou Son of God? art thou come Jesus, thou Son of the Most High Jesus, thou Son of the Most High hither to torment us before the God? I adjure thee by God, tor- God? I beseech thee, torment me time? ment me not.
not. GOSPEL MT 18:8, 9
DOCUMENT MK 9:43-49 It is good for thee to enter into It is good for thee to enter into life maimed or halt, rather than life maimed, rather than having having two hands or two feet to be thy two hands to go into hell, into
It the unquenchable fire. II. cast into the eternal fire.
It is good for thee to enter into life is good for thee to enter into the with one eye, rather than having kingdom of God with one eye, two eyes to be cast into the hell of rather than having two eyes to be fire.
cast into hell; where their worm
be salted with fire.
Every tree that bringeth not IV. forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
DOCUMENT M $15 As therefore the tares gathered up and burned with fire; so shall it be in the end of the world. The Son of man shall
send forth his angels, and they V. shall gather out of his kingdom
all things that cause stumbling, and them that do iniquity, and shall cast them into the furnace
It will be observed that all references to "fire" in the Synoptic Gospels are derived from the single document M, except passage II above. The one mention of “Torment,” passage I, in which torment is treated as future, through the phrase "before the time," is likewise Matthaean. It is significant that the only passage outside of document M in which the future is treated in terms of "fire" is shown, by the external evidence, to have been added to document MK after the exemplar used by Luke had been copied. Thus the document MK form of these sayings stands with the various sayings above from document M as the product of times subsequent to Jesus. Fortunately, in this single instance where the tendency manifests itself in document MK, we are able to correct it by the use of another document, M $5, which apparently has not suffered modi. fication in this body of sayings.
I. We are not dealing here with words attributed to Jesus, but with those reputed to have come from a demon. Their significance for the present study, therefore, lies in the fact that they exhibit the Matthaean eschatological conception by the addition "before the time." He believes in a future for demons, in which they will suffer torment, and reports the demon as asking for release from torment until that aeon of torment has come.?
II. The method of Matthew in his use of this passage from document MK, and the departures of the MK report from the original form in document M 85, by which the element "fire" has been given so large a place, have been considered. The origin of the last sentence under document MK, “For every one shall be salted with fire,” was suggested in the study of this problem chapter of document MK.4 1 See pp. 67-78.
3 See pp. 259-63. . See pp. 87, 88.
4 See pp. 67-78.
III. It was not possible to apply any external test to this passage, as it is recorded in no other document. In the light of the whole paragraph of which it is a part, it seems notably clear that the valley of Hinnom is meant. The conjecture was made that “of fire” originated as did the same words in the passage under II.'
IV. This saying is one part of the addition in document M to the report of the Sermon on the Mount. The words here are probably traceable to the influence of the phraseology of John the Baptist, document G 1B end.
V. It will be recalled that the presence of the word “fire” was not brought forward among the considerations advanced against regarding this exposition of the parable of the Wheat and Tares as being from Jesus.3
VI. That this exposition was traced in a previous study to some source other than Jesus was not determined in any degree by the fact that it speaks of an eschatological fate in terms of "fire.”3
VII. It ought to be observed that the conception in this passage from the Judgment Scene of document M $264 is precisely that set forth by the Matthaean addition to his document MK in passage I above, namely, that there is for the demons, “the devil and his angels," a “torment” in the form of “the eternal fire.”
Apparently the evidence requires that it be held that Jesus himself never referred to “torment” or "fire" as the form of future fate for the unrighteous. It seems worth while to consider whether the fact that when all passages using the word "fire" are brought together they are found to have been called in question previously on grounds wholly apart from the presence of this word ought to be taken as one more attested portion of a cumulative evidence that the judgments already formed on each one of these passages are correct.
$5. HADES (đons) The word “Hades" is credited to Jesus three times in the Synoptic X Gospels. It occurs twice in document P, P 885, 53; the other instance is in gospel MT 16:18, where it is unsupported by document See p. 262.
3 See pp. 226–35. See pp. 216–18.
4 See pp. 235-45. 5 There is yet to be considered, however, the parable of Lazarus and the Rich Man, on which see pp. 294-98.
MK which Matthew is using for this paragraph of his gospel. It is not important to determine, in this connection,' the source of the additions to document MK made by Matthew in 16:17-19, for the phrase he there uses, “the gates of Hades," does not refer to Hades as the future abode of the righteous or unrighteous, but is part of a mode of conveying the idea of violent and malignant opposition:
GOSPEL MT 16:18 And I also say unto thee, that thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it.
Similarly, in document P $5 the word Hades does not convey teaching of Jesus about the future state of mankind; it is simply a phrase of contrast:
DOCUMENT P 85 And thou, Capernaum, shalt thou be exalted unto heaven ? thou shalt be brought down unto Hades. Here the word “heaven" is an equivalent for the uppermost position; “Hades" is that which is nethermost. Capernaum will not proudly exalt herself or be exalted; she will be laid low, will be brought to the dust.
One only of the three instances of Jesus' use of “Hades" exhibits the term with a meaning which demands attention in a study of Jesus' thought as to the future of mankind, that in
DOCUMENT P $53 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels into Abraham's bosom; and the rich man also died, and was buriedAnd in Hades he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. This is part of a parable which is so important as to demand independent complete study. It contains many other phases of thought about the future.?
DOCUYENT M 813 Enter ye in by the narrow gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many be they that enter in thereby. For narrow is the gate, and straitened the way, that leadeth unto life, and few be they that find it.
By this saying Jesus sets in contrast two fates in the future, fates determined by the way chosen by the individual. As the antithesis to “life (Swń),” he puts forward “destruction (atrólela).” The latter word is recorded nowhere else.
In one or two passages where the verb form (átólluul) is attributed to Jesus, the content of the thought conveyed is such that there is in it an outlook toward the future. Such is the case in i See pp. 329-32.
See pp. 294-98.