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For in the resurrec H

For H

and the resurrection they neither marry,

when they shall rise from tion from the dead, neither nor are given in marriage, the dead, they neither

marry, nor are given in
marry, nor are given in marriage

for neither can

they die any more: J but are as angels in J. but are as angels J

in heaven.

they are equal unto the

and are sons of God, being sons of the

resurrection. L But as touching L

But as touching L

But that the the resurrection of the the dead, that they are dead are raised, even dead, have ye not read raised; have ye not read Moses shewed, in the place that which was spoken in the book of Moses, in concerning the Bush, when unto you by God, saying, the place concerning the he calleth the Lord the I am the God of Abraham, Bush, how God spake God of Abraham, and the and the God of Isaac, and unto him, saying, I am God of Isaac, and the God the God of Jacob? God the God of Abraham, and of Jacob. Now he is not is not the God of the dead, the God of Isaac, and the the God of the dead, but but of the living.

God of Jacob? He is not of the living:
the God of the dead, but of
the living: ye do greatly


for all live unto him.

The evangelist Matthew follows his document MK with notable faithfulness in the above paragraph. The evangelist Luke substitutes the portion G for the portion F of his document, and adds the portions I, K, M. That which Luke did not derive from his document MK is set to the right in the exhibit. The most important of his additions is the thought contained in portion G. By it participation in the resurrection seems limited to "them that are accounted worthy to attain to that aeon and the resurrection from the dead.” The portion I is a natural inference from the nature of the resurrection life as defined elsewhere in the paragraph; it is a spirit life, that is, “as angels in heaven." If so, it seems reasonable to conclude that “neither can they die any more.” Both of the portions K and G, added by Luke, contain related phraseology, “sons of this aeon

sons of God ... sons of the resurrection.” In previous studies it has been learned that one of the discoverable tendencies in the gospels is that of adding to the documentary words of Jesus the notion of the Two Aeons, as Luke has done in the portion G.

The apparent limitation of the resurrection to "them that are accounted worthy to attain” seems set aside in favor of a larger view by the portion M, “for all live unto him.” But the “all” may be intended by the evangelist to refer only to all to whom the God of the patriarchs is truly God. However, both portions G and M lie outside the document used by Luke, and have an interest only as


setting forth certain tendencies in the handling of the original words of Jesus on this subject, as recorded in document MK. From the document MK record, it seems difficult to deduce with certainty the thought of Jesus as to the extent of the resurrection, as to whether it is to include all men or those only “that are accounted worthy to attain.” Of the fact of the resurrection, he was certain; of the nature of the resurrection life, he spoke with sufficient clearness; of its extent, he leaves the inference to be made from the content of his argument for the fact.

In the document P reference to the resurrection, the positive declaration of its extent does not include more than “the just":

DOCUMENT P $43C And he said to him also that had bidden him, When thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, nor thy kinsmen, nor rich neighbours, lest haply they also bid thee again, and a recompense be made thee. But when thou makest a feast, bid the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind: and thou shalt be blessed; because they have not wherewith to recompense thee: for thou shalt be recompensed in the resurrection of the just.


There is no explicit exclusion from the resurrection of others than those meant by “the just,” though the use of the narrower phrase, “the resurrection of the just,” does suggest that the outlook has definite limitations. For if the mind customarily thought in broader terms, it might be expected to use qualifying words only under the pressure of special conditions; these do not seem to be present in the circumstances of this occasion. No more can be said with assurance than that here there is assumed a resurrection of at least "the just.”

It ought to be observed that the paragraph is complete in sense, and adequate, it seems to the purpose of the hour, without the closing words, "for thou shalt be recompensed in the resurrection of the just.” The necessary balance for the contrast can be fully found in the promise, “and thou shalt be blessed.” It does not seem improbable that the second "for thou shalt be” is the endeavor of an interpreter to give specific content to the blessedness promised by Jesus. However, there is no external critical test that may be applied to this case. In the structure of the paragraph, “because they have not wherewith to recompense thee” seems to be the parallelism to “and a recompense be made thee,” and as such the natural conclusion of the saying. In any case, the teaching of Jesus on the resurrection, as given in the two passages in which he touches upon that theme, shows that he

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had profound conviction of the fact of resurrection; that he conceived of the resurrection life as a spirit life—“they are as angels;” and that the resurrection state is attained by at least “the just.”

82. THE TWO AEONS That mode of world-view to which there is to be attributed the addition of the notion of the Two Aeons as set forth in the Lukan addition G in the first paragraph above on the resurrection has been apparently the cause of other modifications and additions to the original words of Jesus. In a previous study there was brought under review briefly a striking instance in the Gospel of Matthew:

GOSPEL MT 12:31, 32 A Therefore I say unto you, Every sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men; but the blasphemy against the Spirit shall not be forgiven.

DOCUMENT MK 3:28, 29 A Verily I say unto you, All their sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and their blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme: but whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit hath never forgiveness, B

but is guilty of an eternal sin.

DOCUMENT P 821 C And every one who shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit it shall not be forgiven.

C And whosoever shall speak a word against the
Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whoso-
ever shall speak against the Holy Spirit, it shall
not be forgiven him,

neither in this aeon, nor in that which is to come.

The portion D is not derivable, except by inference, from document P821 which Matthew used in portion C. But as the evangelist was making one of the most skilful and carefully wrought of his many wise combinations of documents in the narrative of which these sayings are a part, and as at this point he has effected a conflation of closely similar sayings from documents MK and P, it is reasonable to regard the portion D as his rewriting of the Markan portion B. It is in precisely such recastings that there emerges in his work as editor now this and now that phase of his eschatological outlook. How his world-view affected his work in details may be seen more clearly in this case if the portion D be interpreted as his equivalent for the portion B, and the comparison be made on the basis of the Greek text.

But the most marked evidence of the Matthaean world-view appears in the repeated use of the technical phrase "the consummation of the aeon." Five times this occurs in the Synoptic Gospels,

See p. 57, n. I.

and always in gospel MT. It has been found in the final discourse on the future as the Matthaean addition to the document MK report of the question of the disciples, Matt. 24:3=MK 13:4. In the expositions of the parables of the Wheat and Tares and the Drag-net this phrase, “the consummation of the aeon,” appears three times, Matt. 13:39, 40, 49. But for the rejection of those expositions as from Jesus there were found many external reasons. Its only other occurrence is as the closing words of the Great Commission, Matt. 28:20; subsequently some reasons will be advanced for the view that there it is additional to the original utterance of Jesus.” If previous and subsequent reasoning on these passages is sound, all these gospel MT uses of the word "aeon," whether alone or as part of the phrase "the consummation of the aeon," are Matthaean in their origin, and hence not representative of the mode of view of Jesus.

In all of the Matthaean instances there is betrayed the technical, eschatological emphasis in the term, that special use of it by which a body of related ideas is suggested. These notions are not essentially inherent to the word "aeon,” and it may be so employed as to carry no more than its customary meaning. It is with this general sense that one has to deal in interpreting the single occurrence of the word in document P, and the two instances of its appearance in document MK. Thus in document P it emerges as a part of the parable of the Unrighteous Steward:

DOCUMENT P $47 And his lord commended the unrighteous stewa because he had done wisely: for the sons of this world (aiør) are for their own generation wiser than the sons of the light. There is here no contrast of two aeons, but an opposition of “sons of this aeon” against "sons of the light.” In an even less degree has the word the technical cast of thought in the document MK exposition of a parable:

DOCUMENT MK 4:18, 19 And others are they that are sown among the thorns; these are they that have heard the word, and the cares of the world (aiwv), and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.

There is not the setting of aeon over against aeon, as in the Matthaean passages, but simply the recognition of large time divisions, a present and a future, in the reported promise of Jesus when asked about the rewards of discipleship: 1 See pp. 226-35.

2 See pp. 342-52.

DOCUMENT MK 10:29, 30 There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or mother, or father, or children, or lands, for my sake, and for the gospel's sake, but he shall receive a hundredfold now in this time (Kaipós )

and in the age (aiwv) to come eternal life.

To summarize: The word occurs in one passage in gospel LK as an editorial addition to document MK material, Luke 20:34, 35=MK 12:24, 25. It appears once in document P, P $47, and twice in document MK, MK 4:19; 10:30, in no case with any evident technical sense. Six times it is present in Matthaean material, Matt. 12:32; 13:39, 40, 49; 24:3; 28:20, always with a distinctly eschatological cast; five of the six instances are in the phrase "the consummation of the aeon.” It seems evidenced that only the passages in documents P and MK are from Jesus.

$3. HELL OR GEHENNA (yéevva) The word Hell or Gehenna (yéevva) does not occur in document G. It appears once in document P, P $20. In document MK it is found three times, all within a single paragraph (MK 9:43-47). Five instances of its use are recorded in document M, distributed in four paragraphs which are parts of M $$4, 5, 27. The document MK paragraph is another report of the same sayings as are found in document M 85, and the latter report seems to preserve the true historical setting of these words. If it is correct to regard P $20 as part of the final discourse on the future, then the sayings about Gehenna belong to three of the longest groups of words from Jesus: The Sermon on the Mount, M 84+M 85=MK 9:43-47; the Discourse against the Pharisees, M 827; and the Final Discourse on the Future, P $20.

As is well known, the word Gehenna (yéevva) is derived ultimately from the Hebrew expression DB7 a, that is, valley of Hinnom. This valley lay to the south and southwest of Jerusalem; and is reputed to have been the depository for the dead bodies of criminals and carcasses of animals and the refuse of the city. In the light of the history of the word and of the place, the sayings of Jesus on the subject may be examined.


Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgement: but I say unto you, that every one who is angry with his brother shall be in danger of the judgement: and whosoever shall say to his brother. Raca, shall be in danger of the council; and whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of the hell of fire.

The forms of penalty attached to the several expressions of what Jesus regards as in essence the same as murder seem to be in an

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