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shake off

unto them.


posed distinction is not a modern over-refinement seems evidenced by the fact that the eschatological mind of Matthew did not find its satisfying expression in the simple phrase supplied by his document, “the judgement,” but only through its elaboration into the unmistakably eschatological term, “the day of judgement.”

That which is said in this paragraph concerning those cities which had been the centers of Jesus' ministry is affirmed of unreceptive cities about to be visited by the disciples of Jesus on their mission: DOCUMENT MK 6:11

DOCUMENT P $4 A And whatsoever place shall not receive you, and A But into whatsoever city ye shall enter, and they hear you not, as ye go forth thence,

they receive you not, go out into the streets thereof

B and say, Even the dust from your city, that the dust that is under your feet for a testimony cleaveth to our feet, we do wipe off against you:

how beit know this, that the kingdom of God is come nigh.

I say unto you, It shall be more

tolerable in that day for Sodom, than for that city. It may be doubted with good reason whether the portion C is from Jesus. Its entire absence from document MK stands against it, though not as a conclusive argument. But to this external evidence there is to be added the consideration that such severe condemnation as is implied in the words of C seems to be wanting in warrant when it is recalled that the messengers remained no long time at each city in their rapid itinerary of the provinces. That which might be spoken in criticism of cities in the midst of which Jesus had labored and taught for days, as Capernaum, could hardly be directed with justice against places touched superficially by his disciples. It seems more normal and more reasonable to regard the portion C as an extension by the disciples to the unfavorable places visited by them of words specifically used by Jesus, but not intended by him as a generalization for later propagandism. That the specific should become the general in this case was furthered no doubt by the documentary contiguity of the specific sayings, as both stand in document P $$4, 5.

When the evangelist Matthew made a combination of all the documentary references to the mission of the disciples in his tenth chapter, he inserted the portion C above as Matt. 10:15. But again his eschatological impulse led him to change “that day” of his document into his customary phrase, “the day of judgement." In one instance only did Matthew take over his document without giving to the reference to “judgement” found in it the eschatological cast, namely, the following passage about Nineveh and Sheba:


LUKAN P 16 A The men of Nineveh shall stand up in the A The men of Nineveh shall stand up in the judgement with this generation, and shall condemn judgement with this generation, and shall conit: for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; demn it: for they repented at the preaching of and behold, a greater than Jonah is here.

Jonah; and behold, a greater than Jonah is here. B. The queen of the south shall rise up in the B The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgement with this generation, and shall condemn judgement with the men of this generation, and it: for she came from the ends of the earth to hear shall condemn them: for she came from the ends the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, a greater of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and than Solomon is here.

behold, a greater than Solomon is here. There have been brought under review all references to the Day of Judgment, of whatever form or content, that are recorded in the Synoptic Gospels. Stated summarily, the results that seem to have been reached show that none of these statements of judgment are from Jesus, except the sayings about Chorazin and Bethsaida and about the men of Nineveh and the queen of Sheba “in the judgement." Even when taking these over from document P, the evangelist Matthew changed the phrase to "the day of judgement” in the case of Chorazin and Bethsaida. It is apparently to that same Matthaean tendencyusing Matthaean in the comprehensive sense of document M, evangelist Matthew, and later workers upon the Gospel of Matthew—that there is to be assigned the origin of every other saying or body of sayings about the Judgment, except, perhaps, the promise of Judicial Functions to the Twelve as in gospel LK (84).

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$ 1. The Resurrection
§ 2. The Two Aeons
$ 3. Hell or Gehenna (yéerva)
§ 4. Torment and Fire
§ 5. Hades (ö ons)
$ 6. Destruction
$ 7. The Soul (yuxń) and the Spirit (at vellua)
§ 8. Life and Eternal Life (swń)
$ 9. The Eternal Tabernacles
$10. Paradise and Glory
$11. Heaven
$12. The Future in Vague Figures
$13. The Narrow and the Shut Door
$14. The Passing Away of Heaven and Earth
$15. The Parable of Lazarus and the Rich Man



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$1. THE RESURRECTION Jesus is reported by the Synoptic Gospels to have referred to the Resurrection on two occasions only in the course of his teaching.

these, one is a brief assertion in the form of a promise at the close of some admonitions addressed to a Pharisee, document P $43C; the other is a more fully developed, argumentative statement of the belief and the grounds of the belief of Jesus on this theme, document MK 12:18-27. The latter was called forth by the Sadducean position on the Pharisaic hope of resurrection:



GOSPEL LK 20:27-38 A On that day there came A And there come unto A And there came to him to him Sadducees, which him Sadducees, which say certain of the Sadducees, say that there is no resur that there is no resurrec they which say that there rection: and they asked tion; and they asked him, is no resurrection; and him, saying, saying,

they asked him, saying, B Master, B

Master, Moses B Master, Moses wrote Moses said, If a man die, wrote unto us, If a man's unto us, that if a man's having no children, his brother die, and leave a brother die, having a wife, brother shall marry his wife behind him, and leave and he be childless, his wife, and raise up seed un no child, that his brother brother should take the to his brother.

should take his wife, and wife, and raise up seed
raise up seed unto his unto his brother.

Now there C

There were seven


There were were with us seven bre brethren: and the first therefore seven brethren: thren: and the first mar took a wife, and dying left and the first took a wife, ried and deceased, and no seed; and the second and died childless; and having no seed left his took her, and died, leaving the second; and the third wife unto his brother; in no seed behind him; and took her; and likewise like manner the second the third likewise: and the the seven also left no chilalso, and the third, unto seven left no seed.

dren, and died. the seventh. D And after them D

Last D

Afterward all the woman died. In of all the woman also died. the woman also died. In the resurrection therefore In the resurrection whose the resurrection therefore whose wife shall she be of wife shall she be of them? whose wife of them shall the seven? for they all had for the seven had her to she be? for the seven had her. wife.

her to wife. E But Jesus answered E

Jesus said unto E

And Jesus and said unto them, them,

said unto them, F

Ye do F Is it not for this err, not knowing the scrip cause that ye err, that ye tures, nor the power of know not the scriptures, God. nor the power of God? G

The sons of this world marry, and are given in marriage: but they that are accounted worthy to attain to that world,

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