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The above passage on the rewards of discipleship has been examined in connection with another phase of our study.' It has a place here solely on account of the portion D, which deals with the Day of Judgment. But the conclusion reached, in the comparison of gospel MT with document MK, was that the portion D cannot rightly be credited to Jesus, but is to be regarded as one of the expressions of a tendency which is the most marked characteristic of the Gospel of Matthew. Not only is the portion D absent from document MK at this point in the history; neither it nor thoughts like it can be found anywhere in document MK. However, in the case of this particular outgrowth of the Matthaean tendency, the Gospel of Luke seems to give its support to one sentence of the reputed promise of Jesus to the Twelve, “And ye shall sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel” (Luke 22:30). This fact requires that the Lukan passage in which it occurs, Luke 22:24-30, be brought under examination. By a study of the relations of the Synoptic Gospels, it will be found that this Lukan paragraph is one of the few narratives in the Passion Week which is peculiar to the Gospel of Luke. On the other hand, substantially the whole section, except the words dealing with the exaltation of the Twelve (Luke 22:28-30), is to be found in document MK at another point in the history, MK 10:42-45.
GOSPEL LK 22:24-30 A And there arose also a contention among them, which of them is accounted to be greatest.
B And he said unto them, The
DOCUMENT MK 10:41-45
A And when the ten heard it,
And Jesus called them
But it is not so
GOSPEL MT 19:28 E And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, that ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
are they which' have continued with me in my temptations; and I appoint unto you a kingdom, even as my Father appointed unto me, that ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom; and ye shall sit on thrones judging the twelve tribe of Israel.
· See pp. 93-95.
In accordance with a literary principle which Luke follows consistently in the construction of his gospel from his documents, he omits the document MK paragraph from its MK context, since he accepted its insertion in the narrative of the Last Supper. It seems, therefore, that Luke judged these sayings of Jesus to have been spoken on one occasion only. If Luke's decision accords with the history, the reader of today must make choice between the setting of document MK and that given by the Gospel of Luke. The Lukan setting has no support in the other Synoptics; that of document MK is circumstantial, and has been followed by the evangelist Matthew. The evidence seems to indicate clearly that the sayings of portions A,B,C,D were spoken once only, and that the occasion is that recorded by document MK 10:35-40. If this conclusion is correct, it is to be said further that document MK 10:35-45 affords no support for the supposition that the portion E was spoken by Jesus. It is not necessary to hold that the portion E is traceable to the evangelist Luke; it may have been added subsequently by some other hand. In that case, Luke used only that which was supplied to him by his document.
It ought to be observed, as of some significance, that the exaltation of the Twelve through the portion E is followed in the Gospel of Luke by certain modifications of document MK through which one among the Twelve is singled out for supreme recognition. This will be seen by comparing Luke 22:31-34 with document MK 14:27-31, especially in the phrase, “Do thou, when once thou [Peter] hast turned again, stablish thy brethren.” The portion E seems to represent a tendency to enhance the estimate of the Twelve, a tendency which finds its ultimate expression in placing Peter as the stable factor in the early apostolic circle—“stablish thy brethren.” Further, it ought to be had in mind that the evangelist Luke did not use gospel MT, nor did the evangelist Matthew use gospel LK;' therefore, the portion E, if from the evangelist in either or both cases, is independently inserted. Indeed, the variations in the wording of the two reports in E indicate the absence of documentary interdependence. In the case of both gospels, the saying in E may have come in subsequent to the construction of the gospels by the first and third evangelists.
In addition to these external considerations, the saying in portion E by its thought raises the question whether it is probable that it
See the monograph of Professor Burton for the evidences in support of this state
proceeded from the same mind that defined rank in the terms of the portions A, B, C, D. The ambition for place in the future kingdom expected by them was the most marked and unmistakable phase of the disciples' relations with Jesus from the time they believed him about to go to Jerusalem. This ambition frequently found the most open expression, both within the circle of the Twelve and before Jesus himself. It was uniformly met and opposed by Jesus in one way, namely, by the definition of greatness in terms which excluded all seeking for place, power, and recognition.' By this attitude toward the ambitious self-seeking of the Twelve, Jesus did not exclude the conviction that discipleship had its compensations; but these he defined in such manner as to make them comprehend equally all disciples whether within or without the circle of the Twelve.? To these most explicit and direct statements of his thought upon the subject of rank and recognition among the Twelve, Jesus added two parables at some point or points in his ministry, parables the specific and searching purpose of which can hardly be mistaken in the light of the contentions among the Twelve.3 To the attitude of Jesus as set forth in these passages and parables, and in others of like content, there stands opposed the single instance of the thought in the above portion E. If one considers only the above Lukan paragraph A-E, it will appear that within it there are two opposed points of view, that represented by portions A-D as against that maintained by E. When to these weighty internal indications there are added the arguments adduced from external considerations, it seems difficult to avoid the conclusion
that in the portion E, whether as placed in gospel MT or in gospel + LK, there is recorded a forecast of the future of the Twelve which
cannot be credited to Jesus.
See document MK 9:33-35; 10:35-45; document M 827 (Matt. 23:8-12).
See document MK 10:28–31.
4 It is not without significance that, elsewhere than in the above portion E, Jesus is credited with referring to the kingdom of God as “my kingdom" only in the Matthaean modification of document MK, Matt. 16:28 =MK 9:1 (on which see pp. 81-82), and in the Matthaean document, M $15B = Matt. 13:41, where the exposition of a parable is reported (on which see pp. 226–35). The form of promise in portion E, “I appoint unto you a kingdom,” is found elsewhere only in the modification of the Lukan P $25 (on the comparison of which with the Matthaean P, see pp. 61-63).
To what ultimate source the portion E on the Judicial Functions of the Twelve, which in the end was given a place in both gospel MT and gospel LK, is to be traced may not be affirmed with any certainty. What seems clear is that it is a product of that same eschatological impulse which, applied now unconsciously and again with a definite aim, has given us the sayings about the Son of Man as Judge of Men ($1), about False Prophets in the Day of Judgment ($2), and those with reference to Words as the Basis of Judgment (S3).
$5. THE FATE OF PHARISEES IN THE JUDGMENT
DOCUMENT P 818 A Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypo A Woe unto you! for ye build the tombs of the crites! for ye build the sepulchres of the prophets, prophets, and your fathers killed them. and garnish the tombs of the righteous, and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we should not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. Wherefore ye witness to yourselves,
So ye are that ye are sons of them that slew the prophets. witnesses and consent unto the works of your
fathers: for they killed them, and ye build their
Fill с Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I ye then the measure of your fathers.
will send unto them prophets and apostles; and pents, ye offspring of vipers, how shall ye escape some of them they shall kill and persecute; th the judgement of hell ?
the blood of all the prophets which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; from the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zachariah,who perished between the altar and the sanctuary: yea, I say unto you, it shall be
required of this generation, In a comparative study of the differing reports by two documents on the discourse against the scribes and Pharisees, it was observed that the penalty for the course pursued by scribes and Pharisees was recorded in divergent terms by the documents M and P, as represented in the above portion C. Because document M here refers to “the judgement of Gehenna,” the passage must have a place in the study of the theme now under consideration. According to document P, that which Jesus forecast, at the conclusion of the discourse, as the outcome of those tendencies represented in scribes and Pharisees, was the ruin of the nation within the time limits of those to whom he spoke, “I say unto you, it shall be required of this generation.” As has been seen, this is not an isolated prophecy by Jesus on the future as he saw it, but one of several clear references to the doom toward which the nation was moving under fanatical leadership.
Instead of this most natural conclusion to words of denunciation and warning, document M represents that Jesus had his mind rather
i See pp. 32-35.
upon an eschatological fate for the Pharisees, “How shall ye escape the judgement of Gehenna ?” That document represents the indignation of Jesus to have found expression in the most penetratingly exasperating personal terms, “Ye serpents, ye offspring of vipers.” This sounds more like the spirit and method of John the Baptist, indeed, is the repetition of his condemnatory words. It ought to be recalled that similar terms against the Pharisees by Jesus are a part of one of the adapted uses of the paragraph on the good and the corrupt tree, Matt. 12:34, "Ye offspring of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things ?” It would seem to be one of the document M or Matthean purposes to represent Jesus as so warmly opposed to the Pharisees that he hesitated at no extreme of designation, and pursued them in thought even into the eschatological region. But the conviction that such actually was the method of Jesus fails to be supported at any point by the external evidence derivable through a comparison of document with document.
Except for the appearance of the Judicial Functions of the Twelve ($4) in gospel LK as well as in gospel MT, all references to judgment examined to the present, namely, the Son of Man as Judge of Men ($1), False Prophets in the Day of Judgment ($2), Words as the Basis of Judgment ($3), the Fate of Pharisees in the Judgment ($5), are found by comparative study to be apparently the product of Matthaean tendency. By Matthaean as here used is meant that total of factors which has fashioned the features peculiar to the present Gospel of Matthew. It is not intended to distinguish sharply between document M, the evangelist Matthew, and subsequent workers upon the Gospel of Matthew. In no case has the Matthaean reference to judgment come as a part of a supplementary report, but always as additional to sayings of Jesus otherwise reported by documents.
$6. THE SEPARATION OF BAD FROM GOOD IN THE JUDGMENT
In addition to the several foregoing contributions from the Matthaean circle to the conception of the day of judgment, there is found in the Gospel of Matthew the exposition of two parables from Jesus, which are assigned to document M $$15, 18. In these expositions there is sketched with vividness the scene of the ultimate separation of bad from good in the judgment.