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largely lost its original form. But the parable of the Great Supper or Marriage Feast is reported with fulness and unity in both documents P and M, P $43E=M $23, and only in document M is defined by formula as a parable of the kingdom of God.

It seems reasonable, if not necessary, to conclude that Jesus did not designate the parable of the Ten Virgins as a parable of the kingdom of God, but that the opening formula of that parable is to be explained as is the same formula in others of the parables of document M outside those which belong to the discourse in parables, M $$15-19. It has been seen that the phrase "kingdom of God” in the only other place, where it occurs in the report of the final discourse, Luke 21:31, is an editorial interpretation. If we confine ourselves to terms as used and defined by Jesus himself, it apparently must be asserted that the final discourse on the future is not a portrayal of the future of "the kingdom of God.” For a knowledge of the future of the kingdom one must go to that discourse which is expressly and at great length devoted to the exposition of the thought of Jesus on that important subject.

$11. THE MISSION OF THE DISCIPLES It has been observed that the evangelist Matthew, by the transfer of a paragraph from the document MK report of the final discourse, and the assembling of other sections from document P bearing on the future of the disciples, constructed a long discourse on the mission, the latter part of which had reference to the period after the death of Jesus, Matt. 10:17–42. Thus the Gospel of Matthew has two accounts of the future of the mission, that in the tenth chapter, constructed by the union of documents, and that in the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth chapters, mostly from the document MK discourse on that subject. It was evidently the judgment of the evangelist that certain material in document P, dealing with the future, would be found most intelligible if brought into contextual relation with the final discourse on the future. But since that discourse, as reported by document MK, formed a unit of such length and so bound together by chronological indications, it did not form a favorable depository for all of the additional material from document P. Apparently for this reason, among others, Matthew adopted the plan of removing the paragraph bearing directly on the mission, MK 13:9-13, to another

point, Matt. 10:17-22, and there adding to it the document P contributions to that subject. By this means he virtually gave this material from document P a setting in the final discourse.

Because Matthew had that judgment about this document P teaching, it is not therefore established that these sections, P 8820, 32, 44B, 6, really belong to the final discourse of Jesus on the future; but the decision of the evangelist does raise the question whether there is any objective evidence that his conclusion was in accord with the facts. He used P $20 as Matt. 10:26–33. Evidently the connection between that section and the one which precedes it in document P is based upon a misinterpretation of the thought with which P $20 opens. The saying in P $21 belongs to another occasion, as is testified by document MK as well as by the internal evidence in the form of its lack of relationship to the present context. But P 822 may very well be a continuation of the theme in P $20, and these two sections may once have stood together. As P 822 is by the evidence of document MK a part of the final discourse, it is not unreasonable to hold the same for P $20. To this external testimony there is to be added the striking appropriateness of P $20 to the occasion of the final discourse as against the probability of its words having come from Jesus earlier than his last days with his disciples.

Matthew used P 832 as Matt. 10:34-36. In the study of P $82730 it was observed that the following sections, P $831, 32, both contained sayings likely to have been spoken in the final week of Jesus' ministry. Such must be the decision on internal evidence. But if the judgment is correct that P $$27-30 are the document P report of the two parables of the final discourse, there is external evidence for assigning P $831, 32 there also, that of contiguity in the document. The reasons for Matthew's omission of P 831 can only be surmised; that the omission results from a purpose seems supported by observing that the references to “baptism” in document MK 10:38-40 are eliminated by Matthew in Matt. 20:22, 23.

Matthew used P 844B as Matt. 10:37-39. There is no external evidence in support of the belief that this was a part of the final dis

It is rather a part of a larger paragraph which defines the conditions in general for discipleship to Jesus, P $44. But it will be agreed that its adaptation by Matthew for use in the discourse he was

course.

constructing is natural when it is observed how normal and easy is the transition from Matt. 10:35, 36 to Matt. 10:37. Further justification for placing document P $44B at this point could be found by Matthew in his document MK, for similar sayings in document MK (MK 8:34-37) had been taken to refer primarily to the persecution of the disciples, and so had come to have attached to them certain sayings about denial and promises of relief (MK 8:38–9:1), and the more original report of the former of these sayings (MK 8:38) he had inserted already from document P $ 20 as Matt. 10:32, 33. Further evidence that Matthew was influenced here by document MK 8:34– 9:1 is seen, perhaps, in Matt. 10:39, which is not derivable from P $44B except as an expansion of “yea, and his own life also.” If Matt. 10:39 is not that phrase rewritten under the influence of document MK 8:35, its source is probably Luke 17:33 (P $60). In any case the presence of Matt. 10:37-39 in this discourse is evidence of the interpretation placed upon these words of Jesus in the time of Matthew, and forms yet another explanation of the apostolic conjunction of MK 8:38—9:1 with MK 8:34-37. But it gives no reason for regarding document P $44B as a part of the final discourse.

Probably under the influence of P S6, Matthew adapts document MK 9:37 so that it may be given a place in his discourse on the mission as Matt. 10:40. But the external evidence seems to indicate that document P $6 was a part of the instructions for the mission during the lifetime of Jesus, P 883–6. Into the document MK that saying came at 9:37 through a later misunderstanding of the opening phrase "one of such little children." Neither document MK nor document P gives external evidence that the saying belongs to the final discourse, though its content is such as does not exclude it from that occasion.

The influence of document P on that part of the Matthaean discourse on the mission of the disciples which deals with the future extends from Matt. 10:26 to 10:40, and includes P $$20, 32, 44B and 6. Of these portions of document P, there can be assigned to the final discourse on the basis of external evidence P $$20 and 32. Neither internal nor external evidence justifies the placing of P 844 there; and only internal evidence suggests the right of P $6=MK 9:37 to be regarded as belonging to that occasion. Since for the

latter passage there is assigned by the document Pa definite occasion of origin, there is no justification for placing in the final discourse other of this material than P $S20 and 32. The total contribution of document P to a knowledge of the content of the original final discourse on the future is made up therefore of P S$20, 22, 27–32, 60 and 64B.

On the basis of the results which seem to have been reached in the foregoing studies, there may be attempted now a reconstruction of the complete final discourse of Jesus on the future.

$12. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE FINAL DISCOURSE

$1. OCCASION OF THE DISCOURSE

And as he went forth out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master, behold, what manner of stones and what manner of buildings! And Jesus said unto him, Seest thou these great buildings ? there shall not be left here one stone upon another, which shall not be thrown down.

$2. QUESTION BY THE DISCIPLES

And as he sat on the mount
of Olives over against the temple,
Peter and James and John and
Andrew asked him privately, Tell
us, when shall these things be?
and what shall be the sign when
these things are about to be
accomplished ?
83. EVENTS BEFORE THE SIEGE

And Jesus began to say unto
them, When ye shall hear of wars
and rumours of wars, be not
troubled: these things must needs
come to pass; but the end is not
yet.

For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom:

there shall be earthquakes in A

divers places;
there shall be famines:
these things are the beginning of
travail.

$4. DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM

But when ye see the abomination of desolation standing where it ought not

(let him that B then let them readeth understand), that are in Judæa flee unto the mountains:

с

and let him that is on the housetop not go down, nor enter in, to take anything out of his house: and let him that is in the field not return back to take his cloke.

But woe unto them that are with child and to them that give suck in those days! And pray ye that it be not in the winter For those days shall be tribulation, such as there hath not been the like from the beginning

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85. RISE OF MESSIANIC CLAIMANTS

The days will come, when ye shall desire to see one of the days

of the Son of man, and ye shall not E And then if any man shall see it. And they shall say to you, say unto you, Lo, here is the Lo, there! Lo, here! go not away, Christ; or, Lo, there; believe nor follow after them: Take it not: for there shall arise false heed that no man lead you astray. Christs and false prophets, and Many shall come shall shew signs and wonders, saying, I am he: and shall lead that they may lead astray, if many astray. possible, the elect. But take ye heed: behold I have told you all things beforehand

in my name, F

86. THE DAY OF THE SON OF MAN G But in those days, after that For as the lightning, when it tribulation, the sun shall be lighteneth out of the one part darkened, and the moon shall not under the heaven, shineth unto give her light, and the stars shall the other part under heaven; so be falling from heaven, and the shall the Son of man be in powers that are in the heavens his day.

But first must he suffer H shall be shaken. And then shall they see the Son of man coming

And this generation.

many things and be rejected of in clouds with

great power as it came to pass in the days of and glory. And then shall he Noah, even so shall it be also in send forth the angels, and shall the days of the Son of man. They gather together his elect from ate, they drank, they married, the four winds, from the utter- they were given in marriage, until most part of the earth to the ut the day that Noah entered into the termost part of heaven.

ark, and the flood came, and de-
stroyed them all.

Likewise even
as it came to pass in the days of
Lot; they ate, they drank, they
bought, they sold, they planted,
they builded; but in the day that
Lot went out from Sodom it rained
fire and brimstone from heaven,
and destroyed them all: after the
same manner shall it be in the day
that the Son of man is revealed.
In that day, he which shall be on
the housetop, and his goods in the
house, let him not go down to take
them away; and let him that
is in the field likewise not re-
turn back.
Remember Lot's wife.

Whosoever shall seek to gain I his life shall lose it: but whosoever shall lose his life shall

preserve it.
I say unto you,
In that night there shall be two
men on one bed; the one shall be
taken, and the other shall be left.
There shall be two women grind-
ing together; the one shall be
taken, and the other shall be
left.

87 AN INTERRUPTION BY THE DISCIPLES

And they answering say unto him, Where, Lord ? And he said unto them, Where the body is, thither will the eagles also be gathered together.

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