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LACEY ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1981
[Public Law 97–79, Approved Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1073]
(Amended through Public Law 100-653, Nov. 14, 1988]
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, (16 U.S.C. 3371 note) That this Act may be cited as the “Lacey Act Amendments of 1981”. SEC. 2. (16 U.S.C. 3371) DEFINITIONS.
For purposes of this Act:
(a) The term "fish or wildlife” means any wild animal, whether alive or dead, including without limitation any wild mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, mollusk, crustacean, arthropod, coelenterate, or other invertebrate, whether or not bred, hatched, or born in captivity, and includes any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof.
(b) The term "import” means to land on, bring into, or introduce into, any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, whether or not such landing, bringing, or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning of the customs laws of the United States.
(c) The term "Indian tribal law” means any regulation of, or other rule of conduct enforceable by, any Indian tribe, band, or group but only to the extent that the regulation or rule applies within Indian country as defined in section 1151 of title 18, United States Code.
(d) The terms “law," "treaty,” “regulation," and "Indian tribal law” mean laws, treaties, regulations or Indian tribal laws which regulate the taking, possession, importation, exportation, transportation, or sale of fish or wildlife or plants.
(e) The term “person” includes any individual, partnership, association, corporation, trust, or any officer, employee, agent, department, or instrumentality of the Federal Government or of any State or political subdivision thereof, or any other entity subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
(f) The terms “plant” and “plants” mean any wild member of the plant kingdom, including roots, seeds, and other parts thereof (but excluding common food crops and cultivars) which is indigenous to any State and which is either (A) listed on an appendix to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, or (B) listed pursuant to any State law that provides for the conservation of species threatened with extinction.
(g) The term “Secretary” means, except as otherwise provided in the Act, the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Commerce, as program responsibilities are vested pursuant to the provisions of Reorganization Plan Numbered 4 of 1970 (84 Stat. 2090); except that with respect to the provisions of this Act which pertain to the importation or exportation of plants the term means the Secretary of Agriculture.
(h) The term “State” means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and any other territory, commonwealth, or possession of the United States.
(i) The term “taken” means captured, killed, or collected.
(j) The term "transport” means to move, convey, carry, or ship by any means, or to deliver or receive for the purpose of movement, conveyance, carriage, or shipment. SEC. 3. (16 U.S.C. 3372] PROHIBITED ACTS.
(a) OFFENSES OTHER THAN MARKING OFFENSES.—It is unlawful for any person
(1) to import, export, transport, sell, receive, acquire, or purchase any fish or wildlife or plant taken, possessed, transported, or sold in violation of any law, treaty, or regulation of the United States or in violation of any Indian tribal law;
(2) to import, export, transport, sell, receive, acquire, or purchase in interstate or foreign commerce
(A) any fish or wildlife taken, possessed, transported, or sold in violation of any law or regulation of any State or in violation of any foreign law, or
(B) any plant taken, possessed, transported, or sold in violation of any law or regulation of any State;
(3) within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States (as defined in section 7 of title 18, United States Code)
(A) to possess any fish or wildlife taken, possessed, transported, or sold in violation of any law or regulation of any State or in violation of any foreign law or Indian tribal law, or
(B) to possess any plant taken, possessed, transported, or sold in violation of any law or regulation of any State;
(4) to attempt to commit any act described in paragraphs (1) through (4). 2
(b) MARKING OFFENSES.-It is unlawful for any person to import, export, or transport in interstate commerce any container or package containing any fish or wildlife unless the container or package has previously been plainly marked, labeled, or tagged in accordance with the regulations issued pursuant to paragraph (2) of subsection 7(a) of this Act.
(c) SALE AND PURCHASE OF GUIDING AND OUTFITTING SERVICES AND INVALID LICENSES AND PERMITS. —
(1) SALE.—It is deemed to be a sale of fish or wildlife in violation of this Act for a person for money or other consideration to offer or provide
(A) guiding, outfitting, or other services; or
1 So in original. Probably should be followed by “or”. 2 So in original. Probably should refer to paragraphs (1) through (3).
for the illegal taking, acquiring, receiving, transporting, or possessing of fish or wildlife.
(2) PURCHASE. It is deemed to be a purchase of fish or wildlife in violation of this Act for a person to obtain for money or other consideration
(A) guiding, outfitting, or other services; or
(B) a hunting or fishing license or permit; for the illegal taking,
acquiring, receiving, transporting, or possessing of fish or wildlife.
(d) FALSE LABELING OFFENSES.—It is unlawful for any person to make or submit any false record, account, or label for, or any false identification of, any fish, wildlife, or plant which has been, or is intended to be
(1) imported, exported, transported, sold, purchased, or received from any foreign country; or
(2) transported in interstate or foreign commerce. SEC. 4. (16 U.S.C. 3373] PENALTIES AND SANCTIONS. (a) CIVIL PENALTIES.
(1) Any person who engages in conduct prohibited by any provision of this Act (other than subsection 3(b) 1 and in the exercise of due care should know that the fish or wildlife or plants were taken, possessed, transported, or sold in violation of, or in a manner unlawful under, any underlying law, treaty, or regulation, may be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary of not more than $10,000 for each such violation: Provided, That when the violation involves fish or wildlife or plants with a market value of less than $350, and involves only the transportation, acquisition, or receipt of fish or wildlife or plants taken or possessed in violation of any law, treaty, or regulation of the United States, any Indian tribal law, any foreign law, or any law or regulation of any State, the penalty assessed shall not exceed the maximum provided for violation of said law, treaty, or regulation, and any person who knowingly violates section 3(d), or $10,000, whichever is less.
(2) Any person who violates subsection 3(b) may be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary of not more than $250.
(3) For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), any reference to a provision of this Act or to a section of this Act shall be treated as including any regulation issued to carry out any such provision or section.
(4) No civil penalty may be assessed under this subsection unless the person accused of the violation is given notice and opportunity for a hearing with respect to the violation. Each violation shall be a separate offense and the offense shall be deemed to have been committed not only in the district where the violation first occurred, but also in any district in which a person may have taken or been in possession of the said fish or wildlife or plants.
(5) Any civil penalty assessed under this subsection may be remitted or mitigated by the Secretary.
1 Section 102(c) of Public Law 100_653 attempts to amend section 4(a)(1), (d)(1)(A), (d)(1)(B), and (d)2) by striking “(other than section 3(b))” each place it appears and inserting “(other than subsections (b) and (d) of section 3)". The amendment could not be executed because the matter proposed to be struck did not appear.