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states the principles on which the question of the truth of historical records is to be determined; in the next four, he applies them to the narratives of the Old Testament; and in the last three, to those of the New ; vindicating them from objection, citing the confirmations they receive from contemporary or later writers, and pointing ont especially the corroborations those of the Old Testament have received from the lately deciphered relics of Egypt, and the monuments recently disentombed in Assyria and Babylonia. We cannot trace his argument at large through this period. It will be sufficient to quote the paragraph with which he closes it:

“My task, so far as the Old Testament is concerned, is accomplished. It has, I believe, been shown, in the first place, that the sacred narrative itself is the production of eye-witnesses, and therefore that it is entitled to the acceptance of all those who regard contemporary testimony as the main ground of all authentic history. And it has, secondly, been made apparent, that all the evidence which we possess from profane sources of a really important and trustworthy character tends to confirm the truth of the history delivered to us in the sacred volume. The monumental records of past ages,-Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, Persian, Phænician,—the writings of historians who have based their histories on contemporary annals, as Manetho, Berosus, Dius, Menander, Nicholas of Damascus—the descriptions given by eye-witnesses of the Oriental manners and customs—the proofs obtained by modern research of the condition of art in the time and country-all combine to confirm, illustrate, and establish the veracity of the writers, who have delivered to us in the Pentateuch, in Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, Ezra, Esther, and Nehemiah, the history of the chosen people. That history stands firm against all the assaults made upon it; and the more light that is thrown by research and discovery upon the times and countries with which it deals, the more apparent becomes its authentic and matter-of-fact character.”—Pp. 153, 154,

The following is the recapitulation with which he concludes his argument on the New Testament:

“We have found that the historical books of the New Testament are the productions of contemporaries and eye-witnesses -that two at least of those who wrote the life of Christ were his close and intimate friends, while the account of the early

rience of the powers of the world to come ; while an unfailing feature of each revivification, whatever may be its other distinctive characteristics, is, a more intimate union to the Saviour; a more unreserved and absolute trust in him, and a deeper desire to be conformed to his will. Each fresh illumination, each new discovery of his glory, every advance in the comprehension of his work as Saviour, every beam of light that falls on the eye froin the open portals of the world of holiness and blessedness to which he is conducting his redeemed, quickens the heart to a more fervid glow, arms it with greater strength and steadfastness, and invests the prospect of a final redemption with higher interest and beauty.

2. REASON AND REVELATION. By Robert S. Candlish, D.D.,

Edinburgh. T. Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, and

New York. 1860. Tuis volume consists of Essays on the authority, irtspiration, and infallibility of the Scriptures, the harmony of conscience with Reason and the Bible; and the duty of free inquiry and private judgment. They are written in a style of great direct ness and vivacity, abound with fresh and glowing thoughts, a. without descending into minute and prolix discussions, present a train of considerations in a measure quite original, that vindicate the Sacred Scriptures from the objections of the sceptical and captious, and show them to be indubitably the word of God. The rejectors of inspiration, against whom Dr. Candlish mainly directs his reasonings, are the transcendentalists of the German school, who, chiefly through the influence of Coleridge, have imbued many in England and Scotland with their rationalism. We are glad that so able and popular a writer is endeavoring to protect the young, especially against those absurd and untheistic theories,

3. History OF INDEPENDENCE Hall from the earliest Period

to the present Time; embracing Biographies of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, with Historical Sketches of the Relics preserved in that Sanctuary of American Freedom. By D. W. Belisle. Philadelphia: J. Challen & Son. 1859.

The title sufficiently indicates the subjects of this volume. It is chiefly occupied with the biographical notices of the illustrious men who signed the Declaration of Independence, which are brief, and will be read with interest.

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ART. I.-RAWLINSON'S BAMPTON LECTURES ON THE TRUTH OF

THE SCRIPTURE RECORDS.

THE HISTORICAL EVIDENCES OF THE TRUTH OF THE SCRIPTURE

RECORDS STATED ANEW, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE DOUBTS AND DISCOVERIES OF MODERN TIMES, in Eight Lectures, delivered in the Oxford University Pulpit in the year 1859 on the Bampton Foundation. By GEORGE RAWLINSON, M.A., late Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College, Editor of the History of Herodotus, etc. From the London Edition, with the Notes translated by Rev. A. N. ARNOLD. Boston, Gould & Lincoln: New York, Sheldon & Co. 1860.

The last century has been signalized beyond any other period since the promulgation of Christianity, by the efforts of its enemies to convict it of error, and divest it of the influence it exerts on those who receive it as divine. A vast array of subtle, unscrupulous, and impassioned antagonists have assailed it. All the arts of genius, the resources of critical learning, the speculations of superficial and false science have been employed to sap its foundation, and beat down its superstructure: but in vain. It remains undemoVOL. XIII.NO. II.

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lished, and undisturbed. The assaults that have been made on it have only served to show it to be impregnable. The bolts hurled against it have rebounded on its assailants, and dashed them to the dust, or put them to flight. Among the most confident, showy, and boastful of those attacks, have been the attempts of sceptics to convict the historical records of the Old and New Testament of error. Could it be proved that the narratives of the Bible are false ; that some of its important personages never lived, that some of the events narrated in it never took place, that the writers, instead of reliable, were ignorant, mistaken, and deceptive, it has been felt that its claim to a divine origin would be overthrown; and rectitude and self-respect constrain the learned and conscientious to its rejection, and ignorance and prejudice be inflamed with unconquerable aversion to it. And the most unfair and malevolent expedients that could be devised have been employed to produce this result. The sacred narratives have been assailed at every point, and every species of objection alleged to excite doubt of their truth, and weaken their authority. Some of their statements have been denounced, because they are not in harmony with those of other writers, though their means of knowledge were far inferior; some because they have no confirmation from contemporary or later foreign authors; some because they have not a fuller corroboration from them; and some simply becanse diversities appear in the narratives of the same events; as in the number, for example, of the incidents related, and the fulness of the pictures drawn of scenes and actions in the gospels, though they involve no contradictions or inconsistencies. Whatever, in short, if believed, would make against the veracity and authority of the sacred word, has been affirmed, reiterated, and set off with all the artifices that ingenuity could devise, and urged with all the audacity that recklessness and malice could prompt; but it has only resulted in the confutation of the assailants. The issue, sooner or later, of every attack has been a fuller verification of the inspired narrative.

It is to a survey of this long controversy, and a restatement of the Historical Evidences of the truth of the Scripture Records that these lectures, written with great calmness, clearness, and ability, are devoted. In the first lecture the author states the principles on which the question of the truth of historical records is to be determined; in the next four, he applies them to the narratives of the Old Testament; and in the last three, to those of the New ; vindicating them from objection, citing the confirmations they receive from contemporary or later writers, and pointing out especially the corroborations those of the Old Testament have received from the lately deciphered relics of Egypt, and the monuments recently disentombed in Assyria and Babylonia. We cannot trace his argument at large through this period. It will be sufficient to quote the paragraph with which he closes it:

“My task, so far as the Old Testament is concerned, is accomplished. It has, I believe, been shown, in the first place, that the sacred narrative itself is the production of eye-witnesses, and therefore that it is entitled to the acceptance of all those who regard contemporary testimony as the main ground of all authentic history. And it has, secondly, been made apparent, that all the evidence which we possess from profane sources of a really important and trustworthy character tends to confirm the truth of the history delivered to us in the sacred volume. The monumental records of past ages,-Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, Persian, Phænician,-the writings of historians who have based their histories on contemporary annals, as Manetho, Berosus, Dius, Menander, Nicholas of Damascus—the descriptions given by eye-witnesses of the Oriental manners and customs—the proofs obtained by modern research of the condition of art in the time and country-all combine to confirm, illustrate, and establish the veracity of the writers, who have delivered to us in the Pentateuch, in Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, Ezra, Esther, and Nehemiah, the history of the chosen people. That history stands firm against all the assaults made upon it; and the more light that is thrown by research and discovery upon the times and countries with which it deals, the more apparent becomes its authentic and matter-of-fact character.”—Pp. 153, 154.

The following is the recapitulation with which he concludes his argument on the New Testament:

“We have found that the historical books of the New Testament are the productions of contemporaries and eye-witnesses —that two at least of those who wrote the life of Christ were his close and intimate friends, while the account of the early

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