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event has shown-through eighteen centuries, because they will not still deserve it, but because, if he subjects them in perpetuity to such a warfare, they will be exterminated, Vs. 16.

10. Hypocatastasis in the use of ways for modes of acting. “ His ways I have seen, and I will heal him, and will guide him, and restore comforts unto him, and his mourners," vs. 18.

11. Hypocatastasis in the use of heal, a change of the body, for an analogous change of the mind. Their ways are their rebellious ways for which they are punished. Their healing will be by their renovation to repentance, faith, and love, by which they will be led to peace and blessedness.

12. Metaphor in denominating words the fruit of the lips. “ Creating the fruit of the lips, Peace, peace to the far off and to the near, saith Jehovah," vs. 19. The fruit of the lips is the salutation, Peace, peace. The prediction therefore is, that at that crisis, by the sovereign act of Jehovah, the nation far off and near will meet salutations of peace from their enemies; and implies that all obstructions to their return, from the unfriendliness of those among whom they are dispersed, will be removed.

13. Hypocatastasis in the use of heal, for restoration to holiness and happiness. “And I heal him,” vs. 19. The redemption they are then to experience from sin and its curse is to be the work of Jehovah, not of any one else, and that will be seen and felt with the profoundest conviction. "And all flesh shall know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour, and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob,” chap. xlix. 26.

14. Comparison. “But the wicked are like the troubled sea, for it cannot rest, and its waters cast up mire and dirt. There is no peace saith my God to the wicked,” vs. 20, 21. None but the humble and contrite will share in that redemption. Those who then remain incorrigible will continue so. No reconciliation with God will ever be vouchsafed to them. They will be consigned to eternal restlessness and misery.

These prophecies, thus taken in their grammatical sense, are natural, clear, and consistent with themselves, and all the other prophecies of the Old Testament respecting the

v. 6.

“Among the smooth (stones) of the valley (or stream) is thy portion ; they are thy lot : Also, to them hast thou poured out a drink-offering, thou hast brought a meat offering. Shall I be satisfied for those (without vengeance) ?”

By the smooth (stones) of the valley is meant, probably, their idols or representatives of their gods in the deep valley around Jerusalem. They were the portion, lot, or chosen place of worship to these idolaters, in contradistinction from the temple inclosure, which was consecrated to the worship of Jehovah. In that valley, a vast depository of carcases and other odious objects from the city; they offered their slaughtered children as victims to appease their gods, and there they presented offerings of bread, thereby falsely ascribing to Moloch, Baal, or Ashtaroth the gift of the fruits of the earth. Would Jehovah be pacified for these impious affronts, without any inflictions of vengeance?

The prophet next describes their idolatrous rites in another favorite scene : “ On a high and elevated mountain hast thou placed thy bed; also there hast thou gone up to offer sacrifice. And behind the door, and the doorpost hast thou placed thy memorial: Far away from me thou hast uncovered and hast gone up ; thou hast enlarged thy bed, and hast covenanted with them : thou hast loved their bed, thou hast provided room,” vs. 7, 8. IIere the impure rites of idolatry are exhibited as the chief elements of the worship offered on the high mountains, and as contemplated by the Israelites with desire.

“ And thou hast gone to the king anointed, and hast multiplied thine unguents, and hast sent them ambassadors even to a far-off (land), and hast gone down even to hell," v. 9. Whether the aim of these measures was to render the rites more attractive to votaries, or more acceptable to the deities worshipped, or to gain the sanction of some monarch who was a worshipper of the same gods, and draw visitors and offerings from a distance, they bespoke extreme zeal.

“In the greatness of thy way thou hast labored : Thou hast not said There is no hope. Thou hast the (means of) life of thy hands, therefore thou art not weak,” vs. 10. That is, like a sorceress, you have employed every art within your power, you have never despaired, yon have gained the means of subsistence, and therefore you are bold and strong.

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3. Hypocatastasis in the use of laying to heart, for considering. “And whom hast thou feared and been afraid of, that thou shouldst lie? And me thou hast not remembered, thou hast not laid to heart. Is it not (because) I hold my peace, and that of old, that thou wilt not fear me?” vs. 11. Who is it that they had so feared as to resort to such lying, as was involved in their worship of idols, while they still retained the name and profession of being Jehovah's people? Not their idols; for if they had truly regarded them as supreme deities, entitled to their homage, they ought not to have felt any hesitation in openly renouncing allegiance to Jehovah ! And not Jehovah, for they had not remembered him, religiously, nor had any care for him. Whence, then, was this monstrous contradiction in their conduct? Was it not because he had delayed to avenge himself that they would not fear him? If so, he would soon judge them for their offences.

“I will declare thy righteousness and thy works ; and they shall not profit thee. In thy crying, let thy gatherings save thee: But all of them the wind shall take up, and

, a breath shall take away,” vs. 12, 13. To declare their righteousness and their works, will be to unfold the true character of their false religion and its effects. That manifestation will be made by inflicting judgments on them, from which it will be seen that their idols cannot deliver them. When in their anguish they cry for succor, Jehovah will leave them to learn, by experiment, the nothingness of their gods; instead of deities who defend their votaries, they will be like chaff which the wind bears away. Not so he who trusts in Jehovah. He shall be kept securely and crowned with salvation.

4. Apostrophe. “But he who trusts in me shall inherit the land, and possess my holy mountain. And he shall say, Cast up, cast up, clear the way, take up the stumbling block from the way of my people,” vs. 13, 14.

5, 6, 7. Hypocatastases in the use of casting up earth, to form a road, clearing the way, and removing a stumbling block, for analogous measures for the preparation of the people for the coming of the Messiah. The figure is the same as is employed (chap. xl. 3–5,) to foreshow the office of John the Baptist, who was to announce the approach of the Messiah and call the nation to prepare themselves, by repentance, for receiving him. While Jehovah will overwhelm the votaries of idols, and drive them into lasting exile, he will not desert those who trust him, but will recall them from banishment, and give them again to inherit the land of their ancestors, and to possess his holy mountain, Zion, which is consecrated for his worship.

“For thus saith the High and Exalted One, inhabiting eternity, and Holy is his name, in the high and boly (place) will I dwell; and with the broken and humble of spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the broken. For not to eternity will I contend, and not to perpetuity will I be wroth; for the spirit from before me will faint, and the souls I have made,” vs. 15, 16. This implies that a long season of anger and chastisement was to pass before he would thus interpose to restore those who trust him to their ancestral land; and during that period of wrath the nation was to be in exile. It implies, also, that at its close, he will bring many of them to contrition for their sins, and will descend and impart a new life to them and dwell with them. It indicates, also, that his avenging judgments are then to cease : they are to be smitten no more, but restored to his favor. And this is in harmony with other predictions of his grace to them at that period. " Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God. Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned," chap. xl. 1, 2. “Behold I have taken out of thine hand the cup of trembling, the dregs of the cup of my fury; thou shalt no more drink it again,” li. 22.

8, 9. Hypocatastases in the use of turning away—an act of the body, for apostasy, and the way—the path of the heart for its mode of acting. “For his covetous iniquity I am wroth, and will smite him, (I will) hide me and be wroth; for he has gone on turning away in the way of his heart,” vs. 17. The judgments with which they are to be smitten will be because of their sins, and will be carried no further than to demonstrate the nothingness of their false gods, make a just expression of Jehovah's anger, and show that their salvation must come from him. He will not discontinue the tempest of vengeance which was to beat on them—the event has shown-through eighteen centuries, because they will not still deserve it, but because, if he subjects them in perpetuity to such a warfare, they will be exterminated, vs. 16.

10. Hypocatastasis in the use of ways for modes of acting. “ His ways I have seen, and I will heal him, and will guide him, and restore comforts unto him, and his mourners,” vs. 18.

11. Hypocatastasis in the use of heal, a change of the body, for an analogous change of the mind. Their ways are their rebellious ways for which they are punished. Their healing will be by their renovation to repentance, faith, and love, by which they will be led to peace and blessedness.

12. Metaphor in denominating words the fruit of the lips. “Creating the fruit of the lips, Peace, peace to the far off and to the near, saith Jehovah,” vs. 19. The fruit of the lips is the salutation, Peace, peace. The prediction therefore is, that at that crisis, by the sovereign act of Jehovah, the nation far off and near will meet salutations of peace from their enemies; and implies that all obstructions to their return, from the unfriendliness of those among whom they are dispersed, will be removed.

13. Hypocatastasis in the use of heal, for restoration to holiness and happiness. “And I heal him," vs. 19. The redemption they are then to experience from sin and its curse is to be the work of Jehovah, not of any one else, and that will be seen and felt with the profoundest conviction. “ And all flesh shall know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour, and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob,” chap. xlix. 26.

14. Comparison. “But the wicked are like the troubled sea, for it cannot rest, and its waters cast up mire and dirt. There is no peace saith my God to the wicked," vs. 20, 21. None but the humble and contrite will share in that redemption. Those who then remain incorrigible will continue so. No reconciliation with God will ever be vouchsafed to them. They will be consigned to eternal restlessness and misery.

These prophecies, thus taken in their grammatical sense, are natural, clear, and consistent with themselves, and all the other prophecies of the Old Testament respecting the

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