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their numerous éénéres, and with che nerves of of organic life, or solar plexus The roots of hese the whole body, they are sometimes called the nerves are in the cerebellum, the seat of motion, Great Sympathetic Nerves, and Nerves of Vege- a receptacle of life. Now, we see why intensity table Life. There are three orders of these of thought, carking cares, &c., impede respiration Nerves: one going to the blood-vessels and other and infringe on the laws of health, for want of the parts of the vascular system; one to the contrac- proper co-operation with the nerves of organic ule tissues or muscles of involuntary motion: life; inducing dyspepsia, and even consumption, and oje to the nerves of organic sensation, con- hence, the painful mode of teaching children 10 veyir.g the impressions made on the organs. read by a book: away with this false system, un
less you would inhumanly sacrifice tho rising generation on the altar of evil; let the ear, or righ, feeling predominate : please work out the whole; for you can do it: a hint is sufficient for those who think.
6. In this view of the Nerves of Respiration, (ur.ginating in the Medulla Oblongata, which is an extension of the Cerebellum, (6) or seat of Voluntary Motion, and of the Cerebrum, (a,) or seat of Rationality,) may be seen the nerve (c) that goes to the Diaphragm (,,) and is concerned in the office of breathing, which generally acts without the aid of the Will; but yet is controllable by the Will, to & certain extent; for we may breathe fast or slow, long or short. Next above this, is the Spinal Aceessory Nerve, used in moving the breast, &c., in respiration; one of its fellow roots goes to the tongue (d,) and is concerned in masucation, swallowing, speaking, &c. (Some nerves are thrown back, the better to be seen.) Next in order is the 7. Here is an excellent representation or the pneuinosgastric, or lungs-and-stomach nerve (f, Nerves of Voluntary Motion, and of Sense, which, 8, h,) which sends a branch to the meat-pipe, la- with the nerves of Organic Life, and the Respira. rynx and wind-pipe, (,) a.so to the cardiac, or tory Nerves, constitute the inmosis of the body; heart plexus, just above, and a little at the right also, a posterior, or back view, of the two brains, of (g); a recurrent branch goes to the larynx, &c.; which is the seat of the Mind, the consutuents of other branches go to the face to exhibit the feelings. which, are Will and Understanding. The letter All interweave, and bring the vocal organs intoc, indicates the cerebrum, or large brain, where mportant relations with the leart and lungs, with the Understanding, Rationality, or thought is lo feelings and thoughts; while the main body goes cated; and cr, the cerebellum, or Little brain, oue stomach, and unites with the great contre l under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the ncrazontal black line is: here is the seat of the 9. We now descend to the hard parts of the Will, Affections, Passions or Emotions; also the body, which have the least of life in them. This seat of the Motive power of the body; and from is a very correct representation of the Osseous these proceed the spinal marrow, (me,) enveloped system, or the bony parts which may be aptly in three different membranes, lying in the hollow of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications over every part of the body; pb, the brachial plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, the serves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots ; the front (anterior,) one serving for motion, and the back (posterior,) are the nerves of feeling, or sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or working, there should be a perfect harmony and ce-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory Nerves, and Motary Nerves; hence, the volunsary effort must be made from the abdomen, where is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connection with those of Respiration.
8. Here is a biriking view of the Muscutar, or fleshy portions, that Corm the medium of communication between the Nerves and the Bones: there are several hundreds, acting on the bones like ropes on the masts of ships: let them be trained in perfect subjectiose to the Sou,
called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid through the
temple we live in; which is three stories high; Mind; so than
viz. the cavity below ihe diaphragm, the one above whatever 18
it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, felt & thought,
the situation and attachment of the different bones may be bodied
of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long forth to the life.
ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human Now let usput
frame, there are 250 bones: they afford us the
means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy these three
between the body and language ? systems, the Nerves, Mus.
10. ZOOLOGY---(the doctrine or science of life,) cles and
is a necessary element of education. Whose cu. Bones, togeth
riosity has not been excited by the innumerable er, and con
living beings, and things, with which we are suremplate the
rounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their whole as a
interiors, and see how they are made, and under
stand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, unit, bound up in the skin,
a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone; observe their and acting in
differences, in many respects, and their similar.
ties in others: they all have essence, form, use, obedience to its rightful owner, the Mind; while The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms that mind 18 subserviert to the Creator of mind. of nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral, is to emancipate the hunian mind from the dark- | constituting the nutritive funct oz of which liv.ng ness and slavery of ignorance, into the light and bodies are the centre, are revea.ed to us by eviLiberty of rational humanity. The things of the denees too plain to be misunderstood: may we have Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior power to appreciate them, being assured that all power; those of the Vegetable kingdom grow; truths are in perfect harmony with each other. and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or
12. Here is a representation of the Human grow; they simply exist. 11. Three objects are designed by this ergra- of Elocution. But it is necessary to enter more
Form clothed and engaged in some of the uses ving: first, to show the body, clothed in its own beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the contizent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism : Becond, to call attention to the fact, that it is full of pores, or little holes, through which passes out of our systems more than half of what we eat
and drink, in the form of what is called insensihode derspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy miri, emanating from every part of the surface; and as our bodies wear out, by degrees, and are renewed every seven years
, and the skin being into the particulars of our subject; which :3 Jona the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out in the succeeding parts of this introduction : howparticles of the system; the great importance ever, let the reader bear in mind, that only the outof keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy
lines of subjects are given in the book, designed condition, by daily washing in soft cold water,
for such as are determined to dig for truth and must be evident to every one of reflection, it be- eternal principles, as for hidden treasures ; ing the safety-valve of the body: and thirdly, to whose motto is “ Press On." indicate a higher truth, that of the passing off of Animals and Plants endure for a time, and a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in ac- under specific forms, by making the external cordance with its state ; which is often perceived world a part of their own being; i. e. they have when certain persons are present; also when the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly and when this outward supply ceases they die, wrought affections, and brilliant thoughts ; so as having completed their term of duration : hence, so give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive death, to material existences, is a necessary corwith their tones and audible words, ruling in sequence of life. Not so with minerals: they ex mense audiences with absolute sway, and de- ist so long as external forces do not destroy them: monstrating the power of truth and eloquence. and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtapo
Animals and Plants increase by nutrition : sition of other bodies; and if they diminish, it is Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh by the action of a force, or power, from withbut a few pounds: at adult age, we exceed one out. Has not every thing its circle? How inhundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign sub- teresting must be the history of all things, anistances, are the materials of which our organs mate and inanimate! Oh that we had eyes to see, are composed ? In sickness, extreme emaciation and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their around us, within us, and above us ! bulk, and give bagk to the world what was once 13. If we would have the Mind act on the 118 own. Thus, composition and decomposition, Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an of
derly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, al necessary that the body be in a natural and up- the short ribs, from the lower end of the brelst right position. The following engraving repre-bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly toward sents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the
the spine, so that Heart and Lungs; and reason teaches, that no or
the liver, stomach, gans should be in the least infringed upon, either
and other digestive by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position. The Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which
organs in tha: vici we make sounds, by condensation. All are fami
nity, are pressed liar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking
into such a smail analogy between it and the body, in the act of
compass, that their speaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is
functions are great. ike its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the ab
ly interrupted, and dominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of
vessels, course, to blow with ease and power, one must bones and viscera are more or less distorted and take hold of the handles; to speak and sing right, enfeebled. Cease to do evil, and learn to do well. the lower muscles must be used; for there is only one right way of doing anything.
17. This engraving,
of a bell-shaped glass, Larynx, ..
C, C, shows how the Wind-pipe, ..
air gets into the Inngs,
and some of its efects. Collar bone, ..
A head is placed on Bronchia,
the cork, T, represent
ing the wind-pipe, and Heart & Lungs,
having a hole through
IC 11. Lrepresents a 7 Long Ribs,
bladder, tied to the Diaphragm,
lower end of the cork,
to indicate a lung. At 5 Short Ribs, .
D, is seen the diaDorsal and
phragm. The cavily
of the bell represents Abdominal Muscles.....
the inside of the thorax, where the heart and lungo
are: there is no communication with the external 14. This is a view of a well developed and air, except through the hole in the cork; air, en naturally prɔportioned chest; with space for the tering through that hole, can go only into the blad. Lungs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording der. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm is arple room for the free action of the organs: it is raised 10 D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid the true model of the form of one who would live of air; but when it is dropped, to the situation of to a good old age.
the dotted line, a tendency to a vacuum will be 15. TIGHT DRESSINS. No one can enjoy good the consequence, which can be supplied with sir, health, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or only through the hole in the cork; the air expandread, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitual- ing the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the !y compressed. It diminishes the capacity of the dotted circle, around L; and when the diaphragm lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air is elevated again, the air will be forced from the io purify the blood, and prevents the proper action bladder; thus, the lungs are inflated and exhaus. of the diaphragm. The following engraving shows ted by this alternate operation of the diaphragm, the alarming condition of the chest, when com
and of the contraction and elongation of the ab. pressed by tight lacing; a practice that has hur dominal muscles; hence, the comparison between ried, and is now hurrying, hundreds of thousands the vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellows, is to a premature grave; besides entailing upon the
distinctly seen. offspring an accumulation of evils, too awful to
MUSCULAR ACTION. These coctemplate. What is the difference between
two engravings represent some Killing one's self in five minutes with a razor, and
muscular fibres in two states: doing it in five years by tight lacing, or any other
the upper one at rest, with a re bad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight laxed nervous filament ramified through the fibres, as to prevent the air from coming between it and as seen under the microscope ; and the lower one in the body.
a state of contraction, and the f. 16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or
brrs in zigzag lines, with a simi. thorax of a female, showing the condition of the
lar nervous filament passing over bones of the body, as they appear after death, in
them: apply the principle to all every one who has habitually worn stays and muscles. The subject might be greatly extended; corsi is, enforced by tight lacing. But,' says one, but for further information, see the Author's large
I do not lace too tight. If you lace at all, you work on Physiology and Psychology, which will most certainly do, and will, sooner or later, expe- be published as soon as convenient.
PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION. 18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells | viscera and diaphragm upwards the lungs en 92 the Lungs, laid open and highly magnified. operate with the diaphragm and abdominal musThe body is formed by Blood, which consists of the cles; or rather, the soul, mind, nerves and mus nutritious portions
cles act unitedly, and thence with ease, grace and of our food, and
effect. Observe, the Stomach, Liver, &c. are be18 in the form of
low the diaphragin, and are dependent ons in a very smal glob
measure, for their actions. ales,
little round balls: a representation of which is here presented as seen through a microscope, magnified one thousand
stiffness, and too much laxity, of the muscles; be
blood, and each heart has two rooms: a, right 20. Here follows a representation of the position auricle, that receives all the blood from every part of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, of the body, through the vena cava, or large veinu, in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the left which is made up of the small veins, e, 6, 6, 6, e; engraving, represents the diaphragm in its great- it thence passes into the right ventricle, i, thenca est descent, when we draw in our breath : 2, mus- into both lungs, where it is purified; after which cles of the abdomen, when protruded to their full it passes into the left auricle, and left ventricle, extent, in inhaling: 1, in the right engraving, the then into the aorta, o, and the carotid and subcla. diaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiration: 2, vian arteries (u, and v,) to every part of the body. The muscles of the abdomen in action, forcing the returning every three or four minutes.