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PHRENOLOGY FOR THE MILLION. No one can call himself into life : no one can
choose the period, the climate, the nation where No. XLIV.-PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BRAIN. he shall see the light of day: no one can fix the BY F. J. GALL, M.D.
manners, the customs, the laws, the form of the
government, the religion, the prejudices, the (Continued from Page 297.)
superstitions, with which he shall be surrounded
from the moment of his birth: no one can say, I HAVING SATISFACTORILY, I HOPE, cleared up will be servant or master, elder or younger; I will all matters of doubt with respect to the soundness have robust or feeble health, I will be a man or of my doctrines thus far, I will now proceed to woman; I will have such a temperament, such state my views of
inclinations or talents ; I will be foolish, idiotic,
simple, intelligent, a man of genius, violent or Fatalism.
calm, of a sweet or peevish temper, modest or We have seen that, under the name of ma- proud, heedless or círcumspect, cowardly or interialism, very different things have been inclu- clined to debauchery, submissive or independent; ded; it is the same with fatalism.
no one can determine the prudence, or the folly of If it be affirmed that everything in the world, his instructors; the hurtful or useful examples he and even the world itself, is necessary; that what shall meet, the results of his connections, fortuiever is and happens, is the effect of chance or of tous events, the influence which external things a blind necessity, and that no Supreme intelli- shall have on him, the condition of himself or his gence ever has, or at present does concern itself parents, or the sources of the irritation which his with existing objects, this doctrine is a species of passions and his desires shall experience. So far fatalism, which differs very little from atheism. as the relations of the five senses to external obBut this fatalism has nothing in common with jects, so far as the number and the functions of the doctrine which asserts the innateness of the the viscera and the limbs have been fixed in faculties of the soul and mind, and their depen- an immutable manner-so far is nature the source dence on orgauisation. I cannot, therefore, in this of our inclinations, our sentiments, our faculties. sense be accused of fatalism.
Their reciprocal influeuce, their relations with Another species of fatalism is, that by which it external objects, have been irrevocably deteris taught that, in truth, there exists á Supreme mined by the laws of our organisation. Being, the Creator of the Universe, as well as of As it does not depend on us to hear and see, all the laws and all the properties which exist in when objects strike our eyes and our ears, so are it ; but that he has fixed these laws in an im- our judgments the necessary results of the laws mutable manner, so that what happens, cannot of thought. "Judgment,” says M. de Tracy, happen otherwise. In this system, man is neces- with reason, "is independent of the will, in this sarily drawn along by the causes which lead him sense—that when we perceive a real relation beto act, without his will having any influence. His tween two of our perceptions, it is not free for actions are always a necessary result, without us to feel it otherwise than as it is; that is, as voluntary choice, and without moral liberty ; they it must appear to us by virtue of our organisaare neither punishable nor meritorious, and the tion, and such as it would appear to all beings hope of future recompense vanishes, as well as the organised like ourselves, if placed precisely in fear of future punishment.
the same position. It is this necessity which This is the fatalism of which superstitious is essential to the certainty and reality of all ignorance accuses the physiology of the brain ; our knowledge. For, if it depended on our fancy that is to say, the doctrine of the functions of the to be affected by a large thing as if it were noblest organ on earth. I have incontestably small, by a good thing as if it were bad, by a proved, that all our moral and intellectual dispo- true thing as if it were false, there would no sitions are innate; that none of our propensities, longer exist any reality in the world, at least for none of our talents, not even understanding and us. There would be neither largeness nor smallwill, can manifest themselves independently of ness, good nor evil, falsehood nor truth-our this organisation. Add to this, that man has no fancy alone would be everything. Such an order part in endowing himself with the faculties proper of things cannot be conceived, and it implies into bis species, nor, consequently, with such and consistency.” such propensities and faculties. Now, must we Since the primitive organisation, the sex, age, infer that man is not master of his actions ? that temperament, education, climate, form of governthere exists no free choice, and consequently, can ment, religion, prejudices, superstitions, &c., exbe no merit or demerit in any action ?
ercise the most decided influence on our sensaBefore refuting this conclusion, let us examine, tions, ideas, and judgments, and the determinawith all the frankness worthy of true philosophy, tions of our will; on the nature and force of our to what degree man is subjected to the immutable propensities and talents, and consequently on the laws of creation ; to what extent we must ac- primary motives of our actions, we must conknowledge a necessity, an inevitable destiny or fess that man, in many of the most important fatalism? To disentangle these confused notions, moments of his life, is subjected to the power is the best means of placing the truth in a clear of destiny, which sometimes fixes him to a rock, light
like the inert shell-fish , and sometimes raises him Man is obliged to acknowledge the most in the whirlwind, like the dust. powerful and most determinate influence of a mul. It is not then surprising, that the sages of titude of things on his happiness or misery, and Greece, the Indies, China, and Japan, that the even on his whole conduct, without being able, of Christians of the east and west, and the Mahohis own will, to and to or diminish this influence. metans, should have mingled with their several
doctrines this species of fatalism. From periods Others add, that in order to decide that anything the most remote, men have derived from the is an evil, we must know-what man cannot Deity our moral and intellectual faculties; in all know, the immense and universal end of creation. ages it has been taught that all the gifts of men Others, in fine, not being able to deny the come from beaven; that God from all eternity existence of moral evil, explain its origin by freehas chosen the elect; that man, of himself, is in- will. But as soon as we admit free-will, we precapable of any good thought; that all the dif- suppose moral good and evil; for, what would ference which exists between men, with respect free-will be, if there were not two distinct things, to their qualities, comes from God; that it is only good and evil, between which the free man can those, to whom it has been given by superior choose ? May it not even be objected, that this power, who are capable of certain actions; that same boasted free-will, since it occasions so much each one acts according to his innate character, evil, is itself an evil ? The instant we recognise just as the fig-tree does not bear grapes, nor the free-will
, does not man find himself on the slippery vine figs, and as sweet water cannot flow from a edge of the precipice? It is said, and I also say, bitter fountain ; in fine, that all cannot find out that man abuses his liberty ; but what motive has the mysteries of nature, nor the secrets of man to abuse it, unless something stirs within to God.
excite him to illegal actions ? It is this same fatalism, this same inevitable I am bitterly reproached for admitting in man, influence of superior powers, which has been innate evil inclinations, and propensities to injutaught us by the fathers of the Church. St. rious acts; and my antagonists especially, never Augustine would have this doctrine fail to remark, that among these evil inclinations preached, in order to exhibit clearly the belief are found the propensity to theft, and the propenof the infallibility of Providence, and our entire sity to murder. dependence on God. “As," says he,
Let these admirers of the excellence of the can give himself life, so no one can give himself human species answer me why, in all ages and understanding." If some persons do not under- in all countries, men have robbed and murdered, stand the truth, it is, according to him, because and why no education, no legislation, no religionthey have not received the necessary capacity to neither prison, hard labor, nor the wheel, have comprehend it. He refutes the objections, which yet been able to extirpate these crimes? Could would be hence drawn, against the justice of God; these men have robbed and murdered for the sole and remarks, that the grace of God has no more pleasure of exposing themselves to these dangers distributed temporal goods equally to all, such without any temptations ? Will you throw the as address, strength, health, beauty, genius, and fault on their ancestors, as if their example had tastes for the arts and sciences, riches, honors, &c. given rise to these unholy inclinations? Then St. Cyprian had already said, that we ought not explain to me-how the first examples could have be proud of our qualities, for we have nothing occurred, and how children, and grand-children, of ourselves.
who had dispositions essentially good, should If men had not always been convinced of the have become so powerfully disposed to robbery influence of external and internal conditions on and murder, contrary to their nature ? the determinations of our will or our actions, Besides allowing it to be education, and not why, at all times, and among all nations, should nature, which gives us vicious propensities, the they have made laws, civil and religious, to sub- difficulty always remains the same, because edudue and direct the desires of men ? There is cation is not in the power of him who receives it; no religion which has not ordained abstinence and education never could develop either good or from certain meats and drinks, fasting, and the evil inclinations, did not their germs positively mortification of the body. From Solomon down belong to human nature. In vain will you ento our own days, I know no observer of nature, deavor, by any education, to change the pigeon who has not acknowledged that man, both phy- into an eagle, and the eagle into a pigeon. sically and morally, is wholly dependent on the Unhappily, it is not robbery and murder only laws of creation.
which prove the evil dispositions of men. The
just man always has had, and always will have MORAL GOOD AND EVIL.
reason to complain, with Moses, of the bad actions
and dispositions of men. The Lord said that the The same laws to which I have alluded, prove malice of men, who lived on the earth, was exthat the conviction has always existed, that man- treme, and that all the thoughts and purposes of kind are inclined to evil. But, does it not seem their hearts were altogether wickedness.-Gen. contradictory that evil should have been created vi. 5. Men always have been, and always will by an infinitely good Being?
be, inclined to all sorts of perverse actions ; Some, to escape this contradiction, have set they have always been besieged by temptations up, and admitted two principles—a good Being, within and without; they always have been, and and a wicked Being, almost equally powerful
, always will be, tormented by carnal desires, and existing in a state of perpetual warfare. covetousness, ambition, pride, &c. The world
Others have maintained, that all the original never has ceased, and never will cease, to be the qualities of man have been given him for a good theatre of all vices; such as lying, calumny, jeaend; that none leads necessarily to evil, and that lousy, envy, avarice, usury, immodesty, veneven the best things in the world may be pros- geance, adultery, perjury, rape, incest, idolatry, tituted to a bad purpose. Eusebius says, with drunkenness, discord, enmity, injustice, &c. Philo, that matter in itself is not wicked, and The good man draws good things from the cannot be the cause of evil, which consists only good treasure of his heart, and the wicked man in action, and in the bad use of original faculties. draws evil things from the evil treasure of his
heart.--St. Luke vi. 45. For out of the heart sweareth, as he that feareth an oath. This is an proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, forni- evil among all things that are done under the cations, thefts, false witness, blasphemies.- Matt. sun, that there is one event to all; yea, also, the xv. 19. They are full of all únrighteousness, forni- heart of the sons of men is full of evil, and madcation, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; ness is in their heart while they live, and after that full of envy, murler, disputes, deceit, malignity; they go to the dead."-Ibid, ix. 2, 3. “ I returned, whisperers, backbiters, haters of God, deceitful, and saw under the sun that the race is not to the proud boasters, inventors of evil things, disobe- swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet dient to parents ; without understanding, cove- bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of undernant breakers, without natural affection, impla- standing, nor yet favor to men of skill; but time cable, unmerciful.—Epistle to Rom. i. 29--31. and chance happeneth to them all. "For mati Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which also knoweth not his time; as the fishes that are are these : adultery, fornication, uncleanness, taken in an evil net, and as the birds that are lasciviousness : idolatry, witchcraft
, hatred, caught in a snare, so are the sons of men snared variance, emulations, wrath, strife,' seditions, in an evil time, when it falleth suddenly upon heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, re- them."--Ib. ix. 11, 12. vellings, and such like.-Galatians v. 19— I have said that evil dispositions and perverse 21. In this world
born with our inclinations, enter into the plan of eternal Pro temptations, and the flesh sometimes leads us to do vidence. In fact, what would those say, who good works, and sometimes excites us to do bad affect to act as the apologists for the happiness ones. (S. Gregory, Hom. ii.] As it is written, and the virtue that is to come, if it was proved there is none righteous, no not one.—Rom. iii. to them that, without propensity to evil, there 10. For the good that I would, I do not : but the would be neither virtue, nor reward, nor punishevil that I would not, that I do. Now if I do that ment? For, as we have already said, what can I would not, it is no more I that do it, but sin be called liberty, if we do not mean by this exthat dwelleth in me. I find then, a law, that pression the power of choosing between good and when I would do good evil is present with me. evil? If men had no propensity except for good, Rom. vii. 19-21. But every man is tempted, where would be the possibility of doing evil? when he is drawn away of his own lust and en- And without this possibility, on what could we ticed. Nulla mens est, nulla anima, quæ non re- found the idea of vice and virtue, the merit and cipiat etiam malarum motur agrestes cogita- demerit of actions? He who does not do evil, betionum.-S. Ambros. lib. de Noe. dic. No man cause nothing tempts him to do so, is certainly can say that he perceives in his thoughts, in his to be envied; but he cannot pretend to virtue, nor propensities, nothing but what is innocent and to the merit of actions. What would be the virtuous. Let him who, with his hand on his merit, the chastity, of those of whom JESUS heart, will contradict this, take the first stone says that they came eunuchs from their mothers' and cast it at me.
womb ? Why boast so much the denial of one's Thus it is in vain for you to be humbled for self, if it supposes no injurious propensities which your weakness and your imperfection, you must one has succeeded in subduing? All philosoacknowledge the moral as well as the physical phers, ancient and modern-Plato, Aristotle, evil, and submit yourself for both to the incom- Cicero, Seneca, Pascal, Kant, as well as the prehensible decrees of the Creator. Both exist, fathers of the Church, have founded the notion of not as some say, because the Creator permits it; , virtue on the victory which we obtain over our for such a state of things would suppose on the vicious propensities. Can the old man who has one hand a mere accident, and on the other, the passed his youth in dissoluteness be called contiimpotence of the Creator ; but they exist because nent, and moderate, because his desires have they enter into the plan of eternal Providence. abandoned him ? It is precisely those evil proAs temporal advantages are distributed unequally pensities, which many persons consider incomand without any respect of persons, so physical patible with the glory of God, with the dignity evils frequently happen without the fault of him of man, and the welfare of society, which give to who is the subject of them. Is there not a con- man the possibility of being virtuous and vicious : tinual opposition in all nature? Do not the it is only by means of these, that actions can air, the earth, and the water, offer a perpetual have merit or demerit; and whoever should exscene of destruction and production, of suf- tinguish in man the belief in perverse inclinations, fering and pleasure ? What have animals would also extinguish in him the fear of punishdone, that man, to whom they render the ment, and the hope of future reward. most useful services, should feed them ill, and maltreat them in every way? If parents beget children in the excesses of debauch, why must
A SIGN OF WISDOM. the children themselves expiate the fault? When the storm carries away the house of the idle rich
It is a sign of wisdom never to be cast down by man, does it spare the poor and industrious vine- silly trifles. If a spider should break his thread dresser? “There is a just man that perisheth in twenty times, just twenty times will he not mend his righteousness, and there is a wicked man that it again ? Make up your mind to do a thing in prolongeth his life in his wickedness.”—Eccles. compass, and you will assuredly accomplish it. vii. 16 “ All things come alike to all: there is Fear not, if trouble come upon you. Keep up your one event to the righteous and to the wicked; to spirits, though the day be a dark one. Uniformity the good, and to the clean, and to the unclean; to of temperament is a great blessing:him that sacrificeth, and to him that sacrificeth • Troubles never stop for ever, not; as is the good, so is the sinner; and he that The darkest day will pass away."
THE WAX-INSECT TREE.
attached to the branch, and is besides frequently
perforated with one or more small holes. Besides IN THE LAST FLOWER-Snow but one, of the these large females, the wax contains, imbedded Royal Botanic Society, there was exhibited in in its under-surface, an abundance of minute insects one of the tents, by Messrs. Rollisson, a by no in a younger state, which are probably the real means conspicuous-looking shrub, labelled--the producers of the wax, In form, they are not unlike “Wax-Insect Tree of China." By many, doubt- little oval woodlice. less, the shrub in question was passed unnoticed ; Now as to the plant on which the insect is lost in the blaze of floral splendor by which it was found. This has been most generally supposed to surrounded. But all those who are in any measure be the Ligustrum Lucidum. M. Julien, in the acquainted with the controversies to which it has Comptes Rendus, endeavored to show, some years given rise, and its greal value in an economical since, that the insect was found on four different point of view, will like to know more about it. plants,—viz., Ligustrum Lucidum, or glabrum;
The inhabitants of the Celestial Empire have, Rhus succedanea, Hibiscus Syriacus, and a plant it seems, great use for candles. Their gods can called in China Tchala, the botanical name of not be worshipped acceptably without them, and which is unknown. Mr. Fortune considers, howno one ventures abroad after dark without a can- ever, that these conclusions are erroneous. He dle and lantern. Hence the consumption of these states that he has seen the Ligustrum Lucidum articles is very great. As among ourselves, both growing abundantly about Ningpo and Shanghae, tallow and wax candles are used; the latter being but never observed the wax insect upon it, and is the more costly. Prior to the thirteenth century, absolutely certain that it is not in those districts wax candles were made in China exclusively from cultivated for that purpose. Mr. F. goes on to bees' wax; but at that time a discovery was made state, that he received from the French Consul at of a new kind of wax, the product of another and Shanghae two trees, brought by the Catholic misvery different insect from the bee. This, from its sionaries, from the province of Sychuen, where the superiority, gradually, and in the end entirely, culture and manufacture of the wax are principally superseded the former material, and came to be carried on. These he feels convinced are really exclusively used—being known under the name of those on which the insect feeds; they are totally Pe-la, or insect wax.
distinct from the Ligustrum, or any of the other The excellence and peculiar qualities of this plants mentioned by M. Julien, being deciduous substance have long attracted the notice of and greatly resembling the Ash. In support of Europeans, and accounts have at different times this, it should not be omitted, that a single leaflet been published, both of the insect itself, and the found imbedded in the wax sent home by Mr. Locktree or plant it feeds upon. But such discre- hart, and exhibited before the Entomological Sopancies have appeared in these accounts, that we ciety by Mr. Hanbury, bears such a resemblance have hitherto been in the greatest uncertainty to Mr. Fortune's plant, as to leave no doubt that upon the subject. Very recently, however, inves- it belongs to the same species ; fully proving tigations have been made, which have thrown that the ash-like plant from Sychuen is at least great light upon it. The chief of these have been one producer of the wax insect. We say one, bemade the subject of a long and interesting article cause it is still undetermined whether or not it is in “ The Pharmaceutical Journal," by Mr. Daniel confined to a single species. This was the plant Hanbury, from which much of our information on which was exhibited at the Park by Messrs. Rolthe subject has been derived.
lisson. Both Messrs. R. and Mr. Fortune state And first as to the insect itself. The Abbe their belief that it will prove hardy. Grossier considers it a species of Coccus; Sir A few particulars respecting the culture of this George Staunton, on the contrary, regards it as insect wax, and its nature and uses, will form an belonging to the Cicada family; and, as nobody appropriate conclusion to our present notice. They can decide where doctors disagree, the matter has are taken from the article in the Pharmaceutical remained undecided. By the persevering exer- Journal above referred to :tions, however, of Mr. William Lockhart, of "In the spring, the cocoons containing the Shanghae, the question may now be considered eggs of the insect are folded up, by the cultivators, definitively settled. That gentleman has trans- in leaves--sometimes of the ginger plant--and mitted to England, within the last three months, suspended at various distances, on the branches of specimens of the crude wax, with some of the in- the tree which is to be stocked. After having sects embedded in it. These were exhibited on been thus exposed for from one to four weeks, the the 7th of February, by Mr. Hanbury, before the eggs are hatched-and the insects, which are Entomological Society. Mr. Westwood, on ex- white, and of the size of millet seeds-emerge amining them, pronounced them to be an unde. and attach themselves to the branches of the tree, scribed species of Coccus, to which he has applied or conceal themselves beneath its leaves. Some the name of Coccus sinensis.
authors state, that the insects have at this period In the absence of the male insect, and from the a tendency to descend the tree; and to obviate imperfect condition of the specimens, a complete this difficulty the Chinese keep the gravel perfectly scientific description is impossible. The existing bare, so that they are induced to ascend. Fixing remains consist of a dry, hollow, nearly-spherical themselves on the branches, the young insects mass-frequently somewhat shrivelled, externally speedily commence the formation of a white waxy shining, and of a deep reddish brown color. This secretion, which, becoming harder, suggests the mass or shell, which is the full-grown body of the idea of the tree becoming covered with hoar-frost. female insect, varies in diameter from three-tenths The insect becomes, as the Chinese author says, to four-tenths of an inch. It has a linear opening changed into (gradually imbedded in ?) wax. The on one side, indicating the part at which it was branches of the tree are now scraped, the collected matter forming the crude wax. Dr. Macgowan placed her, for observation, in a box halfestimates the annual produce of Chinese wax at filled with earth. The eggs he scattered in not far short of 400,000lbs. The only considerable various places. She however soon removed importations into England that I am aware of them, one after another, carrying them bewere in the years 1846 and 1847, when nearly tween her jaws; and in two or three days he three tons were imported into London. Some of
saw that she had collected them all into one this wax, sold in April 1847, fetched 1s. 3d. a pound, a price too low, I believe, to be remunerative, place, where she remained without quitting and no further importation, that I know of, has them for a moment. In due time the young since taken place. In China, candles are made of ones were hatched-in figure precisely rethe insect wax per se, but more commonly of a sembling the parent, except in being without mixture of it with some softer fatty substance. wings; they also differed in color, being perTo give to these softer candles a hard coating, fectly white. He fed them, from time to they are dipped into melted insect wax-often time, with bits of apples, and saw them colored red with alkanet root, or green with ver- change their skin several times. The mother digris. As a medicine, the insect wax is used by died; and her offspring, like true cannibals, the Chinese both externally and internally for a devoured nearly the whole of her body, great variety of ailments. Grosier-besides mentioning its employment as an application to little animals; running about with great
In the larvæ state, earwigs are very lively wounds-states that it is sometimes swallowed to the extent of an ounce at a time, as a stimulant, agility, even from the instant they leave the by those about to speak in public."
egg. On their metamorphosis to the perfect insect, part of the skin bursts, and gives full
play to the wings. THE EARWIG.
Gardeners, and especially the cultivators of flowers, are loud and deep in their com
plaints against those interesting little creaTHE EARWIG, which is one of our most common insects, is, to the generality of that they claim, sans ceremonie, the right of
tures; and certainly it must be acknowledged people, an object of unconquerable dislike. Shakspeare asks, " What's in a name ?" In the only law which they seem to acknowledge
pasturage in almost every cultivated spotthe case of this little insect, we have an in
being the universal one of self-preservation. stance that the corruption of a name, by the Whether they have an original and indefeasiomission of even a single letter, is of consi- ble right to the food which they thus approderable importance. Had the name of this priate, or whether we, as lords of the soil
, insect continued as it originally was-namely, have a right to exterminate them, are quesEarwing (from the resemblance which the tions we will leave in the hands of the wing of this creature is supposed to bear to
casuists. the ear)—we should not, in all probability, have been burdened with the grossly erro
The only certain method of destroying
earwigs is, as Kollar observes, to catch them; neous and terrifying, idea, that this little which is best effected by hollow tubes laid animal is in the habit of insinuating itself here and there in orchards and flower beds. into the human ear. It naturally creeps into The common reed is fit for this purpose; but crevices and holes, and it may occasionally the hollow stem of the sunflower is even attempt to enter the ear; but the auditory
more so, as the insects are eager in the purmember is too well protected by its own se- suit of the remains of the sweet pith. They cretion and membrane to allow of any such are also easily caught between the folds of intrusion.
The most remarkable facts connected with paper, or in pieces of cloth or linen laid on the history of the earwig are, that the eggs the morning, after their nocturnal rambles ;
the ground. They creep into these traps in are hatched by incubation of the old earwig; and may be easily shaken out and killed at and that the young earwigs, for a consider
time of the day. Some amateurs of able time, are dependent upon the protection pinks and carnations place the feet of their of the old one, who broods over them, and lower-stands in vessels of water. This cerfosters them with all the tenderness of paren- tainly prevents the earwigs from creepingtal affection. If the young ones
but not from flying upon the plants. turbed, or scattered-tor if the parent is taken away from them, she will, on the first opportunity, collect them together again, and brood
THE RESPONSIBILITY OF MAN. over them as carefully as before --allowing them to push her about, and cautiously moving one foot after another, for fear of that a man can escape from his own deed-be it
It is starting on a false principle, to suppose hurting them. These interesting circumstances have been has given it an existence, an individuality, which
good or bad. As soon as he has committed it, he repeatedly witnessed. De Geer, a celebrated he can never destroy. It becomes independent of French naturalist, took a female arwig, him; and goes into the world, to deal its influence which he found sitting on a heap of eggs, and I in widening circles far beyond his view.