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vertically. Their distance from each other varies according to the breadth of the bands required. As the sheet passes under them, it is divided into strips of an indefinite length, which, in their turn, are wound off upon drums. What outcry has arisen against their use, has been owing to their misuse. Truman, Hanbury, Buxton, the eminent brewers, testify to a saving of £30 a-year in driving bands, by their employment. Skill is required in nicely joining them, but the skill is readily gained by those who follow the simple directions of the company. If these are too troublesome, why, the old leather strap, with its paraphernalia of buckles and hooks and eyes, had better be resumed. Where it is necessary that bands cross, friction should be avoided, as causing heat an enemy to gutta percha which cannot be resisted, and just as great a friend.
From the sheet and bands, innumerable useful things are formed. Industrial and domestic economy tax them both. In a room removed a little from the din and hissing of the steamengine, is to be seen a machine for cutting the bands into squares, and another for fashioning these squares into 'soles.' Both are done by pressure. In the first case, a sharp-edged instrument, and, in the second, a sharp-edged mould, similar to what is used for cutting out envelopes, only of the shape required for a shoe, descends with irresistible pressure, and cuts through half a dozen pieces at once. A die imprints the sign-manual (if such it may be yclept) upon each sole, and they are ready for sale. Space will not permit a dissertation upon the merits of this novel improvement of our 'understanding.' Thirty words will suffice to refer to one or two of its advantages. It is absolutely repellant of water, and a bad conductor of heat. If gutta percha soles were worn, colds from wet feet would be scarcer, and chilblains unknown. We may put in a word for the shoemaker also, who would be saved all the ills from contracted chest, if folks could be persuaded that 'nothing like leather' is invalid. Accumulated attestations-from the clergy, the army, and the police force-relative to the durability and other excellences of these soles, are possessed by the company and published in their prospectuses.
At a corner of an adjacent bench, a young man may be seen moulding, to all appearance, a brown earthenware pitcher. His only tools are, fingers, boiling water, and the mould. His hands glide over the plastic material, detecting a 'wale' in a moment, and filling up every interstice. Even while we look, he turns out of hand a neatly finished kitchen utensil. Close to his elbow is a shopmate manufacturing a bucket, which has no staves, and wants no hoops. Observing him, we learn the method of fastening the various parts of an article. He puts on a rim, by first rubbing over the surface a solution of coal naphtha; then evaporating the naphtha, and warming the surface by means of a gas jet. The naphtha cleanses the surface, as well as disposes it to 'take' the piece to be joined on. His fingers dexterously manage the rest. to an appropriate length, and gently pressed round into its position. If disposed to obstinacy, an application of the jet makes it instantly tract able. The gas-pipe is of gutta percha; and each
man in this department requires a jet at his side. The flexibility and length of the tube make it as serviceable as portable gas. A little farther on, we may observe some youths trimming noiseless curtain rings. Their sharp knives remove all the little imperfections of moulding, and finish off one after another as fast as possible.
All the uses to which gutta percha is put, it would be impracticable to enumerate. An auctioneer's catalogue would be filled with the bare mention of the things made by the Gutta Percha Company. Besides the multifold appliances to what is utilitarian, the decorative is equally cared for. One room is adorned with mouldings, panels, festoons, and flowers, as exquisite, though not so fragile, as the highest artistic carving, or the most delicate art-casting. Peculiarly beautiful is a geranium in gutta percha. Only by the assurance that it is imitated, can we be convinced of the fact. The flexibility of the plant and its lightness are perfect. In no other substance could an effort of art like it be made. Prognostications are naturally enough risked of the day when our winter garden shall blossom with the rose, and blandish every floral charm. Easily softened without becoming adhesive, gutta percha receives the impression of the most attenuated tracery, which it retains when cold; the extreme of delicacy in a substance, the extreme of indestructibility. Specimens of the loveliest mouldings abound, a chef d'œuvre being the Hunted Stag.' Chessmen, elaborately-finished workboxes, pictureframes, inkstands made to imitate woods, marbles, or papier-maché; in some instances so profusely and exquisitely decorated, that a Chinese carver would be baffled to imitate it; in other cases, with colored delineations upon them of surpassing beauty.
Imitations of metal have been produced in a felicitous manner. It takes bronze and gilding to perfection. There is no doubt that its plastic property will make it the substitute for expensive embellishments, and furnish the poor man with tasteful objects to adorn his humble home. Costly papier-mache will find an irresistible rival in a material that has the same excellences, is greatly cheaper, and is free from the defects of fragility, however slender and thin it may be made. With one or two glances more at household utilities, we will enter another department. Every vessel not intended for hot liquids, may be made of gutta percha; all the appurtenances of the bedchamber, as well as kitchen utensils. On the one hand we may observe a bread trencher, with emblematical ears of corn round the rim; on the other, ewers, and basons, and bowls, and articles of that kind. Public institutions, prisons, workhouses, schools, will all derive a benefit from wares that are almost indestructible, and whose peculiar elastic nature precludes them ever being used as weapons of offence.
Most of these articles are made by simple pres sure. The moulding of a bowl will give the idea. The mould is a massive bowl of lead, in the interior of which is cut, in the manner of die-sinkA softened piece is rolled outing, the design intended for the outside of the vessel. Fitting into this is another mass of lead, whose convex surface is to form the interior of the article required. While one man is preparing the mould, his mate is engaged in rolling out on a
warm marble slab a quantity of gutta percha, and then cutting it into strips. By a skilful combination of light-colored and dark-colored materials, a substance is produced which, from its likeness 'elecampane,' or 'lemon-rock,' would be tempting to any youthful palate. These variegated strips are placed at intervals, like the ribs of a ship, within the first-named bowl. The 'reentering part of the mould is then inserted, and the whole is slung, by means of hook and pulley and the men's guidance, beneath an hydraulic press. The exertions of a child's force with this powerful apparatus inflicts upon the strips a pressure of a hundred tons, causing them to spread out, and, by their edges joining, to form a perfect bowl. Great beauty is the result of this process. Expanding from various central lines, it has the exact semblance of the veins and markings of most beautiful veneer.
A visitor to the works of the Gutta Percha Company will be struck as much by the noiselessness of some of the departments, as by the din in the vicinity of the steam-engines. In one part may be detected, if the eye be bright, a heavy cog wheel working into another. The ear would not detect it, for it works in silence. The pioneer will explain that it is gutta percha working into metal; that it has been working more than two years without any deterioration; proof satis factory of strength and durability.
A very pleasing feature will also be discerned with respect to the operatives. The relation between employer and employed seems as modern as the material of manufacture. Every face gleams with intelligence; and, as our conductor exchanges a kindly remark with the men or the youths, a sympathy shows itself, as if every one felt that the credit of the establishment depended upon individual effort. We believe that nowhere will a body of men be found more cleanly, more smiling, more proud of their employment, more emulative of giving the best finish to their work. The development of this new branch of industry is their great aim. Most of its applications have emanated from them. They have contributed, in an eminent degree, to show the extent to which the new substance may be made available for the benefit of man, and also how to make it so.
Perhaps the most notable service that gutta percha is destined to render, arises from its suitability for tubing. In a sanitary point of view, its value is above estimation. The vicious practice of using lead tubing cannot too soon be superseded. All of us remember the consternation at Claremont, in the family circle of Louis Philippe, when a dozen members of the household were attacked with the symptoms of poison, clearly traceable to the lead which the water held in solution. Water acts upon lead in a very short time. The Duke of Bedford's surveyor attests that, where lead has been eaten through in two years, the gutta percha pipe has remained quite unaffected. At Woburn Abbey it is now employed very extensively. A little unpleasantness was imparted to the water at first, but a day removed that; and since, it has flowed perfectly
Tube making is very ingeniously managed. The apparatus has a cylindrical aperture, through the whole length of which runs a rod of metal,
leaving just so much space between it, and the interior surface of the aperture, as is desirable for the thickness. Soft gutta percha is forced through this aperture, and comes out from the other end in the form of tubing. It would of itself collapse immediately, but this is provided against by skilfully contriving that cold water should fill it as it is produced. It traverses a trough 30 or 40 feet long, by which time it is sufficiently cold and solid to be wound off. Evidently, the only limit to the production of pipe is the limit put to the 'feeding.' From 400 to 500 feet in one length, as perfectly distended in every part as when it first leaves the mould, have been made in this way; longer by far than has ever been produced in any other material.
Acoustics as well as hydraulics claim the aid of this tubing. Large and small apparatus are made; from the little cornets, almost invisible when fixed to the ears, to the large trumpet or receiver that needs a table for its support. Curious indeed some of these invention are, and well calculated to astonish anybody who tries one for the first time. Bells are quite done away with at the company's works. Sound is conveyed to any distance, and with great distinctness, by the message-tubes. We shall not be able to accomplish our tour of inspection without hearing occasionally a low whistle close to our ears. It is an intimation to the individual in charge of the room in which we may happen to be, that some one in a remote department, a fellow-officer maybe, who canna be fashed' to come, wishes to communicate with him. He has, therefore, blown at his end of the tube, a distance of fifty, sixty, or a hundred yards; and produced the musical phenomenon we chance to hear. He to whom the in
timation is given, removes a little whistle from his end, and replies with like gentle puff; then listens. The effect is amusing; not unlike the sounds produced by a good ventriloquist, when imitating a distant speaker-perfectly audible and clear, yet seeming as though they had travelled
Now let our readers imagine, that such a message-tube had a mouthpiece where the knob of the 'Night-bell' usually is on the door-post of a surgeon's house, and that it communicated with the bedside of the surgeon. If, perchance, a reader be such functionary, he will, or ought, to hail a contrivance that substitutes a passing of symptoms' and 'directions' between the door and the bed, for rising on a frosty night and exposure to the bleak air.
Speaking-tubes are also suggested as a communication between the man on the 'look-out' and the helmsman, or the captain in his cabin. Gutta Percha is as antagonistic to salt water as to fresh. It will, without doubt, become a sine quâ non with every shipmaster for buckets, &c., and by every seaman for 'sou'-westers.' Already it is made into life-buoys, more buoyant than cork, speaking-trumpets, sheathing, cord which does not sink in the water, and other things-a host.
Ornamental sound-receivers have been fixed to the pulpits of some churches, with tubes passing to the pews of the deaf members of the congregation. By this means, many a one to whom the sound of a sermon had long been strange, has had cause of thankfulness for the introduction of gutta percha.
Another application of the same principle has
We must not leave the premises without a look at the most recent application of gutta percha. Of course, that is as a covering for the telegraph wire. It is hardly possible that this wonderful triumph of human intellect, by which a thought breathed in Britain is imprinted on a foreign strand, even while in its birth-throes, would yet have awaited man, without the aid of gutta percha. Amongst the multifarious operations, there is not one that requires so much care as in the covering of this wire. It is made by thousands of miles! In the room appropriated to this work, we may see coils of wire representing distances that would have startled our grandsires. We have heard of such lengths of wire being sunk in the neighboring canal-a most convenient store-room-that we would not dare mention, for fear our authenticity should be questioned in that
and other matters.
would prevent complete insulation.' In this way the sub-marine telegraph was manufactured. The single wires receive two or three coats of the soft substance, and in the end are wound off upon a wheel at a distance. In part, the process resembles wire-drawing, looked at through strong spectacles; except, indeed, that the wire is not lengthened nor lessened in bulk (very modest exceptions truly). Before winding on the wheel, it glides through the hands of a youth, who by practice becomes expert enough to detect the minutest flaw. Several tests are applied to prove the perfect insulation of the wire. The last of all, is that of sending an electric charge through a large coil. If they stand the trial, they are pronounced fit for use.
Space will not permit us to indicate half the Gutta percha tubing, truly, is invaluable. In useful and ornamental things placed before us at chemistry it is used for conveying oils, and acids, the gutta percha works. We must introduce and alkalies. Only strong nitric or sulphuric irregularly a few more exemplifications of its acids seem to touch it. This inertness with the wondrous utility, and conclude. 'Embossing' is acids, makes it useful in manifold ways beside a work that promises to extend itself. Raised tubing. With dilute nitric it is used by the re- maps and globes, for general purposes of teachfiners as a coating to their various vessels. ing; and raised reading lessons for the blind, Glass' carboys' to contain muriatic acid have al- are made with comparative facility. Already most become things that were. Pipes of this acid, it is greatly used in surgery. A solution in secure in gutta percha, are now constantly travel-naphtha, which latter evaporates, and leaves the ling in every direction upon the railways; the di- gutta percha uninjured, is used to procure sheets rectors of which, a few years ago, would not suffer of exceeding tenuity. As a balsam for wounds, it to be conveyed on any consideration what this solution will quite supersede the objectionable 'gold-beater's skin, or patch of 'court plaister.' Splints moulded to the shape of the fractured limb, have been used with great success. In one case recorded, that of 'broken jaw' from the kick of a horse, the patient was enabled to eat after three days, a fact unparalleled. The vastly greater comfort of these splints can only be avouched by an unfortunate patient. Stereotype plates have been made. The clearness and sharpness of edge, and purity of form, when moulded, make it well suited for this purpose. As many as 20,000 impressions have been taken from an experimental plate at the works, and the woodcuts and text seem as fresh as at first.
It was brought into notice in the form of a horsewhip. We may not spare a sentence to speak of the number of whips now manufactured. Nor can we refer in detail to the gutta percha
boats which were found of such eminent use in the search after Sir John Franklin. Nor of the thanks due to gutta percha, from the beautiful science of photography, for 'pans,' and other aids which it affords better than any other material. Nor, going from great things to small, of cricket-balls, and clothes'-lines, of policemen's staves, and utilities for the 'diggings."
The machinery employed in the preparation of the covered telegraph wire, is thus described:Two pairs of heated, polished, iron flatting rollers, one vertically above the other, are fed with soft gutta percha cylinders, which they deliver on the other side as flattened sheets. These are made to travel onward, and in the interval between them there also travels a row of copper wires. Thesei. e., the parallel sheets of gutta percha, and the intervening wires-all meet between a pair of grooved cutting rollers, not quite close together. The grooves are, of course, the size of the re-tails will be perused with considerable pleaquired casing, and each wire precisely hits the sure by all who, residing at a distance, cancentre of a groove. The whole, therefore, appears not avail themselves of a personal visit. on the other side as a band of covered wires, The public now-a-days, are on the qui-vive which may either be left together, as in the telegraph for railway tunnels, or pulled apart into sin- to know everything; and it is delightful to gle pieces. The wires thus encased are soaked be able to assist in the dissemination of sound, for a considerable time in water, which is sure to useful knowledge. find out any flaw, though invisible to the eye, which
These particulars will be read with more
We will offer no apology for having gone so fully into this subject. It possesses an interest of no common kind; and the de
than usual interest; for, since the article was in type, the Manufactory of the Gutta Percha Company has been seriously damaged by fire. We are happy to hear that the Works will be in full operation again ere long.
AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF A DOG-No. XIV.
WRITTEN BY HIMSELF.
(Continued from Page 300.)
PUNCTUAL to MY PROMISE, here I am, my best of Editors, ready to chat to you about sledging. I will also tell you of our trip to Versoix and home again. The details will amuse you, I know, and cause a laugh at our expense. At the same time it will convey to you an idea of the very rapid changes of temperature to which my country is often subject, and the consequences of which occasioned so much discomfort to my old master, as it also continually does to many others. I must confess, however, that I was the least annoyed of the party forming the expedition.
It was in the month of January; and towards the latter end of the month a vast deal of snow fell. The cold, too, had for some time been intense (the thermometer ranging generally from 18 to 20 degrees below zero during the night and early morning).
At this time Bombyx made up his mind to visit some of his relatives residing at Versoix and Geneva-having first ascertained that they would not be out upon a similar excursion. One fine morning, about nine o'clock, two pretty sledges arrived at our old residence on the road to Chailly. A first-rate breakfast having been disposed of, and a glass or two of Kirschenwasser, just to keep out the cold (my own breakfast, I may tell you, was unusually warm and savory, and the postilions pronounced the Eau de Cerise veritable)-the two sledges were soon occupied, and I squeezed myself in a snug corner, close to my master's feet. Assuredly no cold could reach me there. All being now right, and the German servant, who was in the last sledge, having quickly disposed of a parting bumper of Kirschenwasser (I saw him, although Bombyx did not), off we started.
It was a glorious morning. The scene was brilliant as in June; but the cutting, cold wind, caused to lodge on our noses and chins the minute particles of frozen snow which it blew off the hedges and trees, and soon undeceived us on this point. So I thought it most prudent to curl myself up as well as I could do, and keep my tender nose from coming in contact with cold, rude "Boreas." Would not you have done the same, dear Mr. Editor? [Indeed we should, Fino.]
Well, on we went through Lausanne-whips cracking, bells tinkling, postilions hallooing; down Montbenon like mad, passed St. Sulpice, where I heard my old master call out, "Stop a minute at Morges; we'll have a glass of old red wine and light a cigar." "Bel et bien, Monsieur," cries Bébi (such was the name of our postilion). "Monsieur a bien raison," rejoined Louis, who conducted the other sledge.
In a few minutes more, we were before the door
of our well-known hotel, the "Trois Couronnes a Morges." "Bring up some chateux neuf," says Bombyx. "Have you any of the old sort ?" "Oh que oui, j'en ai toujours pour Monsieur." fruit; after which, the postilions and Bombyx, The red wine was accompanied by some dried the German servant, and the young masters, being supplied with some capital "Bahias," and myself with a basin of good warm soup, in a quarter of an hour we were off again.
"We shall dine at Rolle,' Bébi," says Bombyx, "at our old friend's-the 'Tête Noire.' "Oui, Monsieur; you'll get some capital Gibier there. I was there at the beginning of the week, and it was beautiful."
Crack again went the whip, and off we flew. Our hearts were warmed by the good old wine, and gaily we tripped by St. Près; and after a while reached Rolle, driving straight up to the "Tête Noire." This is a very curious-looking place outside, Mr. Editor; and what would Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe say, if ever she should pass through this quaint old town, and see a large nigger's head swinging over the sole front entrance of the "Tête Noire? Whatever you may think of the exterior, you will find yourselves "quite at home" in the interior; and a more luxurious dinner no epicure need covet. As for cleanliness, it is a perfect pattern. You may imagine how we all closed around the blazing fire. Presently a voice that was quite familiar to me said, "Eh bien, Fino, que fais tu ici?" It was the son of the proprietor of the "Faucon," at Berne, whom I knew very well.
"Well, old friend," said he, "I'll prepare you a splendid soup." He soon twigged Bombyx; and in a quarter of an hour a dinner, fit for Prince Albert or the Emperor of all the Russias, garnished the table. Some excellent pale ale, of rather a bitter flavor, made its appearance; and after dinner some old " Hermitage Rouge," which was perfectly unique. My Friend François (such was the name of my Bernese acquaintance) had requested Bombyx to allow me to dine with him; and I soon found out that he was on a visit to his uncle, the proprietor of the "Tête Noire." He treated me like a prince. In short, I had everything that could make a dog's heart happy.
Again our sledges were ready; and more "Bahias" being provided, off we went, and after a long run reached "Prangins," and soon after "Nyon." Here we just moistened the horses' mouths, and our own-spun along to "Coppet; and leaving the celebrated "Chateau of Madame de Staël," on our right, passed on to "Versoix," which we reached very jolly but very cold. There sat Bombyx's fat relation (nearly as fat as himself, Mr. Editor), waiting under the sheltering portico of the "Croix d'Or," and puffing his cigar; whilst ever and anon he protruded his rubicund visage from behind the pillar, to see if he could catch a glimpse of our sledges; a few minutes more, and we were under his hospitable roof.
Here a famous supper was duly announced at the homely hour of nine; and even now, Mr. Editor, my old master never has his supper later than that hour. Still, you know, there are exceptions to every rule; and we did not think of betaking our weary persons to our beds till near midnight.
At last, a move was resolved upon, and my worthy host accompanied Bombyx and myself to our dormitory. The two eldest boys ensconced themselves in a large bed, in one corner of this goodly chamber. As for myself, whenever my master is travelling, I always sleep at the foot of his bed! thinking it wise so to do, for in case of accidents two heads are better than one. Entre nous, I make a point of sleeping with one eye fixed on my old master and the other on the door, so that if any intruder should appear I know how to deal with him. I see instantly, by the cut of his face, whether he is welcome or not. If not, I just open my jaw, and warn him he had better make a bolt of it. Well, my worthy host at last said, "good night;" after warning us not to approach too near the "fourneau," as it was red-hot and would keep so till morning. "Enfin, bon soir, my good fellows; gardez vous du Fourneau." Bombyx was soon in bed, and I had as quickly rolled myself up in the carpet by his bedside; for I confess I found the room uncommonly coldnotwithstanding the red-hot "fourneau."
Presently the little night-lamp (which was placed upon the "fourneau") went out; and as Bombyx was not asleep, he struck a light to see what was the matter, and intended to light it again, not being much inclined to slumber. The cold and the exciting fare of our trip, I must tell you, had produced anything but a sleepy mood.
Well, only fancy; upon only reaching the redfourneau," he found the oil in the glass in which the "lumignon was placed, quite frozen; so intense was the cold! There being, therefore, no means of using the "lumignon," he arranged something else; and seeing his two boys were snoring, he after a while did the same thing. I quickly followed their example. The next morning he had a famous laugh with his relative about the red-hot "fourneau." After breakfast we walked to "Genthod," and from thence we went per omnibus to Geneva-returning to "Versoix' for dinner. In my country, we generally dine at one or two o'clock, a plan which my old master adopts at the present time; and I must say I think he is right.
Suddenly, after dinner, there arose a strong southerly wind, accompanied by a very warm rain; so warm indeed, that it was quite unpleasant. "What a singular change!" said Bombyx; "what can this mean? I must be home to morrow, as I expect some friends from Vevay on the following day. How are we to go? The drops of rain are just like hot water, and will soon melt the surface of the snow, and make most miserable roads."
Just then, looking out of window, we saw the Geneva diligence pass by, on wheels; and shortly after, Bébi made his appearance, and said there was no possibility of returning by sledges, as the warm rain had been so extraordinary that the snow had melted, and the roads were in a thorough squash, nearly as far as Morges; but he thought his master had a large roomy return-carriage at Geneva, and it would be better for him to go and secure that before any one else got it, and while he was away, Louis would fix the sledges to the fly-wagon; and thus we should get home all right by to-morrow, as we intended.
After a little talking, this plan was agreed upon; and Bébi went to Geneva to secure our conveyance, whilst Louis attached the sledges to the next flywagon for Lausanne. The next morning, our four horses, with their tinkling little bells, were attached to our large carriage; and we started off on our return. We did not, however, move at so rapid a pace as when we had our sledges. Having at length reached Nyon, we of course secured a supply of "ecrelet," and arrived at the "Tête Noire, at Morges, in time for dinner, which our Bernese friend had got all ready for us-being aware of the day and the hour of our probable return. He joked me famously about our sledging; but as he had provided me a beautiful soup, I took it all in good part.
After nearly three hours' rest, we started again. In the meanwhile, the wind had again changed to a desperate cold Bise, enough to cut one in two; and when we reached Morges the snow had again frozen. So slippery was it, that the poor horses had some trouble to keep their ground, and it was a considerable time before we reached the Pont de la Maladiere. This spot is just at the foot of the hill, on the Geneva road, leading up to Lausanne; and from this point the road to Lausanne is a steep rise for about a quarter of an hour's walk.
for the horses of Renfort, was formerly a chapel, The little building which now serves as a stable where certain religious ceremonies were observed towards malefactors, who, by their crimes, had forfeited their lives to the offended laws of their country. Close to this very spot, too, they were decapitated. This is not the only one instance of a chapel being converted into a stable. Close adjoining is a small public-house, where postilions, carmen, &c., regale themselves whilst waiting the arrival of any party to whom they are to give a help up to Montbenon. Most fortunately, just as we arrived there, a man signalled us, and presently Bébi dismounted. His master had sent a strong horse de Renfort, to help us up this rising road; and a very seasonable help it was too-for notwithstanding our rest at Rolle, it had been a very fatiguing day. Once, however, on Montbenon, it was all even ground (that is to say, all even ground for my country, not what you would call so).
We arrived much later than we expected, and fortunately all safe and sound; although we did knock down an old gate-post at the entrance of our home. Our carriage and horses occupied too much space in this narrow lane; and the slippery state of the road, just at the turning, prevented us taking a sufficient sweep.
I was rather alarmed, but there was no great harm done; and I was not sorry to wag my tail again in our own kitchen. Here a blazing fire and a good hot soup awaited us. Both were uncommonly welcome. Supper was soon ready for Bombyx; and, of course, I poked my nose in for an extra allowance. A good sleep followed; this soon made us forget all our jolting and shaking; and the next morning we were all fresh as larks.
I only wish you had been one of us. I am sure you would have enjoyed it famously. Adieu, my dear friend. Au revoir. FINO.
Tottenham, June 15.