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a long lecture, had I not learnt to respect my that bread is a hydrated body, softening by heat

M. Thenard somewhat inclines to the opinion
I must now say good bye, and subscribe myself, and solidifying by cold—an opinion wholly unten-
Your faithful and trusty able, the molecular change advocated by M.

Fino. Boussingault being both probable and consistent

with observation. May 12, 1853.


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The perplexity even shrewd guessers of the

weather often labor under, as to whether an umBREAD,- NEW AND STALE. brella should be exchanged for a walking-stick, or

an extra coat be taken for the journey-must renM. Boussingault avers that the change of con.

der this branch of information extremely useful. dition in bread, known by the terms “new” and By attending to a few simple rules, drawn from na

stale," is usually attributed to loss of moisture; ture and confirmed by experience, the veriest tyro and that the presumed greater nutritive qualities in meteorology may predict with

accuracy the

proof stale over new bread are due to the greater bable changes of the weather from day to day: weight of nourishment contained in the former Dew.-If, after one fair day, the dew lies than in the latter. He also tells us plainly that plentifully on the grass, it is a sign of another. If the crispest and nicest crust becomes tough and not, and there is no wind, rain must follow. A leathery by mere keeping, whilst the soft part or red sunset, without clouds, indicates a doubt of crumb as readily loses its springy flexibility, fair weather ; but after a red sunset in clouds a becoming erumbly under the same circumstances. fine day may be expected. A watery sunset,

Now it is this change of the crumb of bread diverging rays of light-either direct from the sun, with which we have to do ; for there can be no

or behind a bank of clouds, is indicative of rain. doubt that the change in the crust, from crispness

Clouds.—When the clouds increase very fast,– to toughness, is wholly due to the absorption of and accumulate huge masses of vapor, much rain, water, chiefly yielded by the soft crumb, but and, in the summer time, thunder will follow. sometimes in part from a dampexternal atmosphere. When the clouds are formed like fleeces, but dense M. Boussingault fairly instances the return of stale in the middle and bright towards the edge, with bread to the condition of new, on being again put the sky clear, they are signs of a sharp frost, with into the oven or toasted, when stale bread itself hail, snow, or rain. When the clouds (cirri) are parts with water, as good and sufficient evidence formed like feathers, and appear in thin white against the supposition that staleness is due to des trains, they indicate wind. When formed into sication. Various experiments have been made with horizontal sheets, with streamers pointing upwards, bread under diverse conditions ; from the chief of rain is prognosticated, but with depending, fringewhich it appears that a loaf just drawn from the like fibres it is found to precede fair weather. oven requires the lapse of about twenty-four hours When a general cloudiness covers the sky,—and to fall to the temperature of the surrounding air, small black fragments of clouds fly underneath, when it became what is termed" half-stale," the wet weather will follow; and probably of long loss of weight from evaporation of water being continuance. Two currents of clouds always 0-008 per cent.; this loss amounting to 001 per portend rain ; and in summer, thunder. cent. when the loaf was a week old and very stale.

PLANTS.—These are truly the barometers of Other experiments demonstrate a fact well Nature, and are most faithful in their indications. known to good housekeepers, that stale bread may Chickweed forms of itself an excellent criterion. bo made to assume the condition of new bread by When the flower expands fully, rain will not fall merely heating it for an almost indefinite number for many hours; and should it continue expanded, of times; that is, until it is has actually been dried no rain will disturb the summer's day. When up ; and they also show that this return to the it half conceals its diminutive flower, the day will "new" condition may be effected at 1200 to 150o be showery; but when it entirely shuts up, or Fahr. From a consideration of these circum- veils the white flower with its green mantle, then stances, M. Boussingault inclines to the belief let the traveller provide an umbrella and top-coat, that, during the cooling of bread, a special molecu- for the rain will be lasting. lar state is induced, which is developed to its full

If the Siberian sowthistle shuts at night, the extent when the bread becomes very stale ; it con- following day will be fine. If it remain open, tinuing in this special molecular condition whilst rain will ensue. If the African marigold continues the temperature remains below a certain point. shut in the morning, long after its usual time for However, when re-heated above this point, it opening, rain is approaching; and the convolvulus, reassumes its primary molecular condition as tulip, bindweeds, scarlet-pimpernel and all the bread,

different species of trefoil, contract their leaves on Change of molecular condition may be familiarly the approach of a storm or wet weather. illustrated by the melting of crystalline sugar at a comparatively high temperature into a transparent

NATURE'S LOVE-KNOT, liquid, which may be monlded at discretion ; becoming a transparent solid, barley-sugar, on True hearts by secret sympathy are tied, cooling. By the lapse of time a molecular change For loving souls in Nature are allied; is set up, and the barley-sugar becomes opaque Absence may part them for a little while, and gradually returns to its original state of Yet shell they meet; and then,-how sweet their crystall sugar.

smilo !


BOYAL BOTANIC GARDENS,-KEW. are very large, are of a deep violet blue. In the

Aloe house were blooming plants of the Aloe AS THE SUMMER STEAM BOATS, and numerous Africana, about twelve feet in height, Charlwoodia other public conveyances, are now facilitating Congesta, and Xanthorrea Hastilis. The Orchid access to these most beautiful-most enchanting house presented but few plants in bloom which gardens, which are opened "free" to the public, demand notice ; we noticed, however, Oncidium daily, from 1 p.m. until 6, --we append the notes Horridum, Phalenopsis Amabilis, Acrides Virens, of a gentleman who paid them a recent visit. They Dendrobium Fimbriatum, D. Sanguinolentum, and will assist the stranger in his progress of examina- a good specimen of Lycaste Harrisoniæ, a very tion.

striking species, with cream-colored petals and We are now in the gardens; and taking the purple lip-perhaps the handsomest of the beauhouses pretty much in the order in which they are tiful genus to which it belongs. In this house is generally seen by visitors, we arrive first at the also a fine healthy plant of Nepenthes Rafflesiana, house devoted to the Proteacece. Notwithstanding and a small specimen of the beautiful Eranthemum the name applied to this order is indicative of the Leuconervum, with delicate white flowers. great variety of appearance it presents, there is yet In the Azalea house we noticed a tolerably such a general resemblance throughout it that few large plant of Rhododendron Ciliatum in bloom, persons could be at a loss to distinguish a protea. and several small ones, not more than six inches ceous plant, even when not in bloom. The stiff high; the pretty little Azalea Amena, and a and rigid foliage, and its peculiar blueish-green number of hybrid varieties of the latter genus. tint, must strike every one; and it is well known In the large Palm house, the Doryanthes Excelsa that it is the great predominance of this order in has just bloomed; it is now nearly over. The Australia and the Cape which gives so peculiar a flowering stem is apparently about fifteen feet in character to the vegetation of those regions, and height, and it is stated to have been in flower three has occasioned them to be designated by Schouw weeks. It is growing in a tub, about three feet the zone of rigid-leaved woods."

square. The principal novelties deserving attenConsiderable interest is attached to this collection tion are the Aralia Papyrifera, or rice-paper plant just now, from the circumstance that a large pro- of China, about which so much controversy has portion of the species are in bloom. Among these been raised ; Impatiens Hookeri, from Ceylon; we observed some half-dozen species of Grevillea, Semeiandra Grandiflora, a shrub something resemfour or five Dryandras, Hakea Undulata, Banksia bling a Fuchsia ; and Crossandra Flava, a pretty Ericifolia, &c. Several species of Acacia were also Acanthad, introduced by Mr. Whitfield, from in bloom in this house, and a fine plant of Rhodo- tropical Africa, and bloomed at the Royal Botanic dendron Arboreum. În the old Orchid houses, Garden, Regent's Park. It is stated by Sir W. now devoted principally to Ferns, we noticed of Hooker to be the only example of yellow flowers the latter in fructification, Hemitelia Horrida, H, in the genus Crossandra, which has, moreover, Speciosa, H. grandiflora, Drynaria Irioides, Sitilo- been hitherto supposed to be confined to the East bium, Adiantoides, &c.' We must not forget also Indies. to mention a remarkably fine specimen of Cymbi

Many of your readers are aware that a new dium Aloifolium, which, though one of the oldest Victoria house has been erected. It is a building Orchids in cultivation, is yet well worthy to be of glass and iron, about forty-five feet square, and retained. The plant in question had five handsome bas an entrance porch at the east end. The tank spikes of flowers, and produced a very showy ap- is circular, about thirty-four feet in width, lined pearance. Some interesting miscellaneous plants with concrete, over which is placed sheet lead. A were in bloom in these houses.

plant has been placed in the centre, which had at Especially worthy of notice, may be remarked the time of our visit eight leaves, the largest the following :-Kopsia or Cerbera Fruticosa, a probably about twenty inches in diameter, and pretty little shrub of the Apocynaceous order, presenting a tolerably thriving appearance. There much resembling Vinca Rosea, a native of the is a small tank in each corner of the house, conMalay Islands, introduced many years ago, but by taining Nelumbiums, Caladiums, and other tropical

It is decidedly handsome, and aquatics. The greenhouses mostly presented a gay blooms many times in the year; but, judging from appearance, Acacias, Azaleas, Boronias, Heaths, the specimens which have come under our notice, Epacrises, and three or four species of Eriostemon, the flowers are not produced very freely. Sipho making a conspicuous display. campylus Coccineus, which we regard as unquestionably the most beautiful of its genus. The eye, there will be many things of great interest

Before these remarks are presented to the public flowers are large, of a brilliant scarlet, and very exhibited out of doors. "This is just the season to abundant. S. Microstoma was blooming in the win for them the admiration they deserve. same house; but, though a handsome species, we can hardly consider it equal as an ornamental plant to the former. Roylea Elegans is a very pretty

SOCIAL CONVERSATION. little plant of the Labiate order, from Nepal, with bright blue flowers, but having a somewhat weedy Talk not of music to a physician, nor of mediappearance for an in-door plant.

cine to a fiddler; unless the fiddler should be sick, In a small stove, among some other Gesneraceous and the physician fond of a concert. He that speaks plants, we observed in bloom a plant of Gloxinia only of such subjects as are familiar to himself, Argyrostigma Splendens, the leaves of which, treats the company as the stork did the fox-prebeautifully variegated, spread out so as to cover senting an entertainment to him in a deep pitcher, the pot; the flower stalks are more slender than out of which no animal in creation could feed but a in most of the Gloxinias, and the flowers, which long-billed fowl.--Jones, of Nayland.

no means common.


same manner.

To pre

HINTS TO AMATEUR GARDENERS. handling Ranunculuses and Anemones not to

break their claws. THE CALENDAR FOR JUNE.

CARNATIONS should have neat sticks placed to tie their flower-stems. This should be done loosely, to admit their elongating without breaking: If aphides

infest the young buds, they may Cherry-trees on walls usually become infested be brushed off with a stiff feather, or dusted in with black fly at this season, which, if not the morning, when damp, with Scotch snuff. Palechecked, will extend to the fruit. An effectual colored kinds will be much benefited by applicaand simple remedy is, immediately they are per- tions of liquid manure, once or twice a week. ceived mix some clayey soil with water in such Liquid manure will be found of great advantage proportions as will form a thin puddle, into to other florists' flowers when putting forth their which dip the infested points, leaving them to flower-stems-namely, Pinks, Ranunculuses, dry in the sun. After the inclosed insects have Polyanthuses, and Hyacinths. perished, the clay may readily be washed off; ĎAHLIAS.—-Keep them neatly and securely tied but it will do no harm in remaining. Roses up, and water them if necessary. and many other plants may be cleaned in the Fuchsias, Verbenas, Heliotropes, and similar

Vines trained against the house plants, readily strike by cuttings now. or walls must now be looked over weekly, and Roses may be budded towards the end of the all weak and superfluous shoots removed. The month. earlier this is attended to the better, and more PERENNIALS and BIENNIALS, raised from seed, likely to forward the ripening of the fruit. A may be pricked out, to strengthen before their common fault committed in the management of final transplantation. Vines, is leaving too much wood, which not

Pinks.-Many kinds of choice Pinks, in expandonly hinders the fruit of the current year from ing, are liable to burst their calyx, either from roreceiving dne nourishment, but prevents the bust growth, or a naturally short calyx. fruiting wood for next season from maturing its vent this, a narrow strip of parchment or bladder buds, to assist which all the sun and air pos- may be passed round them, and secured with a sible should be permitted to penetrate.



gum-water; or if bladder is used when moist, should be borne in mind when thinning out it will adhere of itself, and can be readily removed young and useless shoots : do not allow one spur before exhibition. Some circular pieces of card to support two bunches of grapes, but remove should also be cut of the same width as the the smallest or uppermost one, and stop the flower, to arrange the petals upon ; for although shoots at an eye above the fruit. Continue to the petals of a first-rate Pink do expand even and water Strawberries, if necessary. Keep newly- level, they are better secured by this contrivance. grafted shoots securely tied, and the summer Slit the card to the centre on one side, and in the shoots of trained trees fastened in.

centre make two or three cross-cuts, to admit its
being fixed upon the calyx without bruising it.

As the flowers expand, the small or irregular Small plants of Pelargoniums or Fuchsias in- petals must be extracted, and the others laid out tended for the windows in autumn will make five horizontally, so as not to interrupt the circular specimens for that purpose, if planted out early lacings. Some short-calyxed Pinks burst in dethis month; or they may be potted at once into fiance of these precautions. To prevent this being their winter pots, and plunged out of doors, taking done irregularly, it is better to slit the calyx of care that they have good drainage, and using pre- such kinds a short distance down at each of their cautions against their rooting through the bottoms segments before placing the ligature round them. or over the tops of the pots.

Expanded flowers must be shaded from the sun, Annuals. --Some of the quick-flowering kinds if it be wished to retain their beauty any length may yet be sown, as Virginian Stock, Venus's of time. Various means in the absence of an Looking-glass, Clarkia, Collinsia, Gilia, &c. awning will suggest themselves for this, as caps Some of those thinned out from the border may be of stout paper, painted, and supported above potted for flowering in the window, or be placed them with a stick, like a miniature umbrellain a shady place, to form a succession. They will or square pieces of thin board, about six inches require plenty of water. Some of the more ten- wide, fixed upon a stick. The best time for der kinds which were sown in pots, and raised in piping is when the plants are in full bloom; if the cucumber-pit, may be planted in the open bor- delayed much longer, the shoots get hard, and do ders, as French and African Marigolds, Ten-week not root so readily.' They should be taken off Stocks, China Asters, Zinnias, and Phlox Drum- when about two inches long, and have the leaves mondii.

from the two lowermost joints stripped off. Do BULBs of Ranunculus, Hyacinths, Anemones, 'not shorten the remaining leaves, as is frequently and Tulips, as soon as the foliage has turned practised. Then in a shady part of the garden yellow, must be taken up, if they are choice kinds, prepare some light soil, by digging it fine and and stored away when dry in paper-bags until the level, watering it until it becomes a puddle. planting season. If suffered to remain in the Whilst in this state plant the pipings, but do not ground, they shoot again in the autumn, which water them after they are planted. To ensure weakens the bulbs, and spoils their blooming at success, a hand-glass should be placed over them; the proper sonson ; and Tulips, when left in the or they may be planted in wide-mouthed pots with ground, become run in their colors. The soil a piece of flat glass over, as recommended in should be carefully cleansed from them, but none April ; or place them at the front of the Cucumof the skins removed. Care must be taken in | ber-pit. These early pipings make handsomer


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and stronger plants than later ones, and are there comb. They have generally a profusion of beard fore much to be preferred.

and whiskers ; their legs are dark, and their Water copiously all plants in pots, newly-planted plumage is either golden or silver, laced or pheaseedlings, &c., in the evenings. Gather all de- santed. The laced marking is where the feathers, cayed Howers, as it prolongs the flowering season either golden or silver, are edged or bordered with of such plants as Calceolarias, China Roses, &c., black, giving them an imbricated appearance. and is, besides, a nice occupation for children. The pheasant marking is where the feathers, Destroy weeds. Tie up all advancing flower-stems either of gold or silver ground colored, are marked at an early period , for if allowed to grow strag- or dotted with black at the extremity only, regling at first, no after-management will make them sembling the feathers of a cock-pheasant's neck; look neat. Examine the buds of Roses for grubs : whence the name. This marking is often, improany plants infested with worms may be cleansed perly I think, called spangled. of them by watering with lime-water.

Polands, Polish, etc., such as are now generally known by these names, are a mixed lot. They

are crosses from the foregoing, and, perhaps, also POULTRY AND EGGS,—&o.

from some others, and, consequently, vary con

siderably. Hence arise the disputes respecting FOWLS WITH TOP-KNOTS. the beards, etc. Beards, or muffles, are pre

eminently a characteristic of the old Hamburghs, UNDER THE NEW CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY, but it did also occasionally occur in the Paduans Mr. Editor, it has become fashionable to call all and Poles, as it frequently does in all other tufted fowls with crests or tufts of feathers on their fowls. heads by the name of Polish. I am at a loss to There is a tufted cuckoo, or slate-colored fowl, understand from what reason, since Poland cer- known as Egyptians or blue Polands. Also a tainly has nothing to do with the origin of any of common white-tufted fowl called the lark-crested our breeds of fowls. The name is a misnomer, or fowl. Moreover, a variety of game fowls, with at least a corruption of something else. Nor am small tufts, used to be very plentiful some years I inclined to consider all the top-knotted varieties back, and esteemed for their courage; from which of domestic fowls of the same origin.

I think it is evident that all tufted fowls can hardly The following are the varieties which I think be considered of one common origin.-B. P. should be acknowledged. 1.- The Padua fowl, BRENT, Bessels Green, Seven-Oaks, Kent. 80 called from the fact of their having been cultivated in Padua, a Venetian legation of Austrian Italy, chief-town Padua. They are described as HOW TO KEEP EGGS FRESH. being very large fowls, the cock so tall that it can peck crumbs from a common dining-table, and Some of your readers may like to know how to often weighing as much as ten pounds; the comb keep eggs fresh. I send you an account of the moderate sized, behind which is a large tuft of method practised here :-Take a half-inch board feathers, which is still larger in the hens, their of any convenient length and breadth, and pierce voice hoarse, eggs large, legs yellow, plumage it as full of holes (each one and a half inch in various ; they are supposed to be descended from diameter) as you can, without the risk of breakthe Gallus giganteus of Sumatra. Does not this ing one hole into another. I find that a board description answer to a tufted Malay ? Poles were of two feet six inches in length, and one foot also a large fowl. They were of Spanish extrac- broad has five dozen in it, say twelve rows of five tion, but where the Spaniards first obtained them each. Then take four strips of the same board of is a matter of doubt; most likely from some of two inches broad, and nail them together edgetheir western possessions. St. Jago has been wise into a rectangular frame of the same size as named, but which St. Jago is not specified. They your board. Nail the board upon the frame, and were introduced by the Spaniards into the Nether the work is done ; unless you choose, for the sake lands, from whence we obtained them. The Poles of appearance, to nail a beading of three-quarters were very large roundly-built fowls, rather low on of an inch round the board on the top. This looks the legs, which were dark-slate or lead-colored; better, and sometimes may prevent an egg from they were destitute of combs, and had large top- rolling off. kpots of feathers on their heads, that fell over on Put your eggs in this board as they come in all sides. They were considered good layers, and from the poultry-house, the small end down, and of excellent quality of flesh. There were three they will keep good for six months if you take the varieties of colors : the black with white top-knots, following precautions - Take care that the eggs the white with black top-knots, and the spangled, do not get wet either in the nest or afterwards the ground color of which was a mixture of ochre, | (in summer, hens are fond of laying among the yellow, and black, each feather having a white nettles or long grass, and any eggs taken from spangle at its extremity. These three varieties such nests in wet weather should be put away for are now very scarce, if indeed they are not quite immediate use); keep them in a cool room in extinct.

summer, and out of the reach of frost in winter, The Hamburghs (by this name I allude to the and then, I think, the party trying the experitufted fowls formerly known by that name, and ment will have abundant reason to be satisfied not to the Dutch every day layers, which are with it. I find there are some in my larder which now generally known by it,) were, and still are, I am assured have been there nearer eight months imported from Hamburgh. I believe them to be than six, and which are still perfectly fresh and a mongrel of the Poles. They are smaller, their good. In fact, it is a practice here to accumulate tufts are not so large, and are fronted by a small a large stock of eggs in August, September, and


October, which last until after the fowls have be- Spirit-rapper's ghost; and converses, too, gun to lay in the spring.

without an alphabet. If two boards are kept, one can be filling and The beauty of all acting is, -repose.

Mr. the other emptying at the same time. This is an

Woodin is quite alive to this. Hence the exceedingly good plan for those persons who keep coolness and method, without any apparent family; but would perhaps, not do so well for effort, which prevail throughout his entire those who keep a large stock of hens, as it would performance. He is “everything by turns, take up too much room. I have endeavored to

and nothing long." Sometimes he is before account for the admirable way in which eggs keep us as a Scotchman, sometimes as an English in this manner, by supposing that the yolk floats baronet, sometimes as a Frenchman, somemore equally in the white, and has less tendency times as an American. Sometimes we see : to sink down to the shell than when the egg is mere stripling; then again, a nian old as Dr. laid on one side. Certainly, if the yolk reaches Parr. Sometimes Mr. W. is a boy; some. the shell, the egg does spoil immediately. Will times a girl ; sometimes a woman.

Aud some of your correspondents favor me with their excellently well he looks and acts as a woopinion ?-T. G., Clitheroe.

His “make-up” is admirable. We

need not be too minute, but we really did We take an early opportunity of cautioning our see the indispensable and “palpable fact " subscribers against the tricks practised by per: supporting his female attire.

Then his other varieties of expensive fowls. If wanted for voice, gait, and assumption of domestic the purpose of breeding from, they are in most importance! These were all true to nature, cases, we are told, scalded before being packed and told” well with the audience. and forwarded. The embryon is, of course, there

Mr. Woodin possesses

extraordinary by destroyed. The seductive prices at which the power over his countenance, as well as over eggs are offered, would of itself confirm the fact his voice. It is impossible, sometimes, to to which we call attention. No persons should recognise him under his many disguises. deal with any but well-known and respectable Indeed, we heard his identity disputed more tradesmen, and the eggs should be in all cases than once during the evening. This is the warranted," '-or the money to be returned.

highest praise we can accord him.

All who love to indulge in a hearty scream, PUBLIC EXHIBITION.

which folks rightly say is sometimes "good

for the system," should go and see Mr. WOODIN'S CARPET-BAG, ETC. Woodin personate "the punster” in a pic. MYRIOGRAPHIC HALL, PICCADILLY.

nic party. His jokes, “let oft" under the

brim of a most excruciatingly-droll-shaped WE HAVE JUST BEEN to take a peep at shallow beaver, really double one up. That Mr. Woodin, in his new and elegant quar- jolly punster was fairly “one too many for ters-late Salle Robin, Piccadilly; and here us. His “Now for a regular good un l" still indeed he is “at home !" It may seem late rings in our ears. in the day to begin talking about what half In our early days, we

saw CHARLES the world has already seen, and the other MATTHEWs in his “At Homes." We have half are hastening to see. Yet must we do since seen many others, and been pleased with an act of pleasing duty.

all-more or less. But not even the great We shall not attempt to tell our friends, Matthews himself could ever do what Mr. young and old, (for all must pay a visit here), Woodin does. Mr. W.'s characters are more WHAT they are going to witness. Oh, no! numerous and diversified; and, what is better, That would be impossible. It would also be they are all “finished sketches." He does unfair, even if possible. Only let the curtain not depend so much upon rapid changes of rise, and that

Carpet-bag" be seen, accom- dress, as upon presenting his characters well panied by that “Sketch-book,"—and expec- dressed, and individualised. Yet is the tation will do the rest.

rapidity of his movements extraordinary ; Of the performer, we may remark that he and when we take our leave of some half is young, of the most pleasing address, figure, hundred individuals—all personated and and manners, and prepossessing to a degree. “animated” by one man, we justly proThe moment you see him you like him, and nounce that man a wonderful man. feel assured that his delight to amuse you

Mr. Woodin is a wonderful man, and he fully equals your anticipation of being well deserves the fame he has earned. His pleased. He speaks, and you smile; he “ At Home" will ever remain popular; for às illustrates " what he says, and heigh presto! whilst the amusement it affords' is consideryou are introduced at once to the World and able, the most fastidious may take their his wife-under changes innumerable. Your children to witness it, without any qualms of pleasure is augmented by finding that the conscience. He sings nicely, acts nicely, and

principal performer," although sometimes is, in a word, everything one could wish. unavoidably absent ” is yet always in the May the contents of that "Carpet-bag," company. He glides in quicker than a and that Sketch-book" never be exhausted !

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