« ÎnapoiContinuă »
PHRENOLOGY FOR THE MILLION,
than the other. Hence,' say they again, "men for a long time have regarded thought as a property of matter; and those, who teach the resurrection
No. XLIII.-PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BRAIN. of the body are equally convinced of the immor
TO AVOID ALL CONFUSION OF IDEAS, I shall separately of Materialism, of Fatalism, of Moral good and evil, and of Free-will.
tality of matter. In fine," they add, we can gain only a very defective notion of matter, and a purely negative notion of the soul, by representtreating to ourselves a substance deprived of all the faculties of thought and will; while reason can no known properties of matter, and retaining the more attain to the essence of matter than of mind, and, consequently, we cannot reasonably maintain, that extension and other properties are inconsistent with the essence of the soul, nor that the faculty of thinking is incompatible with the essence of the body."
By the term materialism, men designate things entirely different. Sometimes, the materialist pretends that there is no other existence than that of matter, and that all the phenomena in the world My doctrine has nothing in common with this are simply the effects of matter. The ancient hypothesis, nor, consequently, with this species of church bestowed the name materialists on those materialism. I have always declared, that I make who taught that matter existed from all eternity, no research into the nature of the soul and the and that, consequently, the Deity had not drawn body, and that I do not wish to explain the essence the world out of nothing. This sort of materialism of any of these faculties. I confine myself to ordinarily leads to the denial of the existence of a phenomena. Now we see that in this world, no Supreme Intelligence, of a God; and then it is con- faculty manifests itself without a material condifounded with atheism. It is not of such mate- tion; all the faculties, even those which we call rialism that my doctrine is accused. If any one can mental, act only by means of matter, and their acbecome an atheist, it is not the man who occupies tions can only be perceived by means of material himself on a large scale with the study of nature; organs. If, then, I am to be called a materialist, because, at every step, he meets phenomena which because I say that all the dispositions are innate, he cannot explain by any of the known laws of and that their exercise depends on material organs, the material world. He perceives not only the it ought to be proved that in so saying I acknowincomprehensible wonders of particular organisa-ledge no other substance than that of matter, and tions, but also the wise connection of the whole. that I reject every other faculty. The observaNothing in the universe is insulated. All worlds tions which follow, will prove how unjust is this have been placed in reciprocal relations; inanimate inference. nature is so with living nature; all living beings are so with each other. Who, then, can mistake a cause of all causes, a supreme law of all laws, an intelligence of all intelligences, an ordainer of all orders-in a word, a God?
BY F. J. GALL, M.D.
(Continued from Page 231.)
Another species of materialism is professed by those who maintain that man is not composed of two substances essentially different; that is, of body and a soul: that all the phenomena which are ordinarily attributed to the soul, are only the results of the combinations and of the forms of matter; or, that the soul is only a fluid of extreme tenuity, diffused through the whole body, which gives to each part its proper life. This second species of materialism includes a doctrine not less erroneous than the other, and thus destroys the belief of the immortality of the soul. Yet its partisans would fain convince us that this consequence is unfounded. "The principles of matter," say they," are in their nature as eternal, as indestructible, as the spiritual substance; these two substances can be annihilated only by an express order of the Deity, and, consequently, there would be nothing absurd or dangerous in thinking that the immortal soul may be material. We ought, on the contrary, still more to admire the Creator, who has united so many qualities to matter, and raised it to the faculty of thought and of will. If," continue these philosophers, "we choose to regard the soul and the body as two substances totally different, we can no more explain the action of one upon the other, than we can comprehend how a material substance can possess thought; so that from the incomprehensibility of the last idea, it does not follow that one doctrine is more true
I call the material condition which renders the exercise of a faculty possible, an organ. The muscles and the bones are the material conditions of motion, but are not the faculty which causes motion; the total organisation of the eye is the material condition of sight, but is not the faculty of seeing. I call a material condition, which renaders the manifestation of a moral quality, or an intellectual faculty possible, an organ of the soul. I say that man in this life, thinks and wills, by means of the brain. But, if it be thence concluded that the being, willing, and thinking, is the brain, or that the brain is the being, willing, and thinking; it is as if one should say, that the muscles are the fsculty of motion; that the organ of sight, and the faculty of seeing, are the same thing. In both cases the faculty is confounded with the organ, and the organ with the faculty.
This error is the more unpardonable, as it has been committed and corrected very frequently. St. Thomas answered in this manner, to those who confounded the faculty and the instrument: "Although the mind be not a corporeal faculty, the functions of the mind, such as memory, thought, imagination, cannot take place without the aid of corporeal organs. Hence, when the organs, from any derangement, cannot exert their activity, the functions of the mind are also deranged, and this is what happens in phrensy, asphyxia, &c. Hence, also, it happens, that a fortunate organisation of the human body has always, for its result, distinguished intellectual faculties."
In the fourth century, St. Gregory of Nyssus compared the body of man to an instrument of music. "It happens," says he, "to many skilful
musicians, not to be able to give proofs of their talent, because their instrument is in a bad state. It is thus that the functions of the soul can duly exercise themselves only when the organs of these functions conform to the order of nature. But these functions cease or are arrested, when the organs cannot subserve the proper motions; for it is a peculiarity of the mind, that its faculties cannot be duly exercised except by healthy organs.' In another passage he says, that the soul begins to exist at the same time as the body; that it is present, though it may not manifest itself; just as the form of the future man is contained in the seed; that the soul can only make itself known when the successive development of the corporeal organs permits it.
If we do not take into consideration the difference which exists between the organs and the faculties; and if, to be a materialist it is sufficient to declare that the exercise of the intellectual faculties depends on the organisation, who is the writer, ancient or modern, whom we have not the right to charge with materialism?
Either we must admit the whole body as the instrument of the moral and intellectual forces, or we must say that the brain is this instrument; or, finally, we must adopt several distinct instruments in the brain. It is to these three propositions that all opinions may be referred. Now it is evident that each of these propositions has, for its result, to make the intellectual qualities and moral faculties depend on material conditions.
In the first case, it is the body which we admit as the necessary condition of the exercise of the faculties of the soul. If this were materialism, it is the Deity himself who would be the cause of our error. Is it not God, (says Boerhaave,) who has united the soul so closely to the body, that its facults are defective when the organisation is defective, and that they are disturbed when the body is diseased? Saturninus derives the differences in the moral and intellectual qualities of man, from the different structure of his organs. All the ancient moralists, Solomon, St. Paul, St. Cyprian, St. Augustin, St. Ambrosius, St. Chrysostome, Eusebius, &c., regard the body as the instrument of the soul, and plainly profess that the soul always governs itself by the state of the body. Philosophers, also, admit with Herder, that all the faculties, even thought, depend on the organisation and the health; and that if man is the most accomplished being of the terrestrial creation, it is because the most perfect organic faculties which we know, act in him by the most perfect instruments of organisation, in which these faculties are inherent. Lavater accuses those who, in this matter, allow nothing to the primitive organisation and formation, of insulting reason, and of defending a system belied in every living being.
In fine, from Hippocrates and Gralen, physicians and physiologists have all established the same doctrine; and whatever diversity there may be in their opinions, the basis of all is the same. Some make the moral character depend on the organs of automatic life; while others seek for the principle of the passions in the numerous nervous plexuses and ganglia of the chest and abdomen. Others explain the thoughts and desires by deriving them from the liver. But, it is evident that one party, as well as the other, subjects the faculties of the
soul to material conditions; and, consequently, were this language sufficient to charge me with materialism, the same charge would apply to all physicians, all philosophers, and all the fathers of the church.
Shall we, then, reserve the charge of materialism for those, particularly, who regard the brain as the organ of the soul? This doctrine is not less diffused than that of which we have just spoken. We find it already in the sect of Pythagoras. The physiological physicians, and the philosophers, make everything depend on the brain; at least, the qualities of the mind, attention, memory, imagination, &c. Boerhaave and Van Swieten attribute to the brain, not only the ideas, their combinations, and the judgment; but also the moral character of man, and all his human essence. Some among them maintain that the impressions received, leave traces in the brain ; they explain, by these traces, memory, the comparison of ideas, and judgment. Others, with Malebranche, attribute to the firmness and softness, the dryness and moisture of the cerebral fibres, the difference of the faculties and propensities. Haller, Buffon, and Bichat, regard the inequality of the two cerebral hemispheres, as the cause of mental alienation. Here, then, are so many opinions tending to materialism.
There are none, not even my adversaries, who are not forced either to admit the brain to be the organ of the soul, or to suppose a very subtle material substance, to serve as a medium of communication between the soul and the body. Such is the case with Professors Ackermann, at Heidelberg, and Walter, at Berlin, whose objections have been repeated by most of my opponents. The first does not confine himself to regarding the brain as the organ of the soul; he also admits an extremely subtle nervous medulla, soft and almost fluid, which converts itself, by degrees, in the cavities of the brain into animal vapor, and which becomes a medium betwen the soul and the nerves of sense. Walter says," in the infant, the brain is like pap; in old age it is hard, and in middle life of an intermediate consistence. The brain must have a certain degree of firmness and elasticity, in order that the soul may exhibit itself in its greatest brilliancy, and the man attain his greatest mental perfection. This mode of viewing the subject does not lead to materialism: it has no other object than the reciprocal union of the soul and the body." Thus, there is no writer who does not make the moral and intellectual functions depend on material conditions; and my adversaries, if I were a materialist, would be no less so than myself.
Finally, do my opponents think to impute materialism to me, because in place of one organ of the soul I admit several? But is one more or less a materialist by admitting one or several organs? Is the organ immaterial because it is single? Whether the whole body or the whole brain be the sole organ of the soul, the body and the brain belong to matter. The admission of several organs in the brain, makes no difference in that respect. The hand is not less material than the five fingers!
It would seem that my adversaries must have felt the want of vigor in their deductions; for, in order to save, at least in appearance, the simplicity of their organ of the soul, they have been obliged
It is true that men are not willing to admit the comparison of the voluntary movements and the functions of the senses with the moral qualities and intellectual faculties, because these first
to imagine a central point, where the soul might have its seat, and where it might perceive all external and internal impressions. "The organisation," says Prof. Ackermann, "though divisible into several organs, yet offers one complete whole in which all the organs depart from one point, and in which they must all re-unite." But, unhappily, he is obliged to concede that the anatomy of the brain does not offer this principal point, where all the nerves of sense unite, which transmit sensa-functions are regarded as material. But, as these functions are performed with consciousness, and in part voluntarily, this would imply that organs, purely material, have consciousness and will. This doctrine would approach much nearer to materialism than mine. We should even find ourselves obliged, after the example of a great many philosophers, to include among the ties of manner, memory, intelligence, imagination, properthe affections, passions, propensities and inclinations. What could prevent these materialists from going one step further, and allowing to matter other faculties-as the reason and the will, which are called, by preference, faculties of the soul and mind.
tions to the organ of the soul. On the contrary, I have proved in the anatomy of the brain, that its different parts have their origin in different points, and spread themselves in large nervous expansions in places equally different. Swieten and Tiedemann have already remarked that a general point of union, where impressions of all sorts should arrive at once, would produce only confusion. Yet Professor Ackermann thinks that such a union of the divergent nerves would be very possible, by means of an intermediate substance in which they should terminate; and as, according to his opinion, this might happen, he concludes peremptorily that it is so. But to what purpose this point of union? This intermediate, very subtle substance, must occupy a space at least equal to that of the divergent nerves, or it could not possibly come into contact with them; and supposing this point to be as small as an atom, would it, therefore, be any the less material?
Supposing that the plurality of organs has no existence in the manner that I shall show it to exist in my second volume, all those who have regarded the whole body, or the brain alone, as the organ of the soul, are not less liable than myself to the charge of having admitted more than one organ of the soul. It is in fact certain, and all anatomists agree, that the total of animal life, and consequently the brain, is double. This organ is composed of two hemispheres, each of which comprehends the same parts. Thus we have all a double organ of the soul; and we should all be materialists, if it were sufficient, in order to be such, to believe in the plurality of organs; and in this manner the Deity himself would have established materialism in an incontestable manner. If I am a materialist because I admit more than a single faculty of the soul, and because I recognise several primitive faculties, I ask if the ordinary division of the faculties of the soul into understanding, will, attention, memory, judgment, imagination, affections and passions, expresses only a single primitive faculty? If it be said that all these faculties are only the modifications of a sole and single faculty, who will prevent me from advancing the same assertion of the faculties which I admit? It is very evident that we remark different properties of the mind and soul in man. It must follow, then, either that the soul is composed of different faculties, or that a single and same soul produces different phenomena by means of different organs. Now, it is infinitely easier to imagine the unity of the soul in the last case than in the first; and, consequently, materialism is no longer a bugbear which ought to deter any one from my doctrine any more than from others.
Analogy, again, comes in support of this last proposition. Every one allows that several wholly different functions, which we feel obliged to attribute to the soul, take place in us by means of
different organs. The voluntary motions, for instance, are executed by means of the nervous systems of the vertebral column: the functions of sense are each attached to a different internal and external apparatus.
The case is very different in my manner of viewing the subject, and my doctrine is not open to any of these objections. There exists, according to my view, only one single principle, which sees, feels, tastes, hears, and touches, which thinks and wills. But, in order that this principle may gain a consciousness of light and sound; that it may feel, taste, and touch; that it may manifest its different kinds of thoughts and propensities, it which the exercise of all these faculties would be has need of different material instruments, without impossible.
It results, then, from this discussion, that those who charge me with materialism, because I regard material conditions as indispensable to the exercise of the faculties of the soul, confound these faculties with the instruments by means of which they act. It also results that, the brain being double, anatomists are forced to admit the plurality of these material conditions: it finally results that the profoundest writers of all ages have subjected the exercise of the faculties of the soul and mind to material organs; and that, consequently, if this truth establishes materialism, we must make this charge against all the physicians and philosophers that ever flourished, and even against the fathers of the church and the apostles.
A proud man is a fool in fermentation; swelling and boiling like a porridge pot. He sets his feathers like an owl, to swell and seem bigger than he is. He is troubled with an inflammation of self-conceit, that renders him the man of pasteboard, and a true buckram knight. He has given himself sympathetic love powder, that works upon him to dotage, and transforms himself into his own mistress-making most passionate court to his own dear perfections, and worshipping his own image. All the upper storeys are crammed with masses of spongy substances, occupying much space; as feathers and cotton will stuff cushions better than things of more compactness and proportion.
AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF A DOG.-NO. XIII.
WRITTEN BY HIMSELF.
(Continued from Page 235.)
THE SNOWY WEATHER we have had so very recently, Mr. Editor,-(it is now March 18th)reminds me of the same period of the year in my own country; and induces me to write a little entomologically. You will, I am sure, excuse this, when you consider that I have not trespassed much in that way lately.
Well; after we had strolled about a short time, Polychroros was seen tripping from tree to tree, accompanied by his cousin Urtica; and occasionally beautiful Rhamni, with his lovely though faded wings (just the color of the early common primrose), was seen skipping before our eyes; and this used to rejoice the heart of old Bombyx. But list! What's the matter? Jean is calling out lustily, "A beautiful moth!" "Another!" "They are very good," quoth Bombyx; "take all you can. After one o'clock you'll lose sight of them " Before that hour, however, at least a dozen Parthenias, for such they were, helped to fill our hunting box.
This, Mr. Editor, allow me to tell you, is about the earliest of our entomological friends that proceeds ex pupâ. Sometimes also during February, if the weather be open, Puella and Notha, which, although very similar to. Parthenias, are very much rarer, and generally appear about a fortnight after, at least so I have heard my old master say. Instabilis will also occasionally come forth, as well as Lanestris. Stabilis also appears. Retusa, Rubricosa, and Libatrix, too, rarely fail. The pretty little Depressaria Applana is also now to be met with. C. album and Rapa, too, make their appearance towards the end of the month. The former, half dreaming that he is still in his winter slumber; the latter quite fresh out of his chrysalis.
My object in sending you this, is to give you a little description of one of our snowy entomological rambles. We would start as usual, at this season At one o'clock, Bombyx and his party used to of the year, after a capital breakfast, and did not move their quarters and go to a particular corner, forget two or three tea-spoonsful of Kirschen- of the forest, best known to themselves (or, I wasser in our coffee. Myself and brother, however, ought rather to say, ourselves), and hunt underpreferred the coffee without the Kirschenwasser.neath the snow for the caterpillars of Dominula. Walking fast was out of the question, in con- This spot was not more than about forty feet long sequence of the snow; but by the time we reached by twenty broad, and has most assuredly been the Châlet of Montmeilan (already noticed in a inhabited by the family of Dominula for a vast former communication), we were as warm as we many years. This is a very singular and well could wish to be, and right glad to rest half- ascertained fact. I have often spoken to my old an-hour. This gave us time to dispose of some master upon this point; and if I could get the old bread and cheese, and a glass of old wine; and, boy to tell me how he honestly can account for it, as we always contrived to enjoy ourselves I would inform you. I'll worm it out of him thoroughly, we used, with the greatest delight, to one of these days, and then you shall know all hear the old Bombyx call for mine hostess, and about it. order dinner for three o'clock. This consisted of a hot sausage, some nice macaroni soup, a hot ham, or any other piquant morceaux that the larder afforded. Then would we start forwards, and upwards too, Mr. Editor; for smooth travelling, even for pedestrians, is not much known in my country. Sauvabelin used indeed to wear a very winterish garment at this time; and even we, who knew every corner of it, were sometimes singularly out in our movements.
A great deal of snow used to fall in the month of January, more particularly towards the latter end of the month, and the beginning of February. The Bise also is very severe, and pretty frequent. The old saying runs, that the Bise lasts three days; but if it should continue longer, and very sharp, the old market-girls will call out-"Eh, ma foi! c'est furieusement froid. C'est une Bise de neuf jours."
Now at the commencement of February, in some parts, there would be from four to six feet of snow; and generally, at the lower parts, near the lake, about one or two feet. I do not, of course, speak of any exposed situation, or where the snow had drifted. There you might reckon from eight to fourteen feet. But I talk of a fair general level, and on such it would top the hedges on our highways. I need hardly say that, at such a period of the year, everything travels on sledges. delightful and amusing way of travelling, that is; as I shall soon take occasion to show you.
This we had killed the previous spring, and tied there. Serpents, and some of these not of the most innoxious description, are not uncommon in parts of this forest, and it is very imprudent to venture there without strong and high boots.
From six to eight feet of snow generally lay underneath our shoes. This was frozen so hard that our passage made little or no impression-but singular indeed was the appearance of just the summits of the young trees projecting from about eight to twelve inches above the snow-and more particularly the "Sapins," one of which that we knew to be about eight feet in height, caused us much amusement, as it had still attached to it, at about six inches from the top, the skin of a serpent.
This colony of Dominula was so bedecked by the intermingling of the branches of "Sapin, that a vast quantity of snow could not accumulate immediately under the branches. The Rubus, too, curled about in beautiful arches; and where the Rubus was not, a few inches under the snow was found the common wood-strawberry-both favorite articles of food with Dominula, and (I blush not to say it, Mr. Editor,) favorite food of mine also. I do not care for the cream, mind; but I am uncommonly fond of poking my nose into a patch of wood-strawberries. Let me not, however, confess all my faults, else the old Bombyx might hear of them. But let us return to Dominula. Going quietly to work, my old master would pick up some forty caterpillars in one day. I know this is a very difficult caterpillar to rear; and if you succeed in bringing up one-third of your number, you may consider it very fair.
Whilst Bombyx was hunting Dominulas, I and
my brother were hunting ferrets. We had observed, nere and there, certain funny little round holes in the snow; and on applying our noses, we became acquainted with a peculiar odor. "What is it?" said I to Carlo. "I'm blest if I know, Fino. Let us set to work, and, by scratching, find out. It smells rather savory.] We worked away like niggers; but while pausing a moment, just to take breath,-"Hey ho! Carlo! look there!" said I, "what's that?" He never stopped to answer me, but was off, like a mad fool; and the little beast slipped down one of these very little holes. I saw it distinctly, and would have given Carlo a sound thrashing for frightening it, had I not learned to entertain respect for my elders. As it was, I told him my mind; when the unmannered cub, instead of listening to me, and profiting by what I said, actually had the insolence to turn round, and grip me by the ear. Our quarrels were sometimes disagreeable, but never, Mr. Editor, did we let the sun go down upon our wrath. If mankind would only take the trouble to imitate us poor dogs (I have often said this myself, and often heard my old master say the same thing) in these matters,-aye, and in some others too, how much more real happiness would exist among us! Let pride and conceit, treachery and falsehood, be universally discarded from among mankind, say I, as it is among dogs; and let honesty and sobriety, fidelity and truth, replace them. Then, Mr. Editor, what a different world this would be! [So it would, FINO.]
Having now loitered about till we were pretty sure nothing more was to be got, and our appetites becoming very sharp,-Bombyx said to Jean, "Well Jean, what do you make the time?" Voyons voir," replied Jean, with an expressive smile and stroke of the chin; at the same time producing his tabatière, and invigorating his olfactory nerves. "I think," said he, by the time we get to the Chalet, the jambon and sausage will be done to a nicety. I will tie up a bundle of Rubus, which Monsieur can keep fresh for three or four days, and then we'll go and have a warm. I take it, we shall do no more good."
"None at all, Jean."
We had just turned round with the intention of making the best of our way to the Chalet, when we heard the well-known melodious voice of the old Grandpapa des Papillons blithely singing:
"Parbleu! Oui, Jean. Listen! I was just coming up to see how the wood looked, when mine hostess of the Chalet told me you were somewhere about, but she expected you at three o'clock. If I had not fallen in with you, I should have returned to the Chalet.”
Jean, with his characteristic kindness of heart (oh! what a man he was, Mr. Editor!-one of a million!), placed his athletic body by the side of our worthy octogenarian, to be of use in case of a helping hand being required; and merrily trudging along, we arrived at the rendezvous.
I know not of anything more contributing to the enjoyment of good health, than a rough day's sport in winter. It produces a freshness and elasticity both of mind and body, which are quite exhilarating. Then the return to the blazing fire at the Chalet, after our sport in the wood! There was the long table nicely covered with a snowwhite table-cloth. Bottles of old Red wine were set before the cheerful fire, just to have the chill taken off; the exquisite soup was arranged by mine hostess; and plenty of savory little mor ceaux brought up in the clean "Bagnolet." for the two handsome dogs, expressly by Mon Mari himself. Imagine every one, also, with an appetit de loûp, and you will readily admit that, even in the depth of winter, an entomological party is a cheerful one, especially where all are intent upon practically studying entomology, and not losing their time in quarrelling about the particular name or synonyme that should be given to any particular insect.
Full justice having been done to the jambon and saucisse, we would return home about dusk ; and the remainder of the evening till supper-time would be spent in listening to the remarks of the old grandpapa on various insects; whilst myself and my brother would creep on each side of the kitchen fire, where cook had got some fine large potatoes roasting dans les cendres, a favorite repast of our aged guest. After supper, at which myself and my brother never failed to be present, Bombyx would bring up a "krug" of delicious "Kirschenwasser, from the Forêt Noire. accompanied by boiling water and sugar; and old grandpapa, who was a genuine troubadour, and sung with great taste and fine feeling, would enliven us with some sweet romances of upwards of a half-century earlier. At eleven o'clock he would light his little lantern, and wrap up his aged body in a good warm mantle. Then would the ever-noble Jean poke his nose out of the kitchen :
"Un moment, Monsieur! Je suis prêt, Monsieur me permettra de porter cette petite lanterne, et de le voir sauf et sain à la maison. Cela me fera bel et bien plaisir.'
"Bravo! bravo! excellent et digne Jean. Je voudrais bien qu'il y avait encore au monde d'autres comme vous."
And off they went.
Shortly after, we retired to our resting quarters; which were so comfortably contrived that neither the intense cold nor the severe Bise had any inconvenient effect upon us. The only thing that used to annoy me was the restless temper of my brother, who would be in and out every five minutes. I am bad enough myself, Mr. Editor, but not such a fidget as he was. He really became a perfect nuisance. I should certainly have given him many